Small Arch Shed Big and Middle Shed Energy-saving Solar Greenhouse General Solar Greenhouse Heating Greenhouse Multi-span Greenhouse
Crop Distribution of Protected Horticulture(10 4 ha) Year Sum Percen- -tage (%) Small Arch Shed Big and Middle Shed Energy-saving Solar Greenhouse General Solar Greenhouse Heating Greenhouse Multi-span Greenhouse 2008350 13013964122.41.7 Vegetables335 95.612713062101.91.3 Orchards9 2.67511.60.1 Flowers6 1.83410.4 2010363 13114570122.31.8 Vegetables344 94.912813466111.81.3 Orchards10 2.67520.70.2 Flowers9 2.53620.3 2012379 13214880123.52 Vegetables359 94.5129136771121.5 Orchards11 2.97820.60.9 Flowers9 2.63410.40.6
Regional distribution of Protected Vegetables Bohai Bay and Huang-Huai Area The middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River Northwest Region Other
Achievement Ensure whole-year vegetable supply: National output of protected vegetable is 2.5 hundred million, with per capita 185.66 kg. Promote employment and increase farmer income: Incept 27 million employees directly and 15 million employees in related industry. Net output of protected vegetable was more than 580 billion RMB in 2010. Improve the status of protected vegetable industry: Utilizing 3.1% farmland, protected vegetable industry accounts for 25% of output.
Features Low-carbon and energy-saving: Eight hundred hectares of Energy-saving Solar Greenhouse can save 300 million tons of coal every year, which is equivalent to reduction of 800 million tons CO 2, 2.6 million tons SO 2 and 2.2 million tons NO x emissions. Low cost and simple facilities: Shed with bamboo-wood frame accounts for more than 60%, and Energy- saving Solar Greenhouse with bamboo-wood and mud wall frame accounts for 60%. Mainly located in area with the lowest tepm.0~-25 o C ： Bohai Bay, Huang Huai Area, The middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, Northwest Region accounts for 88%, Solar Greenhouse is located mainly in north. Fruit vegetable as primary vegetables: Value the exploitation and utilization of low-yielding fields and non-arable land:
W E Cover on South Surface Thermal Quilt NS North Wall Back Roof Cover (plastic film) on South Surface Structure of CSG 2.1 Charicteristics of CSG
Main components of CSG SN Cover on South Surface Thermal Quilt Span Back Roof North Wall Roof Height Horizontal Width of Back Roof Wall Height
2.2 Property of CSG ① Low cost for construction (1/10 ～ 1/3 of Multi-span Greenhouse ) 。 ② Low running cost (no heating cost) 。 ③ Ample light in CSG during day: Light intensity in CSG on sunny days during winter in Beijing(40 o N) is more than 400mmol/(m 2 ∙s)(25,000lx) ， which is higher Multi-span Greenhouse. ④ CSG warms quickly in day ， an hour earlier than no-heating Multi-span Greenhouse; good thermal insulation 。 Indoor temp. is well above than outdoor’s in both day and night. ⑤ Production of warm-season vegetable during winter is capable under no-heating condition in 32°N~43°N.
Sunny days: In day highest indoor temperature is 25~30 o C higher than outdoor’s; In night lowest indoor temperature is 18~20 o C higher than outdoor’s 25 ~30 ℃ 18 ~ 20 ℃ Time(h) Outdoor Temperature Indoor Temperature Air Temperature( o C)
18 ~22 ℃ 15 ~ 18 ℃ Cloud days: In day highest indoor temperature is 18~22 o C higher than outdoor’s; In night lowest indoor temperature is 15~18 o C higher than outdoor’s As for common Multi-span Greenhouse, even with good insulation measures such as multilayer coverage ， in night lowest indoor temperature is only 6~8 o C higher than outdoor’s without heating. Indoor Temperature Outdoor Temperature Time(h) Air Temperature( o C)
2.3 The recent development of CSG 1) Diversification of Mode and Structure Brick Wall CSG in Liaoning Province
Typical Brick Wall CSG SN 8~10m 0.5~0.8m 3~4m 1~1.5m Cover on South Surface Back Roof Thermal Quilt North Wall Insulation Material Clay Brick
Thick Cob Wall Long-span Sinking CSG in Shandong Province Thickness of the top of wall d 2 =1.5~3m SN Ridge Height H j =4~5m Thickness of the bottom of wall d 1 =4~8m Net Span L=10~14m Sinking depth of flooring H c =0.5~1.5m Incline of Interior Wall d q =0.2~1m Wall Height H q =3.5~4.5m
Thick Cob Wall Long-span Sinking CSG in Shandong Province
Thick Cob Wall Long-span Sinking CSG in Shandong Province
Thick Cob Wall Long- span Sinking CSG in Shandong Province
South and North double-span(sunny and shady type) CSG Sunny shed serves same purpose as common CSG. Shady shed has warming effect on the back wall. Due to the poor light conditions and low temp.(still higher than open field),shady shed is used to cultivate crops like edible mushroom, shade-loving leafy vegetable and flowers. Increase land use efficiency. Sunny Shed Shady Shed
South and North double-span (sunny and shady type) CSG
Mountain (sloping field) CSG Located in the south of slopes, where is sunny and leeward. (south by east or west <15 o ) Advantages: High land use efficiency. Long sunlight time and good light condition Good heat insulation.
Mountain (sloping field) CSG in Ansai County, Shaanxi Province
2 ） Improve synthetical control ability of CSG environment Mechanical ventilation and cooling system Sun-shading device Vent opening control system CO 2 enrichment technology (straw biological reactor et al.) Soilless cultivation Application of internet technology
Add mechanical ventilation, cooling and shading systems to lower indoor temperature in summer.
Electric vent opening device could improve the effect of environmental regulation and working efficiency.
Ministry of Agriculture Academic board Key Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment China Agriculture University Key Laboratory of Farm building in Structure and Constructi on Key Laboratory of Energy Conservatio n and waste Treatment of Agriculture Structure Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultur e Facility and intelligent control Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultur e Engineerin g in Northwest Observation experiment stations of Protected Horticulture Engineering in NorthEast Observation experiment stations of Protected Horticulture Engineering in Huanghuaiha i Observation experiment stations of Facility Cultivation Enginnering in South west Professional (Regional) Key Laboratory Scientific observation experiment stations Key Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment
Main Researches: Main Researches: 1. Development strategy and planning of protected agriculture regional characteristic industry 2. Production technology mode innovation and environmental control technology of protected agriculture 3. Security and standardization of agricultural facilities structure 4. Production equipment and intelligent control technology of protected agriculture 5. Energy Conservation and waste treatment of protected agriculture 6. Protected horticulture engineering technology in northwest area
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment has been committed to the development of protected agriculture and industrial upgrading in China, especially vegetable industry. Hope we could work together for the rapid development of China blueberry industry in the future.