2Objectives Explain entrepreneurship and discuss its importance. Discuss the three main reasons that people decide to become entrepreneurs.Identify four main characteristics of successful entrepreneurs.Explain the five common myths regarding entrepreneurship.Explain how entrepreneurial firms differ from salary-substitute and lifestyle firms.
3Cont; ObjectivesIdentify ways in which large firms benefit from the presence of smaller entrepreneurial firms.Explain the entrepreneurial process.
4What is Entrepreneurship? Origin of the Word “Entrepreneur”The word was originally used to describe people who “take on the risk” between buyers and sellers or “undertake” a task such as starting a new venture.The “undertake” interpretation of the word has been central to its usage in English.An entrepreneur puts together all the resources needed; the money, the people, the strategy, and the risk-bearing ability to transform the invention into a viable business.
5What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurship DefinedEntrepreneurship is the process by which individuals pursue opportunities without regard to the resources they currently control.The essence of entrepreneurial behavior is identifying opportunities and putting useful ideas into practice.The set of tasks called for by this behaviour can be accomplished by either an individual or a group and typically requires creativity, drive, and a willingness to take risks.
6What is Entrepreneurship? A person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to exploit those opportunities in other to satisfy need.Peter Drucker ( ) described the entrepreneur as someone who actually searches for change, responds to it, and exploits change as an opportunity to satisfy need and to make profit .
7What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurship is an innovative process where a prospective individual identifies and seizes opportunity , organises resources to convert those opportunities into workable/marketable products of services for the benefit of society and personal rewards.The reward may or may not be monetary. Examples of such rewards are money, social status, recognition and personal satisfaction
8Corporate Entrepreneurship Corporate Entrepreneurship Is the conceptualization of entrepreneurship at the firm level. All firms fall along a conceptual continuum that ranges from highly conservative to highly entrepreneurial. The position of a firm on this continuum is referred to as its entrepreneurial intensity.
9Corporate Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial FirmsConservative FirmsProactiveInnovativeRisk takingTake a more “wait and see”postureLess innovativeRisk adverse
10Why Become an Entrepreneur? There are three primary reasons that people become entrepreneurs and start their own firmsDesire to be their own bossDesire to pursue theirown ideasFinancial rewards
11Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs Four Primary Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
12Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs Tenacity Despite FailureA defining characteristic for successful entrepreneurs is their ability to persevere through setbacks and failures.Execution IntelligenceThe ability to fashion a solid business idea into a viable business is a key characteristic of successful entrepreneurs.The ability to translate thought, creativity, and imagination into action and measurable results is the essence of execution intelligence.
13Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs (2 of 3) Passion for the BusinessThe number one characteristic shared by successful entrepreneurs is a passion for the business.This passion typically stems from the entrepreneur’s belief that the business will positively impact people’s lives.Product/Customer FocusAnother defining characteristic of successful entrepreneurs is a product/customer focus.An entrepreneur’s keen focus on products and customers typically stems from the fact that most entrepreneurs are, at heart, craftspeople.
14Common Myths About Entrepreneurs Myth 1: Entrepreneurs Are Born Not MadeThis myth is based on the mistaken belief that some people are genetically predisposed to be entrepreneurs.The consensus of many studies is that no one is “born” to be an entrepreneur; everyone has the potential to become one.Whether someone does or doesn’t become an entrepreneur is a function of the environment, life experiences, and personal choices.
15Common Myths About Entrepreneurs (2 of 5) Although no one is “born” to be an entrepreneur, there are common personality traits and characteristics of successful entrepreneursAchievement motivatedAlert to opportunitiesCreativeDecisiveEnergeticHas a strong work ethicIs a moderate risk takerLengthy attention spanOptimistic dispositionPersuasivePromoterResource assemblerSelf-confidentTenaciousTolerant of ambiguityVisionary
16Common Myths About Entrepreneurs Myth 2: Entrepreneurs Are GamblersA second myth about entrepreneurs is that they are gamblers and take big risks. The truth is, most entrepreneurs are moderate risk takers.The idea that entrepreneurs are gamblers originates from two sources:Entrepreneurs typically have jobs that are less structured, and so they face a more uncertain set of possibilities than people in traditional jobs.Many entrepreneurs have a strong need to achieve and set challenging goals, a behavior that is often equated with risk taking.
17Common Myths About Entrepreneurs Myth 3: Entrepreneurs Are Motivated Primarily by MoneyWhile it is naive to think that entrepreneurs don’t seek financial rewards, money is rarely the reason entrepreneurs start new firms.In fact, some entrepreneurs warn that the pursuit of money can be distracting.The need to impact society positively could be the main driving force to entrepreneurship
18Common Myths About Entrepreneurs Myth 4: Entrepreneurs Should Be Young And EnergeticThe most vibrant age range for early stage entrepreneurial activity is 25 to 34 years old.While it is important to be energetic, investors often cite the strength of the entrepreneur as their most important criteria in making investment decisions.What makes an entrepreneur “strong” in the eyes of an investor is experience, maturity, a solid reputation, and a track record of success.These criteria often favor older rather than younger entrepreneurs.
20Economic Impact of Entrepreneurial Firms InnovationIs the process of creating something new, which is central to the entrepreneurial process.Small entrepreneurial firms are responsible for 55% of all innovations in the U.S.Job CreationIn the past two decades, economic activity has moved in the direction of smaller entrepreneurial firms, which may be due to their unique ability to innovate and focus on specialized tasks.
21Economic Impact of Entrepreneurial Firms GlobalizationToday, over 90% of Ghana. exporters are small businessesExport markets are vital to the U.S. economy and provide outlets for the sale of U.S. produced products and services.
22Entrepreneurial Firms’ Impact on Society and Larger Firms The innovations of entrepreneurial firms have a dramatic impact on society.Think of all the new products and services that make our lives easier, enhance our productivity at work, improve our health, and entertain us in new ways.Impact on Larger FirmsMany entrepreneurial firms have built their entire business models around producing products and services that help larger firms become more efficient and effective.
23The Entrepreneurial Process The Entrepreneurial Process Consists of Four StepsStep 1: Decision to become an entrepreneurStep 2: Developing successful business ideasStep 3: Moving from an idea to an entrepreneurial firmStep 4: Managing and growing an entrepreneurial firm
24Evolution of entrepreneurship in Ghana Entrepreneurship began before the arrival of the EuropeansEuropeans were also entrepreneurs as they risked resources to identify trading opportunities in GhanaPost independence witnessed the introduction of a mixed economy in GhanaNkrumah’s Government encouraged private enterpriseThe NLC government also supported local entrepreneurs when it published in 1968, ‘The Promotion of Ghanaian Business Enterprise’Busia’s government was the first to extensively draw up policies and establish bodies to aid entrepreneurs
25Evolution of entrepreneurship in Ghana cont’d Rawlings Government introduced ERP and SAPKufuor’s government was dedicated to making the private sector the engine of growth of the economy.Mills Government ‘better Ghana agenda’ aim to provide various incentive schemes to ease credit delivery to entrepreneurs, to establish export trade houses, and develop an incubation policy.
26Role of entrepreneurship in a country’s economic development Creates jobsDrives economic growthFrees up states resourcesFosters competitionFosters innovationIncreases productivityProvides a tax base for government
28Challenges facing Ghanaian Entrepreneurs Access to financeLow incomes and corresponding low savings cultureLittle initiative by banks to be creativeHuman CapitalUnfriendly government machineryPolitical and economic instabilityAccess to information