ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship consists in: starting up new companies (start-up entrepreneurship) carrying out new strategic initiatives within existing business (corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship). Entrepreneurship represents the essential lever to cope with the new global « hypercompetitive » landscape : CHANGE COMPLEXITY INCREASED RISK DECREASED ABILITY TO FORECAST THE FUTURE
ENTREPRENEURIAL CAREER CHOICE: DETERMINANT FACTORS In your country, which one of these factors is the top priority of your Chamber’s entrepreneurial policies and activities? Which other should also be improved?
WHAT IS ENTREPRENEURSHIP? Economists tend to agree that entrepreneurs, associated with innovation, are the driving forces of economical development; Psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists underline the entrepreneur’s personal characteristics of creativity, risk-taking, need for achievement, internal locus of control; Operations management specialists see entrepreneurs as good distributors and coordinators of resources; Finance specialists define entrepreneurs as people able to evaluate and calculate financial risks; Management specialists think that entrepreneurs develop visions to organize their activities and excel at organizing people and using resources; Marketing specialists define entrepreneurs as people who identify opportunities, differentiate themselves and adopt customer-oriented thinking.
ENTREPRENEURS VS MANAGERS High Inventor Entrepreneur Promoter Manager, administrator Creativity and Innovation General management skills, business know-how, networks High Low (cf. BIRLEY, S. MacMILLAN, I.C., 1997) FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO WANT TO EVALUATE THEIR ENTREPRENEURIAL PROFILE: fill in the entrepreneurship scale.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP : EDUCATION, TRAINING & RESEARCH The first course on entrepreneurship was offered at the Harvard Business School in The number of universities & business schools with entrepreneurship courses has increased from fewer than 10 in 1967 to more than 400 today ; the first doctoral graduates in entrepreneurship and small business appeared in the 1980s. More than 1000 publications appear annually in the field of entrepreneurship, related to more than 50 conferences and published in 25 specialized reviews.
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP: POSITIVE IMPACT IN PRACTICE In the search for more and better ways to develop entrepreneurs, the role of education and training is absolutely essential. The entrepreneurship research literature has demonstrated that entrepreneurs with a good entrepreneurial education tend on the whole to be noticeably more successful than those with less entrepreneurial education, and even more successful when entrepreneurial education combines with experience. Nevertheless, consensus is still lacking on what entrepreneurship education training (EET) should consist of.
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN FRANCE The field of entrepreneurship training is very diversified and heterogeneous, depending on teaching objectives, audiences, contents, the teachers’ profile, pedagogical methods and approaches, etc. Entrepreneurship education has spread considerably over the last few years, and is currently in a structural phase. Two recent initiatives clearly illustrate this process: in 1998, the creation of the “Académie de l’Entrepreneuriat”, a French association of entrepreneurship teachers and trainers from the secondary and higher education levels; in 2001, the creation of the “Observatoire des Pratiques Pédagogiques en Entrepreneuriat”, a joint initiative involving three government departments whose primary mission is to identify entrepreneurship teaching and training activities throughout France.
WHY : role of entrepreneurial education & training FOR WHOM: students vs adults (VT), learning styles WHAT: courses’ content WHO SHOULD TEACH IT: - professors / entrepreneurs - profile & competencies HOW: educational approaches - methods and objectives - design of the curriculum TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL RESSOURCES: - books, databases, case studies - human and financial resources EVALUATION’s outcomes - how to measure educational effectiveness? - short term/long term results: what indicators ? TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP: CORE ISSUES
CCIP ADVANCIA Develop Entrepreneurial Potentials (INCUBATOR ; VOCATIONAL TRAINING) Create New Profiles of Entrepreneurs and new contexts for entrepreneurship (MASTER). ESCP- EAP Create New Profiles of Intrapreneurs/ Managers (STEGE). HEC Develop the skills of established entrepreneurs (CESA) Develop Family Business (CESA) Develop Start-ups (Challenge +). TECOMAHESCF Transfer Skills to develop new enterprises and help new entrepreneurs establish their business. CCIP AND TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP : GROUP DISCUSSION What kind of entrepreneurship education and training programs do already exist or will be developed in the near future by your Chamber?
ADVANCIA – « MAISON DE L’ENTREPRENEURIAT» THE PARIS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY, the larger Chamber of Commerce in France, launched Advancia (december the 1st, 2004). MAIN PURPOSE: to build an important educational institution entirely dedicated to business’ start-up and take-over. POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL AND REGIONAL CONTEXT: to help attain the goal of creating 1 million new French entreprises in the next 5 years; to develop the entrepreneurial spirit, skills and motivation. PROJECT ORIGINALITY: unique pedagogical offer, incubator (30 new projects/year), research centre on entrepreneurship (pluridisciplinary studies - entrepreneurial management and intrapreneurship, entrepreneurial humanities), an international summer school for young entrepreneurs (july 2005).
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP – TWO COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES PROCESS MANAGEMENT Rationalization & improvement of risk-taking and decision-making strategies COMPETENCE MANAGEMENT Motivation enhancement & development of entrepreneurial competences Operational project management plan (action planification and monitoring) Competences acquisition and development plan (self-evaluation, co- evaluation, hetero-evaluation) pedagogical design of ADVANCIA - CCIP
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANCIA – CCIP (1) ADVANCIA’s entrepreneurial training program key objectives: the acquisition of a transversal business vision and experience the development and management of the entrepreneurial spirit and creativity 1. Entrepreneur (start-up or take-over of an enterprise) 2. «Intrapreneur» or an entrepreneurial manager 3. Promoter of entrepreneurial culture and/or politics (policy maker, researcher, lobbyist) In order to become PEDAGOGICAL DESIGN – action-oriented curriculum CAREER OPPORTUNITIES – 3 profiles
CONTINUED EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION GRADUATE EDUCATION Incubator Seminars and Training Programmes 3-6 months sessions 2-15 days sessions Certificate and diploma courses Management Studies Entrepreneurial Studies Finance Master in Entrepreneurial Studies Fundamentals and Entrepreneurial Humanities (1st year) Designing one’s own Entrepreneurial Profile TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANCIA – CCIP (2)
List of entrepreneurial competences + List of entrepreneurial specific knowledge (‘référentiel’) Consultation of academics Survey about needs in entrepreneurial trainings sent to professionals Consultation of entrepreneurs Graduate Education: Master in Entrepreneurship Courses and optionsTraining in project management Internships: 1.As an intrapreneur/promoter of entrepreneurial culture + politics 2.As an entrepreneur Actors of the programme: Teachers, Private coaches, Professionals coaches from the CCIP, Enterprises, Associations, Administrations THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER IN ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES
TRAINING FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANCIA – CCIP (3) THE MASTER IN ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES PROGRAM’s originality: to develop general managerial competences and to encourage a diversity of entrepreneurial profiles (variety of students’ social and educational backgrounds and entrepreneurial projects). to improve and manage personal and group creativity (critical thinking, creativity techniques, team building, etc.).
ADVANCIA’S MASTER IN ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES: THE LIST OF COMPETENCES Entrepreneurship is more than just starting and managing a business. the ability to create and build something new (an organization, an association, a network, a business, etc.) the ability to identify and evaluate an opportunity the ability to build a founding team the know-how to find and control resources (often owned by others) the willingness to take calculated risks, both personal and financial, in order to succeed. PLEASE TAKE A LOOK AT THE COMPETENCE LIST OF ADVANCIA’S MASTER AND THINK OF YOUR OWN NATIONAL CONTEXT: Which one of these competences do you regard as the most / the least important? What other competences would you add to that list in order to adjust our program to your own country’s needs?
ADVANCIA’S MASTER IN ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES: THE COURSE LIST PLEASE TAKE A LOOK AT THE COURSE LIST OF ADVANCIA’S MASTER AND THINK OF YOUR OWN NATIONAL CONTEXT: what other courses would you add to that list in order to adjust our program to your own country’s needs (TARGET: lobbyist profile)? Which one of these courses would you remove from the list? COMPETENCES’ ACQUISITION (focus on reflection) COMPETENCES’ DEVELOPMENT (focus on action) COURSES: FUNDAMENTALS & OPTIONS (management, entrepreneurial humanities) PROJECT MANAGEMENT, INTERNSHIPS, INCUBATOR
ADVANCIA’S INCUBATOR: A BUSINESS CULTURE & ENVIRONMENT (1) COACHING SESSIONS – ENTREPRENEURS’ INTERVENTIONS (creativity, personal development) TEAMWORK (project management) EXPERT CONFERENCES – TEACHERS & EXTERNAL GUESTS (financial issues, law, national & international regulation systems, communication strategies, networking, etc.) ALUMNI : sponsoring & networking for new entrants. 30 projects each year (3-6 months).
ADVANCIA’S INCUBATOR: A BUSINESS CULTURE & ENVIRONMENT (2) PARTNERS: CCIP and the TOWN COUNCIL of PARIS Main criterium for project selection: the potential impact on the economical development of the region (project’s originality and job creation potential) BUSINESS NURSERY CCIP business nursery: Paris Solleillet Business start-up and development International development counselling Information and training services AFTER THE INCUBATOR
« THE IDEAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM » - TEAMWORK In teams of 3 or 4 members, choose one of the Advancia’s two programs for entrepreneurship training (the Master in Entrepreneurial Studies or the Incubator) ; take it as a reference point and try to adapt it to your country’s business and political environment, as well as to your students’ potential expectations. Write down a list of potential expectations of students in your country who might attend an entrepreneurial training program. Design an alternative entrepreneurial training program for a target from your country (students/adults/unemployed people) : brainstorming session (« the ideal entrepreneurship program »). Share with us your entrepreneurship training ideas (brainstorming’s results).
CONCLUDING REFLECTION Key interrogation: to what extent can any form of education enhance the entrepreneurial competences?