1 WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS, POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. AKPANOBONG, UYAI EMMANUEL& USORO ENOBONG BURMADEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONFACULTY OF EDUCATIONUNIVERSITY OF UYOAKWA IBOM STATE - NIGERIA
2 OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS CONCLUSION Who is a Woman Entrepreneur?The contributions of Women Entrepreneur in Poverty AlleviationFactors militating against Women Entrepreneur and sustainable developmentMETHODOLOGYData Analysis & Result – Research Question 1Data Analysis & Result - Question 2Hypothesis 1Hypothesis 2DISCUSSION OF FINDINGSCONCLUSIONRECOMMENDATIONS
3 BACKGROUNDThe Nigerian women entrepreneurs are unique in their contributions towards poverty alleviation and sustainable development of the country, given their central roles both at home and the national economy.
4 INTRODUCTIONWho is a Woman Entrepreneur?A woman entrepreneur is defined as “the female head of a business who has taken the initiative of launching a new venture, who is accepting the associated risks and the financial, administrative and social responsibilities, and who is effectively in-charge of its day-to day management” (Lavoie, 2005:17). She is an owner-manager of a business concern.
5 The Contributions of Women Entrepreneur in Poverty Alleviation 1 What are the contributions of women entrepreneurs to poverty alleviation and sustainable national development?Improve Family incomeImprove standard of livingImprove family healthImprove nutritionMore employment opportunityIncreased Gross Domestic ProductsAvailability of more goods and servicesIncrease in internally generated revenueHigh level of patriotismDecrease in unemployment
6 Poor finances, start – up capital Low career entry expectations 2 What are the factors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in NigeriaPoor finances, start – up capitalLow career entry expectationsLack of entrepreneurial experiencePoor educationLegal problemsPoor motivationHousehold choresHigh level of competitionRelations with clients and employeesMarketing problems
7 METHODOLOGYThe population consisted of 1120 women entrepreneurs in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.The stratified random sampling technique was used based on the six states in the region.A sample of 120 (67 experienced and 53 inexperienced) women entrepreneurs were used in the study.Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the variables in the study.Mean was used to answer the research questions and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level, using t-test analysis.Data collection was done with the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Women Entrepreneurs and National Development” (WEND).The instrument was duly validated and pilot-tested with a reliability coefficient of 0.73.
8 Data Analysis & Result – Research Question 1 Table 1:Weighted Means and Ranking of the Contributions of Women Entrepreneursto Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Nigeria.S/NContributions of women entrepreneurs to poverty alleviation and sustainable national developmentExperienced women entrepreneursInexperienced women entrepreneursMeansRanking1.Improved family income3.72nd3.62.Improved standard of living3rd3.53.Improved family health4th3.44.Improved family nutrition3.26th5.More employment opportunities3.17th6.Increased Gross Domestic product2.78th2.97.Availability of more goods and services3.81st8.Increased in internally generated revenue2.69th9.High level of patriotism2.410th10.Decrease in unemployment3.35thCut off point = 2.5
9 Table 1 cont.Table one indicates agreement between the experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs in their ranking of the contributions of women entrepreneurs to poverty alleviation and sustainable development of Nigeria.Availability of more goods and services ranked first by both followed by:Improved family income,Improved standard of living,High level of patriotism is ranked last by the two groups of respondents with weighted means of 2.4.
10 Experienced women entrepreneurs Inexperienced women entrepreneurs Research Question 2Table 2:Weighted means and ranking of factors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in NigeriaS/NFactors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in NigeriaExperienced women entrepreneursInexperienced women entrepreneursMeansRanking1.Poor finance/start-up capital3.91st3.82.Low career entry expectation3.72nd3.Lack of entrepreneurial experience3.36th3.24.Poor education2.87th2.68th5.Legal problems3.63rd356.Poor motivation3.45th7.Household chores8.High level of competition3.54th9.Relations with clients and employees2.210th2.110.Marketing problems2.39th2.4Cut off point = 2.5
11 Table 2 cont.The respondents in table two generally agree in their ranking of the factors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in Nigeriapoor finance/start-up capital is ranked first by both respondents followed byLow career entry expectation,Legal problems,High level of competition and lastlyRelations with clients and employees.
12 Table 3:Weighted means and t-test of the responses of experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs regarding their contributions to poverty alleviation and sustainable national developmentS/NContributions of women entrepreneurs to poverty alleviation and sustainable national developmentMeanst-valueRemarksExpe-riencedInexpe-rienced1.Improved family income184.108.40.206NS2.Improved standard of living3.51.523.Improved family health3.41.014.Improved family nutrition3.21.045.More employment opportunities3.11.066.Increased Gross Domestic product220.127.116.11.Availability of more goods and services3.80.948.Increased in internally generated revenue2.61.669.High level of patriotism2.41.4710.Decrease in unemployment3.31.32N1 = 67; N2 = 53; df = 118; t-cri = 1.96; Average t-cal = 1.21; S = Significant; NS = Not Significant
13 Table 3 cont.Indicates no significant difference in the mean responses of the women entrepreneurs in all their identified contributions to poverty alleviation and sustainable development of Nigeria, with t-values less than the critical t-values of 1.96.The null hypothesis was therefore retained.
14 Table 4:Weighted mean and t-test of the responses of experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs regarding factors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in NigeriaS/NFactors militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in NigeriaMeanst-valueRemarksExperiencedInexpe-rienced1.Poor finance/start-up capital18.104.22.168NS2.Low career entry expectation3.71.013.Lack of entrepreneurial experience22.214.171.124.Poor education126.96.36.199.Legal problems3.6351.066.Poor motivation3.41.037.Household chores1.198.High level of competition3.59.Relations with clients and employees188.8.131.5210.Marketing problems184.108.40.206N1 = 67; N2 = 53; df = 118; t-cri = 1.96; Average t-cal = 1.19; S = Significant; NS = Not Significant
15 Table 4 cont.Table four shows no significant difference in the mean responses of the experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs regarding problems militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in Nigeria.The t-values in all the identified items were less than the critical t-values leading to the retention of the null hypothesis.
16 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Data analysis in hypothesis one indicated no significant difference in the mean responses of both the experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs regarding their contributions to poverty alleviation and sustainable development of Nigeria. The calculated t-values in all the identified contributions were less than the critical t-value of This led to the retention of the null hypothesis.This implies that Nigerian women entrepreneurs contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and sustainable national development.This finding is confirmed in research question one with the mean values of the groups being above the cut-off point of 2.5.The finding is supported by the works of other researchers. (Adeyemi & Birley 2009) who jointly agreed that Nigerian women are:EnthusiasticHardworkingAnd contribute meaningfully to sustainable national development
17 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS – cont. The analysis in hypothesis two revealed no significant difference in the mean responses of both the experienced and inexperienced women entrepreneurs regarding the problems faced by women entrepreneurs in Nigeria. The calculated t-values in all the identified contributions were less than the critical t-value of This led to the retention of the null hypothesis.This implies that Nigerian women entrepreneurs are confronted with series of problems militating against their entrepreneurial success. This finding is confirmed in research question two with the mean values of the two groups of respondent being above the cut-off point of 2.5.The finding is in line with Leo-Gosselin and Grise (2000). The scholars discovered the problems facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria to includelack of confidence by banksMarketing problem with associates and clients.As observed by McGrath (2007), women have more difficulties in getting loans, hence have to finance their businesses with difficulties and prejudice. Besides financial problems, other problems faced by women entrepreneurs in Nigeria includepoor education,family problems andlack of business experience - (Thompson, 2007).These tend to slow down the rate of their entrepreneurial success and contributions to national development.
18 CONCLUSIONWomen entrepreneurs contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and sustainable development of Nigeria by creating employment and contributing to household and national income.Also a number of problems are encountered by Nigerian women entrepreneur. These include :Poor finance,Low career entryEntry expectationPoor educationLack of entrepreneurial experiencePoor motivationHigh level of competition andFamily problems.
19 RECOMMENDATIONSMore Nigerian women should be encouraged to undertake entrepreneurial activities.They should be motivated through appropriate legislations, incentives and empowerment.Nigerian women who have identified themselves in entrepreneurship should be given recognition and honoured in order to encourage others.Appropriate legislations should be made to safeguard and protect women entrepreneurs in the country.Problems militating against the success of women entrepreneurs in Nigeria should be given adequate attention with a view to reducing such problems.Financial institutions should be made to develop confidence in women entrepreneurs and attend to their needs for credit facilities.