Presentation on theme: "THEORIES & CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP"— Presentation transcript:
1THEORIES & CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Assoc. Prof. Dr Nawawi B Mohd JanDato’ Dr. Adnan Alias
2THEORIES & CONCEPTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Session ObjectivesAt the end of the session, students should be able to:understand the various theories and concepts on entrepreneurshiphave a deeper understanding of the discipline of entrepreneurship
3THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY Definition of an Entrepreneur :“ An entrepreneur is a person who undertakes to do a job ” Richard Cantillon (1755). The term entrepreneur is a French word first coined by Richard Cantillon.In Malaysia the term “usahawan” is used for entrepreneur.
4THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY Definition of Entrepreneurship:Entrepreneurship involves not only the process that leads to the setting up of a business entity but also the expansion and development of an on going concern.The study of entrepreneurship is concerned with the entrepreneurial behavior, the dynamics of business set up and expansion and development.
5THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY Adam Smith (1776) - An entrepreneur is a person who acts as agent in transforming demand into supply.Jean Babtiste Say (1803) - An entrepreneur is a person who shifts resources from an area of low productivity to high productivity.
6THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY John Stuart Mill (1848) - An entrepreneur is a prime mover in the private enterprise.The entrepreneur is the fourth factor of production after land ,labor and capital.Carl Menger (1871) - The entrepreneur acts as an economic agent who transforms resources into products and services.The entrepreneur transforms and gives added value.
7THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY Joseph Aloysius Schumpeter (1934) - An entrepreneur is an innovator. The economy moves through leaps and bounds and the prime mover is the entrepreneur through the process of creative destruction.Alfred Marshall (1936) - The process of entrepreneurship or business development is incremental or evolutionary . It evolves from sole proprietorship to a public company.
8THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY Ibnu Khaldun (Abdul Rahman Mohamed Khaldun) - The entrepreneur is seen as a knowledgeable individual and is instrumental in the development of a city-state where enterprise will emerge.David McClelland - The entrepreneur is a person with a high need for achievement. This need for achievement is directly related to the process of entrepreneurship.
9DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP It is more than mere creation of businessEntrepreneurship is a process of innovation and new venture creation through four major dimensions – individual, organizational, environmental and process.The entrepreneurship process is aided by collaborative networks in government, education and institutions.
10DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURS Functional definition of entrepreneurs offers the following definition:Entrepreneurs are individuals who actively form or lead their own business and nurture them for growth and prosperity.
11THE IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO MALAYSIAN ECONOMY Entreprenuership is the symbol of business steadfastness and achievement. Entrepreneurial revolution is critical to economic growth. Entrepreneurship may affect our future in many ways:Innovative creation of opportunityExample: Portable phones linked to faxes and laptop will turns cars, train, and airport terminal into offices.
12THE IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO MALAYSIAN ECONOMY Entrepreneurship not only affect our lives through innovation but represent the working future for many of us due to lays off by large organization and shrinking of job opportunities for graduates.e. Entrepreneurship is synonymous to creation of new venture and small businesses. SMIs have been important contributors to local economic growth.
13THE IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO MALAYSIAN ECONOMY f. The entrepreneurial SMIs provide services that the large corporation has neglected or lack of economy of scale for the large corporation to serve.g. Contribution of SMIs to Malaysian Economy -In Malaysia the SMIs employed 90% of the total labor force in manufacturing sector and contributed to about 26% of total value added in the sector.THE IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO MALAYSIAN ECONOMY
14ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOCUS ON EIGHT PRINCIPLES OF THOUGHTS :-Entrepreneurship is an integral parts of Islamic religion.By virtue of human nature , the Moslem entrepreneurs are ‘khalifah’ and have the reponsibilities develop prosperity and sees business as part of ibadah or good deed.Motivation – success in Islam is not merely measured by the end result but also the way and means of achieving them.Ibadah – business activity is part of ibadah or “good deed”
15ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP Position of Entrepreneurship and business in Islam – Islam encouraged its ummah to venture into business . Prophet Muhammad S.A.W expounded that 9 out 10 source of rizque (reski) can be found in business.Islamic Economic System - Islamic Entrepreneurship should operate within the domain of Islamic Economic system and act as the vehicle towards global acceptance of Islamic Economic System.
16ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP Guiding Principles of Islamic Entrepreneurship is by the al-Quran and al-HadithEntrepreneurial Ethics based on exemplary conducts of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W
17ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS AS INTEGRAL PART OF THE RELIGION Islam is a complete way of life. There is no separation between business and religion. Islam has its own entrepreneurship culture and guiding principles based on the Al-Quran and Hadith to guide business operation .
18HUMAN NATURE (The fitrah of human being) By virtue of the human nature, the person must firstly be a Muslim, then an entrepreneur. He has the responsibility to perform ‘ibadah’ and be a ‘khalifah’. Muslim entrepreneur should search for God’s blessings above all other factors. A Muslim entrepreneur perform business not solely for profit, but above all, to fulfill the ‘fardhu kifayah’.
19MOTIVATIONMost entrepreneurs have the desire to achieve successful business venture.The successful path and means for achieving success for Muslim entrepreneurs are unique.Success in Islam is not merely measured by the end result, but also the means and ways of achieving them.
20SUCCESS FORMULA BY AL-QURTUBI Halal – livelihood that are in accordance to what is being outlined by Allah SWT and syariah.Qanaah – be pleased and thankful with one’s earningTaufiq - Asking for the blessing of Allah in proportion to one’s expectationSa’adah- Spiritual happinessJannah – Worldly success should act as the bridge to the ultimate success in the life hereafter (paradise).
21SEVEN STEPS TOWARDS A SUCCESS IN LIFE ACCORDING TO IMAM AL-GHAZALI Level of KnowledgeLevel of Taubat or repentenceLevel of TemptationLevel of ObstaclesLevel of MotivationLevel of HandicapLevel of Praise and Thankfulness
22POSSESSION OF WEALTH IS ALLOWED BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES:- Allah s.w.t is the absolute owner of wealthAllah created wealth in abundance and sufficient for allWealth is created for mankindWealth is entrusted to mankind
23IBADAHIn Islam, involving in business is part of ibadah through the fulfilment of fardhu kifayah.
24POSITION OF BUSINESS AND ENTREPRENEUR ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP MODELIslam Proposed(Business Venture)EXAMPLEXAMPLAllah Prepared(Facilities)Islam Outlined(Rules and Regulation)Allah Promised(Reward)
25ISLAMIC ECONOMIC SYSTEM Islamic Entrepreneurship should be in the framework of Islamic Economic System and should assist in establishing the Islamic Economic System
26GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP Guidelines for Islamic Entrepreneurship and business activities are wide and comprehensive based on Al-Quran and Al-Hadith.
27MUSLIM ENTREPRENEURSHIP ETHICS To prevent lazinessTo eradicate fearTo search for legitimate venturesTo avoid forbidden sources of income and propertyTo show gratitude and thankfulness of whatever has been acquiredTo grow and develop capital and profitTo diversify business venturesTo avoid greediness
28THE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR OF MUSLIM ENTREPRENEURSHIP To avoid malicious behaviorTo avoid squanderingTo avoid stinginessTo pay alms (zakat)TrustworthyTo pray consistentlyTawakkalPatienceQana’ah
29Business is secondary when being called for other form of crusade EXEMPLARY CONDUCTS OF GOOD MUSLIM ENTREPRENEURS DURING THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.W REIGNBusiness is secondary when being called for other form of crusadeAvoid using influence for self interestAfraid of accumulated wealthLeadership qualities in all aspectsPractice moderate way of life