Brasil Brazil is the world’s 5 th largest country. (Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil) Brazil covers half of South America and shares a border with every country there except Chile and Ecuador.
Treaty of Tordesilhas In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesilhas divided all newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal. All land east of the meridian would belong to Portugal; to Spain to the west.
Pedro Álvares Cabral In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral was appointed to lead a group of 13 ships to India. Cabral discovered Brazil on his way to India. Therefore, according to the treaty, this land was claimed for Portugal.
Brasil – Early History The name “Brazil” is said to come from the brazilwood trees (pau brasil) which the Europeans used to make red dyes. The first settlement was established in 1532. By the mid 1500s, slaves were brought in from Africa to work in the sugarcane fields, diamond mines, and coffee plantations. During the early colony, sugar was the most important export out of Brazil. The discovery of gold in the late 17 th century was another important find.
Napoleon Bonaparte In 1808, the Portuguese government fled the French Army by moving from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. The Portuguese Empire was ruled from Rio de Janeiro until King Dom João VI returned to Portugal in 1821.
Tomb of Inês de Castro (murdered girlfriend of King-to-be Pedro I) -vandalized by Napoleon’s troops-
Brazilian Independence - 1822 King Dom João VI’s son, Dom Pedro I, declared Brazil’s independence in 1822 from Portugal. Pedro II (son of Pedro I), led the country until the military took it over in 1889 and a Republic was claimed. Pedro II’s reign is noted for the ending of slavery in Brazil in 1888. (USA 1865) Laborers were brought in from many parts of the world to replace slave labor.
Early Republic 1.The new government suffered from political and financial instability for many years. 2.Eventually, military officials named Getúlio Vargas president in 1930. 3.In 1945, democracy was reinstated. 4.Brazil had various leaders until the military took over again in 1964. 5.Brazil did not return to civilian rule until 1985.
Modern Government Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected president (1995-2002). – As former Minister of Finance, Cardoso brought stability to the economy. Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-10) is considered to be one of the most popular politicians in the history of Brazil.
Modern Government (continued) Dilma Rousseff is the current president of Brazil. She is the first woman president of Brazil. She previously served as Chief of Staff of Brazil.
North Region The largest region of Brazil is home to the Amazon Rainforest. 1/3 of the world’s species live in the Amazon Rainforest. The Amazon contains 2.5 million insects, tens of thousands of plants, and 2,000 mammals and birds.
Região Norte The Amazon River is the 2 nd longest river in the world (about 4,000 miles long). Deforestation is a problem in this area.
West Central Region This region is home to Brazil’s capital, Brasília. The capital is made up of modern architecture. The region is also home to the Pantanal: one of the world’s largest wetland areas. – It contains 1,500 plants, 110 mammals, 50 reptiles, 670 birds, and 240 fish.
Região Centro-Oeste Congress Building Presidential Palace
Região Centro-Oeste Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge Brasília
South Region The south has a very European atmosphere as it was colonized by Portuguese, German, Italian, and Polish immigrants. This region is also home to one of the largest waterfalls in the world, Iguaçu Falls – as Cataratas do Iguaçu.
Região Sul – Influência portuguesa e açoriana Florianópolis Rio Grande do Sul
Região Sul - Influência alemã Blumenau Gisele Bündchen
Região Sul - Influência italiana Luiz Felipe Scolari Vineyards in Caxias do Sul
Região Sul Clarice Lispector ( escritora – Ucrânia) influência polaca
Região Sul - Influência japonesa Curitiba, Paraná São Paulo
Northeast Region The current population of this region is about 54 million – most live in urban areas. The area is known for its hot weather, beautiful beaches, Carnaval, and as being the birthplace of the country.
Região Nordeste The Carnaval in Salvador da Bahia is said to be the biggest street party in the world. Around 2 million people celebrate in this week- long event throughout the 16 mile block of streets and squares.
Southeast Region The Southeast region is home to four states: Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo.
Região Sudeste – Rio de Janeiro In 1808, Portugal temporarily moved its government to Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro is known as the 2 nd capital of Brazil. It served as capital from 1822 until 1960, when Brasília became capital.
Região Sudeste – Rio de Janeiro Rio’s first major product was gold. By the mid 1800s, coffee was its next major resource. Rio was in an economic decline until the 1940s, when steel, naval, and oil plants were built to support the British and American forces in WWII.
Região Sudeste – Rio de Janeiro Carnaval – Rio de Janeiro
Região Sudeste – Rio de Janeiro Ipanema Botafogo
Região Sudeste – Rio de Janeiro Cidade de Deus Rocinha
Região Sudeste – São Paulo The city of São Paulo was settled by Jesuit missionaries in 1554. It is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America. It is the 7th largest city by population in the world. São Paulo is home to Brazil’s largest financial center. São João avenue
Região Sudeste – São Paulo Paulista Avenue Martinelli Building
Região Sudeste – São Paulo Cathedral of São Paulo
Região Sudeste – São Paulo Luz Station Municipal Theatre of São Paulo
Economy Brazil has the world’s 7 th largest economy. Its economy is expected to be one of the five largest in the world in the next few decades. Major exports are aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol fuel, textiles, footwear, iron, steel, coffee, orange juice, and soybeans. Brazil is the world's third largest aircraft producer.
Pelé – O Rei do Futebol First played professionally for Santos at age 15. Represented Brazil at age 16. Won his first World Cup at age 17. Only player to win 3 World Cups.
Pelé – O Rei do Futebol Career: – Santos 1956-1975 : 589 goals in 605 games. – NY Cosmos 1975-1977: 37 goals in 64 games. – Brazil National Team 1957-1971: 77 goals in 92 games. – In total, Pelé scored 1281 goals in 1363 games.
Ronaldo Ronaldo played for 7 clubs (1993-2011): including Cruzeiro, PSV, Barcelona, Inter, Real Madrid, AC Milan, Corinthians. – 247 goals in 343 games -National Team:62 goals in 98 games – (14 WC goals = record) ‘94, ‘02 WC winner
Art & Culture Each region of Brazil developed its own dishes, influenced by its indigenous culture, the European group that colonized it, and its geography. For example, Rio Grande do Sul, a cattle country, is known for churrasco – chunks of beef skewered on a shish kabob. Rio de Janeiro is known for feijoada, a bean dish prepared with beef, pork, peppers, and other ingredients. Churrasco
Arts & Culture Bossa Nova – Bossa Nova means a “New Wave” or “New Trend”. It describes a type of music coming samba with jazz. – Bossa Nova came out of the upscale neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro in comparison with Samba coming from the favelas of Rio. – Bossa Nova got its start in the mid 1950s with artists Antonio Carlos Jobim, João Gilberto and lyricist Vinicius de Moraes. Antonio Carlos Jobim
Arts & Culture – The early releases of Gilberto as well as the 1959 film Orfeu Negro helped to spread the popularity of this style of music. – Bossa Nova was spread to the United States by visiting Jazz musicians to Brazil. – The first Bossa Nova single to reach international success was “The Girl From Ipanema” in 1964. João Gilberto
Arts & Culture Vinicius de MoraesFrank Sinatra & Tom Jobim
Arts & Culture Samba is the name of both a style of music and dance. The traditional samba is played with string instruments such as the guitar and cavaquinho (ukelele) as well as percussion instruments. Samba is the style of music played at the world-famous Carnaval. Samba began to spread throughout Brazil in the 1930s due to the popularity of the radio.
Arts & Culture Carmen Miranda helped spread samba throughout the world. – Actually born in Portugal, she was raised in Brazil before eventually becoming a Hollywood and Broadway star in the 1940s & 1950s. The late 1950s and 1960s saw the popularity of Bossa Nova increase. The 1970s marked the return of samba to Brazilian radio. Carmen Miranda