Presentation on theme: "The Beginnings of Industrialization"— Presentation transcript:
1The Beginnings of Industrialization MONEY, LABOR, and ECONOMY
2Objectives (sec 1) Explain the origins of the Industrial Revolution. (sec 1) Explain the impact of mechanization (machines).(sec 2) Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization.(sec 3) Explain the impact on land, labor and corporations.(sec 4) Explain the reaction to industrial capitalism.(sec 4) Explain the origins and main concepts of capitalism, socialism, and communism.
3Questions to ConsiderWhat were four factors that contributed to industrialization in Britain?How did rising population help the Industrial Revolution?What American invention aided the textile industry?Was the revolution in agriculture necessary for the Industrial Revolution?What effect did entrepreneurs have on the Industrial Revolution?
4The Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain Agriculture paves the way for more foodMore food=more people (workers)Enclosures (fields)Crop-rotation (better soil/yield)Experimentation in farmingSmaller farmers were leaving to cities (workers)
5Why the Revolution Began In England Large populationNatural resourcesWater and coal powerIron ore for machinesRivers/Harbors
6Why the Revolution Began In England They also had the Factors of Production:LandLaborCapital ($$)
7Changes in the Textile Industry Several inventions were made to increase textile (cloth) productionFlying ShuttleSpinning JennyWater FrameSpinning MulePower LoomA power loom at work…
8Changes in the Textile Industry In America, things were changing tooEli Whitney invented the Cotton GinEasier to separate cotton from bollIncreased demand for cotton in US and BritainIncreased demand for slave labor in US
9Improvements in Transportation Steam Engine-James Watt (with help of entrepreneur or investor)Steamboat-Robert FultonBetter paved roads-John Mc Adam
11Questions to ConsiderWhat were four factors that contributed to industrialization in Britain?How did rising population help the Industrial Revolution?What American invention aided the textile industry?Was the revolution in agriculture necessary for the Industrial Revolution?What effect did entrepreneurs have on the Industrial Revolution?
12Section 2-Industrialization Objective: Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization.
13Size of Cities Growth of factories, bringing job seekers Urban areas doubling, tripling, or quadrupling in sizeFactories developing near new sources of energyMany new cities specializing in certain industries
14Living Conditions in Cities No sanitary codes or building controlsLack of housing, education, and policeNo running water or indoor plumbingFrequent epidemics sweeping through slums
21Working conditions IR creating new jobs Workers trying to keep pace w/machinesFactories dirty and unsanitaryRunning dangerous machines long hours in unsafe conditionsHarsh and severe disciplineEventually shorter hours, higher wages and better conditions
22Emerging social classes Growing middle class of factory owners, shippers and merchantsUpper class of landowners and aristocrats resentful of middle classLower middle class of factory overseers and skilled workersOverworked and underpaid
23Positive effects of Industrial Revolution (Eventually) More jobsContributed to wealth and power of nation (who specifically?)Healthier dietsBetter housingCheaper, mass-produced itemsEventually there were labor gains made:shorter hourshigher wagesbetter working conditions
24Section 2-Industrialization Objective: Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization.
25Section 4-Reforming the Economic World Objectives(sec 4) Explain the origins and main concepts of capitalism, socialism, and communism.(sec 4) Explain the reaction to industrial capitalism.
26Questions to ConsiderWhat were Adam Smith’s three natural laws of economics?What kind of society did early socialists want?What were Karl Marx’s key ideas?Why did workers join together to form unions?Why did the labor reform movement spread to other areas of life?
27Effects of Industrialization As industry grew, so did wealth.Philosophers started looking at how wealth and labor affected society.Some believed government should have a role in business, others did not.
28CapitalismLaissez faire (let do) “The Invisible Hand” that guides the market.privately owned industry and businesses would set standards for working conditionsfavors free market economy unregulated by government
29Capitalism Economy is based on supply and demand High supply=low pricesLow supply=high pricesHigh demand=high pricesLow demand=low pricesGovernment would screw this up (ability to make $$$)
30Capitalism-Adam Smith-1776 book “The Wealth of Nations" detailed that economic liberty guaranteed economic progress for everyoneThree laws:Law of self interest (people act in their own interest)Law of competition (forces people to make a better product)Law of supply and demand (enough goods would be produced to meet society’s demands)
31Socialism (roots)Other philosophers felt that government should intervene in businessThey saw the low wages of the lower class, the poor living and working conditions, and uncaring business owners as a problem for society.
32Socialism (Utilitarianism) An early form of socialism was Utilitarianism.Jeremy Bentham’s idea was that people should judge institutions, ideas, and actions based on their usefulness.Government should promote programs that would benefit the greatest amount of people.
34Socialism (Utilitarianism) John Stuart MillFelt that it was wrong that workers lived hard livesWanted to create policies that would lead to more equal division of profitsWanted to reform women’s rights, voting rights, and prison reform
35Socialism Took Utilitarianism one step further Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon wanted to offset the negative aspects of industrializationThey created philosophy of socialism
36SocialismSocialism is when the factors of production (Land, Labor, and Capital) are controlled by the public (government) and industry is run and controlled for the benefit of all people in the society.Government control of factories, railroads, raw materials, and other key industries would end poverty and poor working conditions brought on by the quest for profit (by private owners of industry).
38Marxism (Radical Socialism) AKA=CommunismOutlined in Karl Marx and Friederich Engels’ pamphlet The Communist Manifesto
39Marxism (Radical Socialism) Society has always been divided into warring classes:The “Haves” or bourgeoisie (wealthy)AndThe “Have-nots” or proletariat (working class)
40Marxism (Radical Socialism) The wealthy controlled means (L, L, C) of producing goodsThe poor did the back-breaking labor of actually producing the goods (in terrible conditions).The Industrial Revolution made the rich richer and the poor poorer.“The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite.”From the Communist Manifesto
41Marxism (Radical Socialism) World View:Large industries would crush smaller artisans and control all of the wealthLarge proletariat would revolt and seize control of industry and produce what was needed for societyWorkers would share profits and bring economic equality for all peopleWorkers would control government/economy in a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”A classless society would develop over time
42Marxism (Radical Socialism) This was pure communism, or radical socialismAll means of productions are controlled by peoplePrivate property would cease to existAll goods and services would be shared equally
43Marxism (Radical Socialism) Marx and Engels felt that economics alone controlled societyHistory has shown that religion, nationalism, ethnic loyalties and a desire for democratic reforms may be as strong of influences as economics areAlso, the gap between the rich and poor closed over time
44Democratic ReformsFaced with tough working conditions, workers formed unionsThese were organizations that bargained for better working conditions, wages, benefits, etc.If the owners of industry would not negotiate, the workers would stop working (strike)
45Democratic Reforms Factory Act of 1833> Illegal to hire children under 9 years old.9-12 year olds could only work 8 hours a day13-17 year olds could only work 12 hoursWomen and children couldn’t work underground (mines)This spirit spread to other areas:SlaveryWomen’s rightsEducationPrisons
46Questions to ConsiderWhat were Adam Smith’s three natural laws of economics?What kind of society did early socialists want?What were Karl Marx’s key ideas?Why did workers join together to form unions?Why did the labor reform movement spread to other areas of life?