Presentation on theme: "Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science1 Entrepreneurship and Business Management Mega Bucks Workshop Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur."— Presentation transcript:
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science1 Entrepreneurship and Business Management Mega Bucks Workshop Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science2 What is Entrepreneurship? Capacity to take risks Ability to own and organize Desire and capability to innovate and diversify (Stepanek, 1962)
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science3 Who is an entrepreneur? Person conducting own business (Webster) Person who sets up business deals in order to make profits (Collins Cobuild) Organizer of an economic venture, one who owns, organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of the business (Chandrashekhar)
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science4 Why entrepreneurship? Process of creating something different, with value, by devoting necessary time and effort, by assuming the accompanying financial, psychological, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction (Bowen and Hisrich, 1986).
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science5 Role of the Entrepreneur An innovator who combines technical innovations and financial finesses. Important role in producing competitive products, processes, and services. Generation of new employment Local and regional economic development Improved allocation of resources and transfer of technologies
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science6 Entrepreneur as an Economic Pioneer Introduction of new goods and products Introduction of new processes and methods of production Opening up of new markets Opening up of new sources of supply Industrial re-organization
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science7 Strategic Importance of the Small-Scale Sector Significant contributions to national income, employment, and export earnings Value of output over Rs. 5,70,000 crores Employment of over 17.5 million (> twice the private sector; almost as much as all public sector employment) Exports of over Rs. 54,000 crores (> 35 per cent of all exports) (2000-01 figures)
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science8 Entrepreneurship and Small Businesses Entrepreneurship is especially critical in small businesses because: Important sources of competition for large firms; challenge their economic power Offer a wide range of choice to consumers Sources of innovation and creativity Good career opportunities to work in an unstructured environment of a small company
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science9 Marketing Management Demand variables: Demographic, social, economic, political, and competitive factors in market environment Psychological, social, and economic patterns in customer motivations All autonomous factors
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science10 Marketing Management Semi-demand variables: Market segmentation Customer behavior Only partially under the control of the entrepreneur
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science11 Marketing Management Decision Variables: Product characteristics and pricing Distribution and personal selling Advertising policies Mostly under the control of the entrepreneur
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science12 Marketing Management The essential entrepreneurial function in marketing management is to design an integrated marketing plan, where the demand and semi-demand variables of the market are related to the product and decision variables of the firm.
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science13 Market Research Marketing success depends on design of a distinctive marketing plan A small entrepreneur should not try to compete on a product-to-product basis with large firms (same goods to same customers thru same channels at same prices !!) Instead, try to do “something different”.
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science14 Operations Management Process of designing and utilizing the physical resources of the firm to maximize the operational capabilities of the company Product/ service design Process design Job design Job standards
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science15 Operations Management The entrepreneur’s smaller firm generally has to provide specialized, few-of-a-kind products and personalized services, without the benefits of mass production and mass distribution
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science16 Financial Management 1. Effective utilization of the assets- current(short-term) and capital (long-term) 2. Provision of funds to support those assets 3. Use of current liabilities, intermediate loans, and capital debt or equity 4. Difficult for smaller companies to compete, in finance, with larger firms, simply because they lack money.
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science17 Financial Management Finances needed for: 1. New investments in product development 2. Expansion of markets 3. Process improvements, etc. Conserve available funds by preparing detailed financial plans, e.g. cash budgets, capital investment analysis, short-term plans
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science18 Financial Management Finding additional funds from sources as 1. Current liabilities 2. Bank loans 3. Equity investments 4. Retained earnings 5. Venture capital proposals 6. Angel funding proposals
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science19 Product Development Improvements in design of existing product Inventions of new products Lack resources for full R&D facility Must use available capabilities efficiently Outsourcing of R&D and innovation Technical feasibility, market feasibility, development time and cost, manufacturing capability, and strategic fit
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science20 Organizational Management and Control Smaller companies go thru identifiable stages of growth Increased specializations in tasks of staff Increased delegation on part of founder Increased systematization and formalization of information reporting and accounting procedures
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science21 Formation and Growth Formal and legal procedures of formation- memoranda and articles of association Sole proprietorship Partnership Private limited Public listing Cooperative
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science22 Formation and Growth Purchase of a small company- identify, screen, evaluate, negotiate, and structure payments Consolidation of a new company- intense conservation of cash, firm limitations on expenses, continual examination of company’s strategy.
Prof Parameshwar P Iyer Indian Institute of Science23 Conclusions Entrepreneurship is a challenging and rewarding profession Need to concentrate on market analysis, financial resources, and technology management Cannot compete directly with the “big guys”, so need to be ingenious and innovative in all entrepreneurial functions