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PR 3310 Principles of Public Relations Wednesday, 6/3/09.

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1 PR 3310 Principles of Public Relations Wednesday, 6/3/09

2 Class Objectives Lecture A little bit a marketing terminology Ch. 5, Qualitative research Homework assignment Ex. 2 due tomorrow Read chapter 5, page 139-149 in book NOTE: my Tech e-mail is (send all notes to this e-mail from now on)

3 What’s in the news today? WHO is considering raising the level of the H1N1 flu (swine flu) to 6 or a global pandemic x.html x.html The WHO’s Assistant Director General says that raising the level does not indicate the severity of the disease, only the spread of it Fear is that raising the level to the highest will cause economic diaster Fact is that more people die of the “regular” flu each year than have died of the swine flu From the CDC: 36,000 Americans die on average per year from the complications of flu. Deaths from swine flu so far= 117 from 64 countries Take a look at the definitions html, phase 5 is only for 2 countries, phase 6 is for 3? html

4 Some terminology Target audience A specified audience for which an advertising message is designed Targeting a specific market does not mean that you have to exclude people that do not fit your criteria from buying from you. Rather, you focus your marketing dollars and brand message on a specific market that is more likely to buy from you than other markets.

5 Demographics Many, if not most, marketers define their target audiences in demographic terms Information describing and segmenting a population in terms of age, gender, income, educational level, marital status, occupation, ethnic background e.g. Single Caucasian males, 18-34 years of age, high school graduates, working part-time Although not PC, stereotyping does occur here

6 Psychographics Another way to define your target audience; are more personal characteristics of a person including: Personality Attitudes Values Interests/hobbies Lifestyles Behavior Determine how your product or service will fit into your target’s lifestyle. How and when will they use the product? What features are most appealing to them? What media do they turn to for information? Do they read the newspaper, search online or attend particular events?

7 How do I find out who my target audience is? Research! Try searching online for research others have done on your target audience. Search for magazine articles and blogs that talk about or to your target audience. Search for blogs and forums where people in your target market communicate their opinions. Look for survey results, or consider conducting a survey of your own. Ask your current customers for feedback. Free demographics data and studies at Pew Internet, Scarborough, Arbitron, U.S. Census BureauPew Internet ScarboroughArbitronU.S. Census Bureau Called secondary data analysis

8 Again, why should I define who my target market is? Once you know who you are targeting, it is much easier to figure out… …Which media you can use to reach them …What marketing messages will work with them. Save $$ and get a better return on investment E.g. Instead of sending direct mail to everyone in your zipcode, you can send only to those who fit your criteria.

9 Clients of PR messages End consumers = Individuals who buy and use a product or service Reporters, journalists to pass on your story Other corporations The majority of businesses do not make consumer products (called b2b) Other buyers of a product/service Distributors (who will resell the product) NPO’s (e.g. Tech buys a lot of toner cartridges)

10 Branding A function that differentiates products and their source from all other products. Branding sets your company, product or service apart from the competition Could include The symbol or logo associated with a product The name associated with a product Customer service (Saturn)

11 Competitive Advantage An advantage (real or perceived) that puts a company ahead of its competitors. When a firm sustains profits above the average for its industry, it is said to have a competitive advantage over its competitors Branding could be a competitive advantage… But not all cases (don’t need to brand some commodities… copper is copper) … Key is to get customer to repeatedly buy the product

12 Competitive Advantage Image of Product Cool (Nike, Target, Cadillac) Green (Prius) Reputation of firm Apple Loyal customer base Benefit Product works better (John Deere) Proprietary knowledge (better engineered gear box) Patents or Trademarks (KFC) Better design (iPods) Cost/Product is cheaper (Taco Bell) Being a new product or having new features (push to talk)

13 The dreaded “R” word Most people get shivers when they hear the word “Research”. Why is it? Perceptions are that It’s no fun: a slow process that takes a lot of work It’s not creative: number crunching = yuck! My idea is unique; I don’t have to waste time looking to see what others have done. Given this reputation, who would want to do research? You should… it’s a unique notch on your belt that most people don’t have. It’s high-paying when done well. It’s becoming more important as marketing budgets are shrinking.

14 What is purpose of doing research? From book: In PR, research techniques are as simple as gathering data and information We assume you want to also interpret and communicate your findings Allows for a greater fragmentation of the audience (niche) Management is isolated, probably do not represent the end user Research is meant to save time and $$$

15 Initial research questions What is the problem? What information is needed? How will the results be used? Who is the target audience? What technique will we use in our research? (literature review, mailing a survey, face-to- face interviews)

16 Additional questions to ask Is data being collected from internal users or external? Are questions open ended or closed? How will data be analyzed, reported/communicated to clients, applied? What is the deadline? When do you need deliverables by? What is the cost/research budget?

17 Ways to use research Define target audiences Formulate strategy Test messages Help mgt keep in touch and establish credibility with management

18 Research can… …help prevent a crisis … help monitor the competition … sway public opinion … generate publicity … be a measurement of success

19 Research by using the Internet Lowest level of “research” (and I hate to use that word here) is to “Google” something Positives: fast, OK at retrieving relevant information Negatives: not very trustworthy Links may be outdated or inactive Who posted the content? (are they an expert? has it been reviewed by experts? how current is the information?)

20 Research by using the Internet A more trusted way to use the Internet is to use on- line databases such as psychinfo, EbscoHost,(see 1,500 plus used for research, staying on top of the news Positives: fast to retrieve, content is more credible in that it has been peer reviewed or reviewed by industry experts if it is in a journal or conference proceedings Negatives: some types of information is already dated once it gets published (reviewing takes time), may need to subscribe/pay to get access to databases and journals

21 Qualitative Research An in-depth understanding of human behavior Smaller, more focused sample sizes of participants Convenience sampling, purposeful sampling Historically was perceived to be less credible than quantitative (statistics-based) research Ways of interpreting the data are less objective (e.g. the researcher must interpret data rather than use #s) In reality, it would be super if you could do both Qualitative allows for deep exploration Quantitative allows for data to be tested, especially with a larger number of participants If only have time/budget for 1, see what others have done in your discipline

22 Qualitative Research: Case study The gathering of detailed information on a specific individual. Perhaps this one person is special in some way Former president, star athlete Positives: get rich data Negatives: can’t generalize past the person you are studying. Generalize: a made-up academic word that means to draw from specific cases for more general cases

23 Qualitative Research: Interviews 1 on 1 Incept interviews: People are intercepted in public places Pros: quality information Cons: expensive, people are resistant Cons: hard to get participants (esp. if you have to wear a vest to identify you as a Tech researcher while standing outside of a football stadium) Cons: for intercept interviews, considered highly unscientific because of convenience sampling

24 Qualitative Research: focus groups Focus groups are 8 to 12 people matching characteristics of target audience Focus groups are a form of group interview that capitalizes on communication between research participants in order to generate data. Focus groups explicitly use group interaction. Can be in person and, increasingly, on-line Positives: one person can prompt an idea in another Negative: one person may monopolize the interview

25 Qualitative Research: Naturalistic observations This is the simplest way we study behavior. You simply observe the behavior in its natural environment. This is frequently informal is usually the first step to allow you to get a better understanding of the behavior which allows further, more in-depth investigation. When might we use this in PR? Children playing with toys

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