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The Ethics of Charity in Islam: How Philanthropy is Damaging, How to Give a Loan to Allah, and What the Poor Can Give to the Rich.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ethics of Charity in Islam: How Philanthropy is Damaging, How to Give a Loan to Allah, and What the Poor Can Give to the Rich."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Ethics of Charity in Islam: How Philanthropy is Damaging, How to Give a Loan to Allah, and What the Poor Can Give to the Rich

2 Charity & Wealth in India India’s stock market grew at over 10% in % of 1.21 billion people live on $1.25 per day (Census 2011) In India, there are 182,000 millionaires

3 Islam in India

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5 Charity in Islam

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11 What Takers Give Mauss’ The Gift and the gift-obligation “Soul” (Māori: hau) of the gift which calls to its owner “Damaging” to those who receive gifts, without reciprocating National Geographic: “NatGeo creative” B. Malinowski (1922)

12 What Takers Give The Gift-Obligation in north India “Poison” in the gift, passes on impurity and misfortune from donor to recipient Cycle of karma brings benefits to people who gift to others Gloria Goodwin Raheja (1988) Jonathan Parry (1994) James Laidlaw (2000) UChicago Press

13 What Takers Give Sadaqah Tahfuz: Protective Charity among Muslims Gift-obligation expressed in terms of “evil eye” (nazar) and others’ jealousy of your wealth Gifts rid one of evil eye Parallel to Hindu “poison” in the gift Reciprocal Prayers from the Recipients Islamic gifts vs. Hindu gifts: Monotheistic recognition of Allah’s power Most powerful protection if the prayers truly “slipped” (nikal gaya) “from the heart” (dil se)

14 Islamic Law on Almsgiving: Fiqh al-Zakah Specific Differences of Obligatory Almsgiving (zakat): Obligatory on Muslims: Rates fixed at 2.5% of assets (Sunni), 20% of income (Jafari Shi’a) Recipients specified such as orphans, widows, the poor & destitute, slaves, debtors, “in the way of Allah”, travelers (Qur’an 9:60) Best given in secret: protects modesty of the recipient (Qur’an 2:271) “Loan to Allah” (Qur’an 5:12, 73:20) Right (haq) of the poor, unconditional Purifies the donor and their wealth

15 Secrecy in Almsgiving Qur’an 2:264, “Oh Believers, cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity, or by injury”

16 Almsgiving as Purification Ablution: Cleansing (wudhu) of Body LeedsMuslim.blogspot.com Zakat: Purification of Wealth youngkhalifah.com Zakah (verb), Arabic: to increase, to purify Imam al-Shafi’i (d. 820 CE) wrote on the parallel of ablution and zakat

17 Purity Ethic in Almsgiving: “Erasure” of the Recipient Obligatory on Donors: Secrecy: protects modesty and identity of the recipient (Qur’an 2:271) Purifies the donor and their wealth Re-orient Transaction as a “Loan to Allah” (Qur’an 5:12, 73:20)


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