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THE FLEXIBLE ADAPTABLE WORKFORCE: CHALLENGES, BRAIN WORK, AND OPPORTUNITIES Andy Penaluna Professor of Creative Entrepreneurship #execonf.

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Presentation on theme: "THE FLEXIBLE ADAPTABLE WORKFORCE: CHALLENGES, BRAIN WORK, AND OPPORTUNITIES Andy Penaluna Professor of Creative Entrepreneurship #execonf."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE FLEXIBLE ADAPTABLE WORKFORCE: CHALLENGES, BRAIN WORK, AND OPPORTUNITIES Andy Penaluna Professor of Creative Entrepreneurship #execonf

2 Einstein famously stated that developing the right questions is considerably harder than answering them! Opening thought

3 Some ‘news’ context A combination of too many students, grade inflation and a stalled economy have created a toxic combination for any new graduate seeking paid graduate jobs… Plenty of small- to medium-sized businesses (SMEs) are “crying out” for skills and struggle to recruit graduates because they are less well- known…

4 Some ‘news’ context Personality questionnaires and group exercises at selection centres are also used to assess how well-rounded a candidate is, giving applicants the chance to show off “softer” skills beyond academic achievements, such as team-working, communication and presenting skills. jobs-Do-graduates-need-a-first-class-degree-to-get-a-good-job.html

5 Research and research-led thinking Thinking lenses The implications of curricular intervention Policies and guidance Employability in an enterprise context

6 What is education about? So if we started again, with a school of employability and enterprise, what would that look like? Liberal? Self Reasoned? Rounded? Or limited to a singular career focus? Hughes, T., (1885)"What is a Liberal Education?," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. X, January/October."What is a Liberal Education?," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. X, January/October Philadelphia: Hardy and Mahoney

7 A Framework to underpin our thinking Sector specific Unemployable adaptableSector flexible Good Value High Value Limited Value No Value Replaceable?

8 Do the maths? Employability Enterprise and Entrepreneurship minus Innovation and Creativity = ?

9 Simple academic achievement? (Is business a more complex environment?) Simple academic achievement? (Is business a more complex environment?)

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11 Now more than ever we need innovation, new solutions, creative approaches and new ways of operating. We are in uncharted territory and need people in all sectors and at all ages who can “think out of the box” to identify and pursue opportunities in new and paradigm-changing ways. The context

12 The bigger picture? We are in a three act drama years so far in the industrial age. 1 – Industrial, needs physically strong and dependable people 2 – Information, knowledge is power and he or she who ‘knows’ more will get on 3 – Conceptual, knowledge is available easily – how can we make sense of it? Pink, D. (2008), A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future. London: Marshall Cavendish.

13 Is an Avalanche coming? “Michael and his wife were trying to recall the names of the three Karamazov brothers. Needless to say, within minutes they had resorted to Google – much easier than getting the book itself from the next-door room. What was striking for Michael, though, was the immediate access not just to the names, but also to a series of considered, thoughtful academic commentaries on the book.” Barber, M., Donnelly, K. & Rizvi, S. (2013) AN AVALANCHE IS COMING: Higher education and the revolution ahead. London: Institute for Public Policy Research p16

14 Investment Ideas assessment gate Development gate Test gate Launch Innovation gates (based on Toyota) Capture and profit Idea Cost Pyramid Investment in ideas =cheap

15 Is a Creativity Avalanche coming too? Research indicates a significant drop in creative thinking scores in US schools. According to Kim there is a creativity crisis. Using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), and a sample of 272,599 pupils (kindergarten to fourth grade), Kim evidences ‘Decreased Creative Thinking in the Past 20 Years’, noting that ‘the decline is steady and persistent’. Kim, K. H. (2011), ‘The Creativity Crisis: The Decrease in Creative Thinking Score on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking’ Creativity Research Journal, 23 (4),

16 Is a Creativity Avalanche coming too?

17

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19 Why do we assess our students? Getting clear on a few things – if it is in the curriculum… What do we assess and how? What’s missing?

20 Who is this? Innovation Recognition?

21 How did you know?? It depends on somatic markers and the limens in your synapses … or how ‘pre prepared’ you were for discovery

22 What is that knowledge worth to the company? Innovation Value? In the UK alone… £60,000,000

23 Bisociation …can be a puzzle, until you ‘get it’! KILLS BUGS FAST

24 Image Courtesy of Google Campus Logical Clear Manageable Sequentially valid (Reductionist - to make sense of complexity) Unclear Complex (until patterns emerge and links are made) Thinking about thinking…

25 National Enterprise Context? Enterprise education requires educators to have the ability to develop their student’s creativity, innovation, problem solving and business acumen in addition to developing attributes like the capacity to cope with uncertainty, ambiguity and risk. While many of these are felt to be generic employability skills and attributes; enterprise education applies and develops these in situations and contexts that can lead to the students developing their individual entrepreneurial capabilities. Enterprise Educators UK manifesto for the new government of the UK

26 Key observations? Gerald Zaltman, a professor at Harvard Business School, is also a Fellow of the University’s Interdisciplinary Mind, Brain, Behaviour Initiative… artificial categorizations between disciplines “do not reflect how people actually live their lives”…“the most promising knowledge frontiers typically exist at the boundaries between fields rather than at the fields’ respective cores” (Zaltman, 2003, xii).

27 Enterprise - key observations? (In Europe in 2011) “an estimated 150,000 companies with 600,000 jobs may be lost each year.” 'Business Dynamics: Start-ups, Business Transfers and Bankruptcy' (2011) environment/files/business_dynamics_final_report_en.pdf

28 Enterprise - key observations? Narrow definitions of employability as skills… relate to the ‘gap’ between employers expectations and what they perceive as ‘receiving’ from the performance of graduates beginning work. Although the skills identified in these ‘gaps’ lists have tended to remain relatively constant in recent years, this is not a useful measure around which to define curriculum intervention. Pegg, A., Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S., Lawton, R. (2012) Pedagogy for Employability. York: Higher Education Academy

29 Enterprise - key observations? “In the current economic crisis, new and young enterprises represent a key ingredient in creating a job-rich recovery in Europe.” ‘Reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe’ (2012) COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2020 ACTION PLAN

30 Enterprise - key observations? 2.2. …and new frontiers: higher education for entrepreneurship The role of higher education in entrepreneurship goes far beyond the delivery of knowledge to participating in ecosystems, partnerships and industrial alliances. ‘Reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe’ (2012) COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2020 ACTION PLAN

31 I add a further caution in the context of development of enterprise and entrepreneurship education in our universities. UK universities have the highest international reputation for quality... Assessment approaches in universities focus upon known schedules and requirements, published in a student handbook. That is an underpinning foundation of our quality system. Yet in an enterprise skills context, this is not a realistic environment… Wilson said…

32 Enterprise skills require responsiveness to unexpected pressures and tasks; they require reaction to changing circumstances and disruptive interventions. These attributes are contrary to the established framework of assessment processes. Enterprise skills do not presently lend themselves to formal assessment methods. University Business Review – Sir Tim Wilson pp50-51 We cannot use logical ‘implication’ types of assessment for ‘innovation’ in the curriculum – we need two I’s Assessment types?

33 Innovation – for example multiple solution generation, breadth of solution generation, challenging norms, flexible response development etc. Implementation – for example business and marketing strategies, finance generation, sustainability, ethics and legal considerations etc. Convergent thinking or Divergent thinking?

34 Consider the concept of ‘glorious failures’… “a form of assessment where the learning is rewarded if the process is correct, even if the outcome is lacking” Penaluna, A and K Penaluna (2009) ‘Assessing creativity: drawing from the experience of the UK’s creative design educators’, Education + Training, 51 (8/9) Assessment types?

35 Brain functionality / cortex’s Key point – Developing synapse potential through learning Left Cortex Right Cortex Micro molecular structure images courtesy of Mark Jung Beeman and John Kounios, Mid Western and Drexel Universities Detail of Pyramid neuron from the amygdala / hippocampus

36 = ‘Aha’ © Penaluna & Penaluna 2009 / 2010 Multiple ideas and flexible thought enables contextual decision making Evolved model for QAA / UN (Incorporating divergent production) Thoughtful and conscious Subconscious

37 ‘Are You Ready’ at Heatheringthorpe Primary?

38 If only I knew then what I know now? Are the Enterprise and Employability agendas merging I wonder? If most employment opportunities are in SME’s, what skills are required?

39 Technical skills and subject expertise Business acumen and strategy Enterprising mind With personal motivation there is energy, with energy there is resilience, with resilience, success is likely... Creativity, innovation and opportunity recognition are key intrinsic motivational drivers, they are central to the enterprising mindset © A Penaluna, 2012

40 Entrepreneurship education in higher education makes a difference. It has impact on intention, competence and employability and generally benefits society and the economy. The (EU) report underlines the importance of developing effective educational capacity across all disciplines. European Commission (2012) Effects and Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes in Higher Education, Directorate-general for Enterprise and Industry/European Commission. Brussels What’s the evidence?

41 Key researcher / educator thinking “Ability to challenge assumptions, recognise patterns, see in new ways, make connections, take risks and seize upon chance” Vidal, R.V.V. (2004), ‘Creativity for operational researchers, informatics and mathematical modelling’, Technical University of Denmark.

42 Awareness, Mind and Capability = Effectiveness

43 Application (where?) Enterprising Angels © A Penaluna, 2010 Intrapreneur The ‘cornerstone employee’ Portfolio career ‘multiple jobs = multiple opportunities’ Enterprising mind Entrepreneur The ‘business developer and enhancer’ Social entrepreneur ‘The society developer and enhancer’ Overall aim - learning to learn; they use harvested knowledge to societal and economic advantage The QAA (and Vitae) guidance is not specific to any particular degree programme or subject specialism, but is instead intended to help academics, educators and practitioners who are seeking to embed enterprise and entrepreneurship across the curriculum

44 Is an Avalanche coming? (Students) “will need to be self-motivated, active agents prepared to take responsibility for their own learning and skill development. They will need to understand how to create value to receive value and act as the entrepreneur of their own career…” Barber, M., Donnelly, K. & Rizvi, S. (2013) AN AVALANCHE IS COMING: Higher education and the revolution ahead. London: Institute for Public Policy Research p65

45 Is an Avalanche coming? “…people need to have ‘an ability to fail, an ability to have ideas, to sell those ideas, to execute on those ideas, and to be persistent so that even as you fail you learn and move onto the next adventure. ” Barber, M., Donnelly, K. & Rizvi, S. (2013) AN AVALANCHE IS COMING: Higher education and the revolution ahead. London: Institute for Public Policy Research p65

46 Is an Avalanche coming? “The other implication for entrepreneurs is the need to reflect on education research and best practices that are already apparent and identified. They don’t have to ground their thinking in traditionalism – in fact the most innovative solutions might come from defying conventions altogether.” Barber, M., Donnelly, K. & Rizvi, S. (2013) AN AVALANCHE IS COMING: Higher education and the revolution ahead. London: Institute for Public Policy Research p65

47 Summary of findings Predictable / Orthodox teaching and learning habits are ineffective in preparing university graduates for our post- millennial society, where supply and demand is neither linear nor stable, where new combinations of ‘creative’ skills and abilities are increasingly in demand. McWilliam, E. (2008), ‘Unlearning how to teach’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45 (3), 263–9.

48 Overall conclusion “Leadership that understands these imperatives is critical to successful innovation” Patterson, F. and M. Kerrin (2009), Innovation for the Recovery: Enhancing Innovative Working Practices, London: CMI/National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts.

49 With reference to:

50 2011 Reunion of my very first students

51 The Flexible Adaptable Workforce: Challenges, Brain Work, and Opportunities


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