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Chapter © 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Investing in Bonds Evaluating Bonds Buying and Selling Bonds 13
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 2 Chapter 13 Lesson 13.1 Evaluating Bonds GOALS Discuss the features, types, and earnings on corporate bonds. Describe the different types of government bonds.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 3 Chapter 13 Corporate Bonds Bonds are loans (debt) that must be repaid at maturity. Bondholders (those who invest in bonds) receive interest twice a year. When the bond matures on its maturity date, it is repaid. Bond maturities typically range from 1 to 30 years.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 4 Chapter 13 Face Value Face value is the amount the bondholder will be repaid at maturity. Face value is also referred to as par value because the face value is the dollar amount printed on the certificate.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 5 Chapter 13 Features of Corporate Bonds Corporate bonds are sold on the open market through brokers, just like stocks. Bonds are known as “fixed-income investments” Fixed-income investments pay a specified amount of interest on a regular schedule. A bond’s interest does not go up and down.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 6 Chapter 13 Features of Corporate Bonds A bond’s contract rate (also called its interest rate) is the percentage of face value that the bondholder will receive as interest each year. Usually, payments of half the annual interest are made twice a year. Interest received on corporate bonds is taxable. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 7 Chapter 13 Features of Corporate Bonds Registered bond A registered bond is recorded in the owner’s name by the issuing company. Interest checks for registered bonds are mailed semiannually, directly to the bondholder. Today, most bonds are registered. Coupon bond A coupon bond (also called a bearer bond) is not registered by the issuing company. To collect interest on a coupon bond, bondholders must clip a coupon and then cash it in at a bank, following the procedures outlined by the issuer. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 8 Chapter 13 Features of Corporate Bonds A callable bond is a bond that the issuer has the right to pay off (call back) before its maturity date. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 9 Chapter 13 Types of Corporate Bonds Debentures Secured bond Convertible bonds
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 10 Chapter 13 Debenture A debenture is a corporate bond that is based on the general creditworthiness of the company. The issuer does not pledge any specific assets to assure repayment of the loan. Debentures are considered unsecured bonds.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 11 Chapter 13 Secured Bond A secured bond, a.k.a. mortgage bond, is backed by specific assets which serve as security to assure repayment of the debt. If the corporation fails to repay the loan as agreed, the bondholder may claim the property used as security for the debt. The asset most often used for security is real estate, a building, or some other type of property.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 12 Chapter 13 Convertible Bond A convertible bond is a corporate bond that can be converted to shares of common stock. If the bondholder converts to common stock, the bond is no longer due and payable at maturity. Convertible bonds can be exchanged for a certain number of common shares at a specific price per share.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 13 Chapter 13 Earnings on Corporate Bonds All corporate bonds are issued with a stated face value and fixed contract rate. There is no compounding. Half the annual amount of simple interest is paid every six months. While the interest rate on your bond is fixed, the market price (what you could sell it for) can change.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 14 Chapter 13 Zero-Coupon Bonds A zero-coupon bond is sold at a deep discount, makes no interest payments, and is redeemable for its face value at maturity. These bonds may also be issued by the U.S. government or municipalities. As the bond progresses toward maturity, it may appreciate, or increase in value. The bondholders make money by selling the bonds before maturity at a price higher than they paid for them. Or, they can hold the bonds to maturity and receive the face value and interest.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 15 Chapter 13 Government Bonds Municipal bonds Savings bonds Treasury securities Agency bonds
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 16 Chapter 13 Municipal Bonds A bond issued by state and local governments is called a municipal bond. Municipal bonds are also known as “munis.” Municipal bonds generally pay a lower interest rate than corporate bonds. However, the interest is exempt from federal taxes (and often state and local taxes as well), so the effective rate is higher than the stated rate.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 17 Chapter 13 Types of Municipal Bonds A revenue bond is a municipal bond issued to raise money for a public-works project. The revenues (income) generated by the project are used to pay the interest and repay the bonds at maturity. Major projects financed by revenue bonds include airports, hospitals, toll roads, and public housing facilities. A general obligation bond (or GO) is a municipal bond backed by the power of the issuing state or local government to levy taxes to pay back the debt.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 18 Chapter 13 Comparing Taxable and Tax-Exempt Bonds Corporate Bond Municipal Bond Face Value (Principal)$10,000 Rate of Interest6%5% Amount of Annual Interest$600$500 Tax on Interest Earned (28%)$168$0 Net Interest$432$500
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 19 Chapter 13 Savings Bonds You can buy U.S. savings bonds three ways: From commercial banks Through payroll deduction plans Directly from a Federal Reserve Bank You can buy up to $20,000 worth of these bonds a year.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 20 Chapter 13 Savings Bonds Series EE Series EE bonds are sold at one half of their face value. Investors who buy these bonds often hold them to maturity. These bonds are issued with maturity values that range from $50 to $10,000. Series I Series I bonds are sold at face value and have fixed plus variable rates of return that increase as general interest rates rise. This helps protect you from the effects of rising prices (inflation). (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 21 Chapter 13 Treasury Securities Treasury securities are virtually risk-free, since they have the backing of the U.S. government. They are taxable at the federal level but are exempt from state and local taxes and are usually not callable.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 22 Chapter 13 Treasury Securities Types of treasury securities Treasury notes Treasury bills Treasury bonds These investments exist as bookkeeping entries in the records of the U.S. Treasury Department itself or in the records of commercial banks. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 23 Chapter 13 Agency Bonds When you purchase an agency bond, you are loaning money to a federal agencies. Federal agencies that issue bonds include: Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 24 Chapter 13 Agency Bonds The agencies use this funding to provide low-cost financing to certain groups of people. Agency bonds are basically risk-free and they offer a slightly higher yield than securities issued by the Treasury. Agency bonds are usually exempt from state and local taxes, but not federal tax. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 25 Chapter 13 Lesson 13.2 Buying and Selling Bonds GOALS Explain how to buy and sell bonds, considering both risk and return. Explain how to read the bond listings of financial pages.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 26 Chapter 13 Owning Bonds Full-service broker Discount broker Banks Federal Reserve System
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 27 Chapter 13 Return on Bonds Earn interest for each day they own the bond. Redeem the bond for its face value at maturity. Bond redemption occurs when it is paid off at maturity. The issuer of the bond pays back the original amount that was borrowed. Sell a bond before maturity. Bonds often appreciate in value, especially when interest rates are dropping. Bondholders may be able to sell the bond before maturity for a price higher than they paid for it.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 28 Chapter 13 Return on Bonds Bonds are a safer investment than many other choices because they have a fixed interest rate and represent a loan that the issuer must repay. Bond prices tend to remain steadier than do stock prices. Also, bond prices tend to react in the opposite direction of stock prices. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 29 Chapter 13 Return on Bonds Bond investments serve as a hedge to help offset the risk of the stocks in your portfolio. A hedge is any investment or action that helps offset against loss from another investment or action. Hedging is a tactic used to reduce overall risk. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 30 Chapter 13 Risk on Bonds To help investors evaluate the risk level of different bonds, independent rating services rate bonds according to their safety. A bond rating tells the investor the risk category that has been assigned to a bond.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Risk on Bonds (cont’d) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 32 Chapter 13 Risk on Bonds Bond rating services base their ratings on the financial condition of the issuing corporation or municipality. Bond default means that the bond issuer cannot meet the interest and/or principal payments. Because bonds are not insured, investors can lose their money if the corporation or municipality defaults. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 33 Chapter 13 Investment-grade Bonds A bond with a rating of Baa or higher in Moody’s, or BBB or higher in Standard & Poor’s, is considered an investment- grade bond. Investment-grade bonds are considered the highest-quality, lowest- risk bonds. The higher the bond’s rating, the lower the interest rate you will earn.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 34 Chapter 13 Junk Bond A junk bond has a low rating, or no rating at all. Any bond with a rating of Ba/BB or lower is called a junk bond. Because of its low or no rating, this type of bond is highly speculative. In most cases, interest rates on junk bonds are high because they are high risk, since the companies issuing them are not financially sound.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 35 Chapter 13 Bond Fund A bond fund is a group of bonds that have been bundled together and sold in shares (like stock) to investors. Typically, a bond fund would contain some investment-grade bonds along with bonds of some newer companies, foreign bonds, and a few junk bonds as well. Mutual funds, brokers, and investment services at financial institutions offer bond funds to their customers as a method of hedging against the risk of loss from other investments.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 36 Chapter 13 Reading Corporate Bond Listings Excerpt from stock exchange (bond) listings: Name Type/ Rating Coup.Mat. 3 p.m. Bid Net Chg. Yld AK Steela/BB /08 98½unch9.46 Allied Wasteb/B /11 102unch9.57 Am Stda/BB /10 98½–1¼7.56 Chanclrb/BB /09 103unch7.36 Echostara/B /11 101¼unch9.52
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