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5–2 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license.

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Presentation on theme: "5–2 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license."— Presentation transcript:

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2 5–2 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1.Discuss the nature of entrepreneurship. 2.Describe the role of entrepreneurship in society. 3.Understand the major issues involved in choosing strategies for small firms and the role of international management in entrepreneurship. 4.Discuss the structural challenges unique to entrepreneurial firms. 5.Understand the determinants of the performance of small firms.

3 The Nature of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship –The process of planning, organizing, operating, and assuming the risk of a business venture. Entrepreneur –Someone who engages in entrepreneurship. Small Business –A business that is privately owned by one individual or a small group of individuals. –It has sales and assets that are not large enough to influence its environment. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–3

4 The Role of Entrepreneurship in Society Research Findings: –Most new businesses fail within the first few years of being founded. –More than 97% of U.S. businesses are small with fewer than 100 employees. –Most U.S. workers work for small businesses. –The majority of small businesses are owner-operated. –Small business is a strong presence in both mature and emerging economies. –Small business has a strong effect on job creation, innovation, and is important to big businesses. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–4

5 5–5 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 5.1 The Importance of Small Business in the United States Approximately 86 percent of all U.S. businesses employ fewer than 20 people; another 11.7 percent employ between 20 and 99 people. In contrast, only about 2.1 percent employ between 100 and 400 workers, and another 0.2 percent employ 500 or more percent of all U.S. workers are employed by firms with fewer than 20 people; another 29.6 percent work in firms that employ between 20 and 99 people percent of U.S. workers are employed by firms with 100–499 employees, and another 20.3 percent work for businesses that employ 500 or more total employees.

6 Entrepreneurship’s Role in Society Small Businesses’ Role in Job Creation –Create many of the new jobs in the U.S. –Dominate sectors that have added the most jobs. –Represent 92% of all U.S. exporters. Innovation –Major innovations are as likely to come from small businesses as from large firms. –Much of what is created in the high-technology sectors comes from start-up companies. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–6

7 5–7 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 5.2Representative Jobs Created and Lost in 2009 Aetna Wal-Mart Home Depot Verizon Communications Sprint Nextel Corp. Johnson & Johnson IBM Merck Pfizer Caterpillar –1,240 –1,450 –7,000 –8,000 –8,900 –10,000 –16,000 –19,500 –20,000 Whole Foods Market Microsoft T-Mobile Google Nordstrom Cisco Systems Deloitte Accenture Edward Jones +8,570 +7,130 +3,586 +3,550 +2,421 +2,412 +2,311 +2,176 +2,1290 JOB LOSSES JOB GAINS

8 Entrepreneurship’s Importance to Big Business Most products made by large manufacturers are sold to customers by small businesses. Small businesses as suppliers provide large firms with services, supplies, and raw materials. Large businesses outsource many routine business operations such as packaging, delivery, and distribution to small businesses. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–8

9 Strategy for Entrepreneurial Organizations 5–9 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Emphasizing distinctive competencies Gaining first mover advantage Choosing an industry in which to compete Basic Strategic Challenges

10 5–10 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 5.3Small Business (businesses with fewer than 20 employees) by Industry Services are the fastest growing segment of small- business enterprise.

11 5–11 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 5.4Economies of Scale in Small-Business Organizations

12 Strategically Utilizing Distinctive Competencies Identifying new markets Taking first-mover advantage Identifying niches in current markets Seeking Competitive Advantage © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–12

13 Emphasizing Distinctive Competencies Identifying niches in an established market –Finding part of a market not currently being exploited can offer a competitive advantage. Identifying new markets –Transferring an existing product/service to a new market can create new industries/products/services. Taking first-mover advantage –Exploiting a market opportunity before any other firm does can result in a competitive advantage. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–13

14 Management Challenge Question What would you caution an entrepreneur about the dangers of taking first-mover advantage? © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–14

15 Writing a Business Plan Business Plan –Is a document that summarizes business strategy and structure. –Should include: Business goals and objectives. Strategies used to achieve these goals and objectives. A plan of how the entrepreneur will implement these strategies. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–15

16 Entrepreneurship and International Management There is potential for expansion and growth in foreign markets. While there are risks, entering a foreign country’s market can be a real catalyst for success. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–16

17 Starting a New Business Buying an Existing Business –Business has a proven ability to draw customers and make a profit. –Networks are already established. –Negative: New owners inherit existing problems. Starting from Scratch –Avoids problems associated with previous owners. –Allows freedom to choose suppliers, equipment, location, and workers. –Negative: More business risk and uncertainty. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–17

18 Identifying a Business Opportunity Who are my customers? Where are they? At what price will they buy my product? In what quantities will they buy? Who are my competitors? How will my product differ from those of my competitors? © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–18

19 Financing the New Business Venture Capital Companies Small-Business Investment Companies SBA Financial Programs Sources of New Business Financing Personal Resources Strategic Alliances Lenders © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–19

20 Financing the New Business Personal Resources –Using own money and money borrowed from friends and relatives to finance the business. Strategic Alliances –Partnering with established firms such as suppliers in a mutually beneficial relationship. Lenders –Obtaining funding from traditional lenders (e.g., banks, independent investors, and government loans). Venture Capital Companies –Groups of small investors who provide capital funds to small high-growth potential start-up firms in exchange for an equity position (stock) in the firms. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–20

21 Financing the New Business (cont’d) Small-Business Investment Companies (SBICs) –Are investor-owned companies that borrow money from the SBA to loan to small business with high growth potential. –Minority Enterprise Small-Business Investment Companies (MESBICs) specialize in financing businesses owned by minorities. SBA Financial Programs –Provide assistance (e.g., SBA-guaranteed loans) for small businesses unable to get private financing at reasonable terms. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–21

22 Seeking New Business Advice Advisory Boards Management Consultants Small Business Administration Networking with Others Sources of Management Advice © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–22

23 Sources of Help for Entrepreneurs Boards of directors Management consultants SBA Trade associations Small-business networks Pooling Accountants Bankers Lawyers Insurance agents Computer consultants Management HelpProfessional Help Outside Help © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–23

24 Franchising Franchising Agreement –Operation of the franchised business by the entrepreneur (the franchisee) under a license by a parent firm (the franchiser). –The entrepreneur pays the parent firm for use of trademarks, products, formulas, and business plans. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–24

25 Franchising (cont’d) Advantages –Reduced financial risk of new business success through experience provided by franchiser. –Training, financial, and management support by franchiser. Disadvantages –Start-up fees to purchase franchise. –Limitations of franchise (market area, product, customers). –Loss of independence due to imposed operational controls of franchiser. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–25

26 Management Challenge Questions What characteristics of a franchisee would an entrepreneur/franchisor likely find most attractive? What aspects of this relationship could be detrimental to either party? © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–26

27 5–27 © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 5.5Business Start-Up Successes and Failures

28 The Performance of Entrepreneurial Organizations Crossovers to small business by former large-business employees The emergence of E-commerce Trends in New Business Start-Ups Better survival rates for small businesses Increased entrepreneurial opportunities for minorities and women © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–28

29 Entrepreneurial Success and Failure Reasons for Failure –Managerial incompetence/ inexperience of the entrepreneur. –Neglect in not devoting sufficient time and effort to the business. –Weak control systems that do not warn of impending problems. –Insufficient capital to sustain the business until it starts to turn a profit. Reasons for Success –Hard work, drive, and dedication by the entrepreneur. –Careful analysis of market conditions provides insights about business conditions. –Managerial competence through training and experience contributes to success. –Luck sometimes plays a role. © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–29


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