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Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 3 Standardizing Data to Support Formative Assessment Process Use in School Districts The Common Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 3 Standardizing Data to Support Formative Assessment Process Use in School Districts The Common Education."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 3 Standardizing Data to Support Formative Assessment Process Use in School Districts The Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) current work has a renewed focus on data elements that support teaching and learning. A specific focus for the K–12 stakeholder group has been the formative assessment process by which teachers and students use data to inform where they need to go; where they are; and how to close the gap. In this session, local education agency representatives from the CEDS K–12 Stakeholders Group discuss how science research and promising practice models have been used to develop a process model and guiding principles, which serve as the basis for defining data elements and models in CEDS Version 3. Audience feedback on the draft elements and models is encouraged.

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4 W HAT IS CEDS? A national collaborative effort to develop voluntary, common data standards for a key set of education data elements Voluntary Common Vocabulary A vocabulary including standard definitions, option sets & technical specifications to streamline sharing and comparing

5 W HY DO WE NEED CEDS? 1.Accurate, timely, and consistent data to inform decisionmaking 2.Share & compare high quality data within & across P-20 sectors

6 Required A data collection A federal unit record system Solely an ED undertaking All or nothing An implementation CEDS IS N OT

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8 CEDS Reference Process Model defined with participation from: Susan M. Brookhart Margaret Heritage

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10 Teaching and Learning – Formative Assessment Formative assessment process -- process by which teachers and students use data to inform : – where they need to go, – where they are, and – how to close the gap. “Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve student’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes.” (FAST SCASS, 2008, October) CEDS version 3.0

11 Formative Instruction Context Classroom Instructional Models Blended Learning Models Virtual Learning Models

12 Reference Domains to Inform Models Cognitive Science / Learning Sciences Research E.g. – Practice Models (assessment for learning models, RTI, PLC use of formative data, etc.) E.g. – – Engineering (control theory) E.g. see: – –

13 Formative instructional process models Starting with the “30,000 ft.” view

14 Class Model for instruction without formative feedback Fixed Inputs: Instruction, Activities, Practice Variable Outputs: Learner Competencies Instructional Decisions Reference Standards and Curriculum

15 Descriptive Feedback & Scaffolding Formative assessment process Variable Inputs: Instruction, Activities, Practice (variable inputs) Learning Progressions Curriculum Current Learning Goals Criteria for Success Unit & Lesson Plans Formative Assessment real-time (during instruction) or near-real-time (e.g. daily) measurement of learner mastery of specific competencies Learner Learner Competencies (output less variable) Formative Feedback Loop Determine the nature of misunderstanding and adjust Standards reference gap in understanding current status evidence + - Self/peer assessment & shared ownership

16 Data to support the model? Adjusted: Instruction, Activities, Practice (variable inputs) Learning Progressions Current Learning Goals Criteria for Success Curriculum, Unit & Lesson Plans Activities, Resources Formative Assessment Learner Learner Competencies (less variable) Formative Feedback Instructional Decisions Standards reference measured error measured output + - What data elements and structures need to be added to CEDS? What process measures should become CEDS elements? What additional data elements describe learning progressions, etc.? Related content metadata to include, or not (for CEDS v3)?

17 Guiding Principles: Formative is not a type of assessment, but a process, a cycle of continuous evidence to inform instruction/learning The frequency of measurement and use of data matters Formative assessment not just as a more frequent, finer grained test, but as a practice involving both teachers and students. Concerned with individual learner progress

18 Guiding Principles: “[The formative process should] help students understand the goal being aimed for, assist them to develop the skills to make judgments about their learning in relation to the standard, and establish a repertoire of operational strategies to regulate their own learning. (Heritage, 2010)” May inform individual or group instruction Involves students

19 Guiding Principles: Feedback designed to improve learning is more effective when it is focused on the task and provides the student with suggestions, hints, or cues, rather than offered in the form of praise or comments about performance (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991; Kluger & DeNisi, 1996, as cited by Heritage 2010)

20 Roles in the formative process Teacher RolesStudent Roles Set (or define) an appropriate learning objective, i.e. the “next step” for a learner Help students understand the goal Actively work to understand the objective Monitor their own learning (meta- cognition) Beyond using feedback to promote content learning: Assist students to develop skills to make judgments about their learning in relation to the standard Establish a repertoire of operational strategies for students to regulate their own learning Hold a concept of quality similar to the teacher’s Possessing a concept of the standard (or goal, or reference level) being aimed for; Comparing the actual (or current) level of performance with the standard; Engaging in appropriate action which leads to some closure of the gap (Sadler, 1989) Determining what is within the student’s reach, and providing them with experiences to develop new learning into their existing schema. Peer and self assessment

21 Two Levels of Competency Development 1. Level of actual development the learner has already reached (level at which the learner can independently solve problems) 2. Level of potential development within the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) ZPD is the area where learning takes place, i.e. learning that is within reach or becomes within reach with the help of more experienced learners (or the teacher)

22 Teacher and Student Collaboration “teachers and students engaged together in responding to evidence about learning, minute by minute, day by day. (Leahy, Lyon, Thompson, & William, 2005 – as cited in Heritage 2010)

23 Key Terms TermDefinition Assessment for learning (AFL) (note: formative assessment and assessment for learning are equivalent concepts) AFL is part of everyday practice by students, teachers, and peers that seeks, reflects upon, and responds to information from dialog, demonstration, and observation in ways that enhance ongoing learning. (from 3 rd International Conf. on AFL, 2009, March) Evidenceobservations of students’ work or working processes used to draw conclusions about students’ learning Feedbackproviding students information students need so they can understand where they are in their learning and what to do next (Brookhart, 2008) Formative Assessment Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve student’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes.” (FAST SCASS, 2008, October)

24 Key Terms - continued TermDefinition Scaffoldingan instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students (Palinscar & Brown) Self-regulation of learning the processes whereby learners personally activate and sustain cognitions, affects, and behaviors that are systematically oriented toward the attainment of personal goals” (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011) Self-monitoring“as work progresses, a metacognitively active learner interleaves cognition applied to the task with metacognition ‘on the fly.’ Products are ‘quality checked’ against standards established in Phase 2 [setting goals and plans]. Also, attributes of cognitive experience may be monitored for properties such as effort. (Winne, 2011) Zone of Proximal Development Important concept from cognitive science—people build new knowledge on existing knowledge. New learning must be “within reach” relative to current competencies.

25 Context for Formative Assessment

26 Classroom Instruction Strategies: Informal observation – conversation When/how is this data captured in the data system? Assessment “Item” must be broadly defined to include observation data Embedded feedback  adjust instruction More formal process, e.g. “exit tickets”, clickers, interactive game/project with rubric/gates Reference case studies in which data is captured using: Online exit ticket common assessment, Real-time clickers Instructional Improvement System

27 Blended instructional strategies 1. Virtual activities capture out-of-class learning evidence 2. Out-of-class learning evidence informs descriptive feedback, peer assessment, collaboration Reference case studies: ASSISTments homework process Khan Academy experiment

28 Virtual formative strategies Game-based learning environments Virtual school models Exploratory online learning (with automated assessment and feedback) Online Collaborative models Reference case studies: Khan Academy Game-based learning example (Lure of the Labyrinth?)

29 Modeling based on FAST SCASS policy and practice guidance Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers (FAST) State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS)

30 5 Critical Features for effective use of formative assessment (Identified by FAST SCASS in 2008) 1.Learning progressions 2.Learning goals and success criteria 3.Descriptive feedback 4.Self-peer-assessment 5.Collaboration How do these translate into CEDS data elements…

31 I. Learning Progressions A learning progression clearly articulates the trajectory along which students are expected to progress to improve in an area of learning and act as a touchstone for formative assessment (Heritage, 2008).

32 Learning Progressions Example

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35 Basic Structure of Learning Standards in CEDS 2: This is the vertical hierarchy, different from Learning Progressions Course Grained Finer Grained Note: Can support different taxonomies, e.g. CCSS and ELF as shown. Separate element for URL vs. GUID is proposed for version 3. Learning Standard Item

36 Key Concept: Learning Standards Learning Standard Item

37 I. Learning Progressions in CEDS Schema for learning progressions Subj1 ABC 2 DEF Schema for document hierarchy Draft for v3 supports learning progressions schema complementary with existing competency document/framework hierarchy

38 I. Learning Progressions in CEDS “Prerequisite” is one type of Association Association Type = “Prerequisite”

39 I. Learning Progressions “Unpacking” a learning standard: F has process steps: e.g. skill F1 F2 F3F3 B has micro-standards: or standard B1B2B2

40 I. Learning Progressions in CEDS Addressing the Need for “Un Packing” a Competency Subj1 A A1A2A3 BC 2 DEF The existing CEDS schema already supports more granular levels/types of competency data. Subj1 ABC 2 DEF  The “micro-standard” is simply a more granular competency, another level in the hierarchy, e.g. if A is “Name common shapes.” A1 might be “Name a circle.” A1 A2  Competencies of different types may have the same parent. E.g. a single “standard” A may have “sub-competency” and/or may have an “exemplar statement” A1 and “success criteria statement” A2 …It can also support different “types” on the same “level”. (CEDS can define the option set for LearningStandardItemType based on the content frameworks, e.g. Assessment consortia collaboration on unpacking CCSS. CEDS will include/allow options that support other standards frameworks in early learning and postsecondary.)

41 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) II. Learning goals and success criteria Learning Goal -- immediate learning intended within the ZPD. Success Criteria – use to indicate the degree to which learning is moving through the ZPD toward independent achievement.

42 Zone of Proximal Development II. Learning goals Learning Goal -- immediate learning intended within the ZPD. Success Criteria – use to indicate the degree to which learning is moving through the ZPD toward independent achievement. Can learning goals be selected from “unpacked” competencies (more granular concepts & process steps)? YES, as long as the teacher can also describe the goal in two ways for: 1) educators and 2) students. Can learning goals be selected from “unpacked” competencies (more granular concepts & process steps)? YES, as long as the teacher can also describe the goal in two ways for: 1) educators and 2) students.

43 Zone of Proximal Development II. Success criteria Includes: 1.what the criteria are (defined in competency model) 2.students’ achievement level on those criteria (this could be defined as a performance level on a scored assessment) Success Criteria – use to indicate the degree to which learning is moving through the ZPD toward independent achievement.

44 II. Learning goals and success criteria as data elements Learning Goals are finer grained than standards, they could be the same as an unpacked standard, but may be custom for an individual, group, or circumstance. “How an educator defines a learning goal and then how it is communicated to students will likely be different.” * (i.e. define 2 elements) There may be one or more Success Criterion for a learning goal. *(Heritage, M.; personal communication; April 11, 2012)

45 II. Data Elements Learning Goal Description A statement that specifies the learning that is intended in a way that both the educators and learners can understand. Learning Goal Success Criteria One or more statements that describes the criteria used by teachers and students to check for attainment of a leaning goal. This criteria gives clear indications as to the degree to which learning is moving through the Zone or Proximal Development toward independent achievement of the learning goal.

46 Learning Progressions, Goals, and Success Criteria New entities proposed for v3: Competency Set -- “A structure for grouping a set of competencies.” Competency Set Completion Criteria – “Criteria for competency-based completion of a unit, course, program, degree, certification, etc.” (The criteria may be ‘all’ competencies in the set or ‘at-least’ # of competencies. Sets may be nested, e.g. all in subset A and 3 of 5 from subset B.) Adapted from “Competency Container” concept, Applied Minds Knowledge Web Data Model draft Nov. 2011

47 Competency Set FBQ AND ONE of: =

48 Zone of Proximal Development III. Descriptive feedback 1.What are examples of descriptive feedback data? a.In traditional classroom this might not be captured as data. b.In online and blended models this may be captured as freeform text. (It could be analyzed for key words but probably would not fit in to CEDS.) c.In automated online models this might be captured in click stream data through a scaffolding process (e.g. ASSISTments) 2.Model in CEDS as a link to a web page that might contain a hint, activity, practice problem set, or resource? (similar place in the model as the Diagnostic Statement element) Success Criteria Descriptive Feedback Descriptive Feedback Feedback in the form of ideas, strategies, and tasks the student can use to close the gap between where they are and the learning goal. Learning Goal

49 III. Data Elements Assessment Sub Test Score Descriptive Feedback The actual formative descriptive feedback that was given to a learner in response to the results from a scored/evaluated portion of an assessment. Assessment Item Response Descriptive Feedback The formative descriptive feedback that was given to a learner in response to the results from a scored/evaluated assessment item.

50 Zone of Proximal Development IV. Self assessment and peer assessment 1.Although one might not think of self and peer-assessment as data to be captured in a data system, are there elements that could be included, that might cause system developers not to overlook this critical feature of formative assessment? Are there blended or virtual models that include self and peer assessment process measures? Success Criteria Descriptive Feedback Descriptive Feedback “Students need to assess the status of an individual peer’s learning—or their classmates’ learning as a group—against the same success criteria they use to check their own learning” (Heritage, 2010) Learning Goal Peer Assessment

51 Possible process measures based on rubric for self-assessment and collaboration. Snapshot from BSCS Center for Curriculum Development. (2005). Doing science: The process of scientific inquiry. NIH Publication No [Note report gives permission for classroom use of contents. Permissions requests for other uses should be addressed to BSCS.]

52 V. Collaboration 1.What teacher and student practices or activities indicate that shift to shared responsibility and collaboration? E.g. messaging 2.Are there process measures that might serve as a catalyst for this shift? E.g. # and size of posts, response times 3.Are there models with which data can support or measure collaboration? If so, what are the data elements? “…all participants, both teachers and students, share responsibility for learning. Achieving shared responsibility often requires substantial shifts in the nature of the classroom contract between teachers and students” (Heritage, 2010). Emerging area of development. No data elements identified for CEDS v3.

53 Data Entities for FormativeAssessment

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55 New Formative Assessment Elements

56 Additional Data Elements for Blended and Virtual Learning Models

57 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

58 Blended Learning Models Questions (for each model): What is different about the assessment data used? What is different about feedback to learners? What is different about adjustment to learning activities?

59 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

60 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

61 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

62 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

63 Blended Learning Models From: Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute, May 2012,

64 EXAMPLE: ASSISTments homework model, Bellingham (MA) Middle School School 2. Teacher-student collaboration for learning. Students and teachers collaboratively assess the status of individual and group learning— against the common success criteria and provide descriptive feedback. 1. Online homework activities/problem sets with scaffolding for immediate feedback Teacher dashboard for real-time or just-in-time monitoring of student progress and class prep 3. Teacher (with peers) use data to assign next learning activities and problem- sets to class, group, or individual (within zone of proximal development) Daily professional collaboration using data.

65 EXAMPLE: ASSISTments homework model, Bellingham (MA) Middle School School 2. Teacher-student collaboration for learning. Students and teachers collaboratively assess the status of individual and group learning— against the common success criteria and provide descriptive feedback. 1. Online homework activities/problem sets with scaffolding for immediate feedback Teacher dashboard for real-time or just-in-time monitoring of student progress and class prep 3. Teacher (with peers) use data to assign next learning activities and problem- sets to class, group, or individual (within zone of proximal development) Daily professional collaboration using data.

66 Blended/Virtual Data Elements e.g. when a student responds to a problem online… Process Measures that Inform Instructional Decisions

67 Building on the Work of Others

68 New Elements derived from SIF & ASN Learning Standard Document Language The default language of the text used for the content in the learning standard document. Learning Standard Item Language The default language of the text used for the content in the learning standard statement. Learning Standard Document License A legal document giving official permission to do something with the standards document. Learning Standard Item License A legal document giving official permission to do something with the standards statement. Learning Standard Document Publisher An entity responsible for making the learning standards document available. Learning Standard Document RightsInformation about rights held in and over the resource. Learning Standard Document Rights Holder A person or organization owning or managing rights over the learning standards document. Learning Standard Item Concept Keyword The significant topicality of the learning standard using free- text keywords and phrases. Learning Standard Item Concept Term The topicality of the achievement standard, e.g. "Pythagorean Theorem" "Trigonometric functions" "Forces and energy" "Scientific method" "Oral history" etc.

69 Achievement Elements (with reference to CEDS v2 PS elements, Open Badges, and others) Achievement Title A human readable title assigned to the achievement. Achievement Image Url For online display, this is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the unique address of an image representing an award or badge associated with the achievement. Achievement Description A description of the achievement. Achievement Criteria The human-readable criteria for competency-based completion of the achievement/award and/or Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the unique address of a web page describing the criteria. Achievement Date The year, month and day or year and month on which the achievement was recognized. Achievement Award Issuer Name Human-readable name of the agent issuing the award. Achievement Award Expires DateDate when the award expires. If omitted, the award never expires. Achievement Award Issuer Origin Url If an award is issued electronically for the achievement, this is the internet :// : from which the award was issued. Achievement Evidence A description or reference to the evidence that the learner met the criteria for attainment of the achievement.

70 Additional Elements for Learning Resources

71 Building on the work of others: Learning Resources Property Expected Type Description Education Specific educationalAlignment schema.org/ alignmentObject alignmentObject The competency, learning standard, skill and/or text complexity that the work is aligned to. intendedEndUserRole schema.org/Text The individual or group for which the work in question was produced. Ex: “student”, “teacher” educationalUse schema.org/Text The purpose of the work in the context of education. Ex: “assignment”, “group work” timeRequired schema.org/ Duration( ISO 8601 ) ISO 8601 Approximate or typical time it takes to work with or through this learning resource for the typical intended target audience. Ex: “P30M”, “P1H25M” typicalAgeRange schema.org/Text The typical range of ages the content’s intendedEndUser. Ex: “7-9″, “18-” interactivityType schema.org/Text The predominate mode of learning supported by the learning resource. Acceptable values are active, expositive, or mixed. Ex: “active”, “mixed” learningResourceType schema.org/Text The predominate type or kind characterizing the learning resource. Ex: “presentation”, “handout” LRMI Specification version 1.0 – Candidate elements…

72 …LRMI continued. General Terms These terms are important for terms used with learning resources but are also useful beyond just learning resources. They have no Schema.org equivalent. useRightsUrl schema.org/URL The URL where the owner specifies permissions for using the resource. Ex: Ex: “ “ isBasedOnUrl schema.org/URL A resource that was used in the creation of this resource. This term can be repeated for multiple sources. Ex: “ “ Already adequately expressed in Schema.org These terms are important terms used with learning resources that are currently well covered by Schema.org name schema.org/TextThe title of the resource. About schema.org/TextThe subject of the content. dateCreated schema.org/DateThe date on which the resource was created. author schema.org/ Person The individual credited with the creation of the resource. publisher schema.org/ Organization The organization credited with publishing the resource. inLanguage schema.org/ Language The primary language of the resource. genre schema.org/TextThe type of media which is being described.

73 Learning Resources: A comparison of 14 LORs: 14 out of 14 - Title, Subject, description, Learning object type, Authors or creator, Rights, although labels vary 13 out of 14 use identifier (URL) to uniquely point to the resource. 11 out of 14 - Technical Requirement 10 out of 14 - Media Format, 9 out 14 - Typical Learning Time and Interactivity Level, 6 out of 14 - Interactivity Type and Difficulty Level 3 out of 14 - Teaching Methods 4 out of 14 - Aggregation Level (Adapted from:

74 Descriptive Feedback & Scaffolding Correlating data elements to the process Variable Inputs: Instruction, Activities, Practice (variable inputs) Learning Progressions Curriculum Current Learning Goals Criteria for Success Unit & Lesson Plans Formative Assessment real-time (during instruction) or near-real-time (e.g. daily) measurement of learner mastery of specific competencies Learner Learner Competencies (output less variable) Formative Feedback Loop Determine the nature of misunderstanding and adjust Standards reference gap in understanding current status evidence + - Self/peer assessment & shared ownership

75 Formative Assessment Process Data Entities and Relationships

76 For more information, visit:

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