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Handheld Woodworking Power Tools An introduction to in the woodshop.

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1 Handheld Woodworking Power Tools An introduction to in the woodshop

2 Ka-Loon Tung Instructors

3 Overview Nova Labs Tools What is it? What is it used for? Capabilities Anatomy Operation Accessories Safety Techniques References and Resources

4 Nova Labs What is Nova Labs? A non-profit Makerspace What is a Makerspace? (per Wikipedia) A Makerspace is a physical location supporting a collaborative environment and community. A maker's facility usually provides access to community tools and people with a wealth of knowledge. Given access to these resources, community members are able to learn and complete projects, which would otherwise be out of their capability. How is the space funded? Through classes like this, membership dues and donations How do I become a member? Find a subject that interests you and get a member to sponsor you. First Step - Find a Sponsor!

5 Tools Drill/Driver Circular Saw Jig Saw Router Random Orbit Sander

6 Drill Driver

7 So, what is it? a hand tool, power tool, or machine with a rotating cutting tip or reciprocating hammer or chisel, used for making holes. - Google https://www.google.com/search?q=what+is+a+drill

8 What is it used for?

9 Capabilities Spin a bit to drill or drive Drill a hole when using some variant of a cutting bit Drive in fastener when using some variant of a driving bit Useful all around tool for any home owner, renter, maker, etc Stationary counterpart is the drill press Variants include Drill/Driver – 2 speed machine with a clutch Impact Driver – Variant with a hammer that induces additional turning force Hammer Drill – Variant with a hammer that induces additional forward momentum

10 Anatomy Chuck Trigger Power Source ClutchGear selector Direction selector

11 Operation Set the Gear Set the clutch Select your drill bit Insert the appropriate bit in the chuck Position your drill bit and drill through

12 Accessories Must-haves The appropriate drill bit Helpful Hex quick-release bits Neat, but not really required Drilling guide More drill guides

13 Safety Fingers and other body parts Keep hands clear of bits Keep your material secure so that it doesn’t move unexpectedly Start and Stop Position the tool Slowly start the tool Wait until the tool to come to a complete stop Clear out chips and/or debris to prevent overheating

14 Techniques Setup Hold the bit and chuck to use the drill to tighten the chuck jaws Drilling Use an awl to mark the center point for drilling Start slow and gradually speed up the bit Slow down your speed when drilling larger holes Clear chips often to prevent overheating of a bit

15 Techniques Driving Prevent splitting a board by pre-drill a clearance hole that is slightly smaller than the threads of the screw you will be using Back up your holes to prevent blowout Drill a countersink for flat head screws Set the clutch to the lowest speed to avoid stripping the bit Gradually raise the clutch when needed Use a good quality screw Waxing the screw to lubricate the threads if necessary Consider using a handheld screwdriver for delicate work

16 Circular Saw

17 So, what is it? a power saw with a rapidly rotating toothed disk. - Google https://www.google.com/search?q=what+is+a+circular+saw

18 What is it used for?

19 Capabilities Make cuts! Stationary counterpart is the Table Saw Specialty circular saw variant is the track saw Types of cuts Rip cut Crosscut Bevel cut Miter cut Compound cut

20 Anatomy Power Trigger Handle Bevel Adjustment Arbor Lock Depth Adjustment Power Cord Blade Guard Shoe Arbor Lock Front Handle

21 Operation Direction of spin/rotation Types of blades Tooth count Tooth Pattern Depth of cut for the blade Direction to install the blade Carbide into the direction of the cut Use the guard!

22 Accessories Must-haves The right blade Squares Helpful Straight edges Home-made jigs Neat, but not really required After market Rip Guides Specialty clamping straight edges

23 Safety Eyes and ears Safety glasses Ear protection Fingers and other body parts Keep hands clear of blade Keep both hands on handles Unplug for adjustments Start and Stop Start the tool before contacting the material Stop the tool after the guard is fully retracted Maintain control of the tool until it comes to a complete stop

24 Safety Feed Direction Only push the saw forward, don’t back up Keep the saw moving in a straight line Use a guide of some sort Material Support Support your material on both sides of the cut (keeper and off- cut), so that the blade will not get pinched by the material after the cut Secure your material on the keeper side Keep the good face of your work down to prevent splintering Back up your cut with tape and/or sacrificial backer pieces

25 Safety Kickback Kickback occurs when the teeth of blade is unable to slice through the material, and the momentum of the blade pushes it back towards you This can happen for many reasons, such as dull blades, pinched blades, or an improper feed rate

26 Techniques Setup Blade – Follow the circular saw instructions and install the right blade Depth – Set the depth of cut to about 1-2 tooth more than the thickness of your cut Bevel – Set and lock the appropriate bevel angle With a Guide Setup your guide Account for the off-set of your saw (if applicable) Make your cut, keeping the saw tight against the guide or guide tight against your material

27 Techniques Freehand use of a circular saw carries a greater risk. Consider using some sort of guide if possible Mark your line Use two hands -One on the handle + trigger -One on either the front handle or the wide part of the shoe Follow the line slowly with the saw Stop the saw when you complete your cut and/or the blade clears your material Hold the saw stationary until it comes to a complete stop and ensure the blade guard is fully retracted

28 Techniques Plunge-cutting with a circular saw requires you start the blade exposed. Set your depth of cut Pivot the saw off your cut line from the front of the saw Retract the guide and start the saw Pivot your saw down to plunge the saw blade into the material Allow your shoe to make full contact with the material Proceed with your cut Stop the saw when you complete your cut and/or the blade clears your material Hold the saw stationary until it comes to a complete stop and ensure the blade guard is fully retracted

29 Jig Saw

30 So, what is it? a machine saw with a fine blade enabling it to cut curved lines in a sheet of wood, metal, or plastic. - Google

31 What is it used for?

32 Capabilities Make cuts! Hand-held counterpart of the Band Saw Types of cuts Rip cut Crosscut Bevel cut Miter cut Compound cut Curved cuts Cuts in the middle of the material

33 Anatomy

34 Operation Movement of the blade Types of blades – size tooth pattern/count o Different blade type for different materials o Less teeth = faster aggressive cut o More teeth = slower finer cut Speed control o Slow down to prevent overheating

35 Accessories Must-haves The right blade Helpful Home-made jigs Dust Collection Neat, but not really required Squares Straight edges Rip Guides Specialty clamping straight edges

36 Safety Eyes and ears Safety glasses Ear protection Fingers and other body parts Keep hands clear of blade Keep both hands on handles Unplug for adjustments Start and Stop Start the tool before contacting the material Maintain control of the tool until it comes to a complete stop

37 Safety Feed Direction Only push the saw forward, don’t back up Keep the saw moving in a straight line Don’t push the jigsaw too aggressively – let the blade do the work and dictate feed rate Material Support Support your material on both sides of the cut, so that the blade will not get pinched by the material after the cut Secure your material on the keeper side Ensure there is clearance for blade travel below the material

38 Safety Kickback Kickback occurs when the teeth of blade is unable to slice through the material, and the momentum of the blade pushes it back towards you This can happen for many reasons, such as dull blades, pinched blades, or an over-aggressive feed rate

39 Techniques Setup Blade – Follow the jigsaw’s instructions and install the right blade Bevel – Set and lock the appropriate bevel angle Freehand Mark your line Use two hands -One on the handle + trigger -One on either to the front of the handle or on the shoe Follow the line slowly with the saw

40 Techniques With a Guide Setup your guide Account for the off-set of your saw (if applicable) Make your cut, keeping the saw tight against the guide or guide tight against your material Cuts in the middle of the work Mark your cut lines Drill clearance holes so that the blade can enter Insert your jigsaw blade into the hole Start the jigsaw and proceed with your cut

41 Router

42 So, what is it? A router is a motor that spins a bit at an extremely high speed. -Steve Ramsey (Woodworking for Mere Mortals) WWMM

43 What can you do with it?

44 Capabilities Maybe one of the most versatile tools you can own. Out of the box, a handheld router works well for: o Creating edge profiles o Laminate trimming o Free hand - cut profile, sign lettering o Enlarging inner profiles and reducing outer profiles Different bits, jigs and accessories allow more complex work: o Joints - dovetail, mortise and tenon, tongue and groove, dado, rabbet, scarf and others o Sign lettering o Cabinet door panels o Template routing - profiles, drilling shelf pin holes, Inlays o Jointing rough edges o Carving o Surfacing

45 Anatomy Types of routers o Plunge o Fixed Base  Knob  D-Handle o Palm / Laminate Trimmer Variants o RotoZip o Dremel Speeds o Single - usually between 24K and 30K RPM o Variable - ranges vary, as low as 12K and as high as 35K RPM Different size collets - ½”, ¼”, ⅛”

46 Anatomy Parts o Base o Handle o Universal Motor  On/off switch  Speed Control o Collet & Nut o Height Adjustment  Height Lock  Depth Adjuster  Turret on plunge routers o Spindle Lock Variable Speed Control On/Off switch Turret Depth Stop Base Collet and Nut Spindle Lock Depth Stop Adjuster Height Lock Lever on Back

47 Frequently included accessories Wrench Collet shank size adapter Edge Guide Dust Collection Template bushings Anatomy

48 Bits Carbide vs High Speed Steel (HSS) o Hard and durable vs. inexpensive Must-have bits o Straight Bit - ¼”, ½”, ¾” o Roundover - ⅛”, ¼”, ½” o Roman Ogee - ¼ o Flush trim - ½” o Rabbeting - ½” with multiple bearings o Downcut bit - ½” o Upcut bit - ¼” & ½” o Chamfer bit Not all bits are made equal, but most get the job done well enough. Start off with a piece low cost set, preferably with a decent case. Replace frequently used, dull bits with good quality ones.

49 Bits The right bit speed is important o It’s primarily a safety issue: 24K:<1”, 22K:1”, 18K:2” 12K:3.5” o Bits usually have two cutting edges, which means 48K cuts per minute at 24K RPM o High RPMs can burn woods like Cherry and Maple o Slow down a little below maximum to cut down on heat

50 Safety Eyes and ears o Safety glasses - routers throw chips o Ear protection - loud Fingers and other body parts o Keep hands clear of bit when running o Keep both hands on handles o Turn off to make adjustments o Allow to stop before moving router off work piece o Unplug for bit changes

51 Safety Dust o Routers usually produce more chips than dust, but a face mask may be required for some dusty materials like MDF. Speed o Slow down the router speed for bits larger than 1”. Correct cutting direction o Don’t climb-cut with a handheld router.  You could damage your workpiece.  Worse, the router could run away from you.  There are a few caveats, like cutting around corners

52 Accessories Must-have o Height gauge o Straightedge  Doesn’t have to be fancy, just straight Helpful o Router table  Really, it’s just a board with hole in it  Opens up a lot of options o Sub-base  Better control, especially around corners Neat, but not really required o Bench cookies o Expensive Jigs

53 Operation - Setup Inserting bit o Lock spindle o Insert bit to tips of flutes o Don’t insert all the way to bits with larger heads  Pull back out about ⅛”. Setting height o Don’t measure if you don’t have to  Use height gauge, setup block or stock itself  Once dialed in, save a cutoff as a setup block for future setups

54 Operation - Cutting Bit spins clockwise (right hand rule) o Go clockwise on inside profiles o Go counter-clockwise on outside profiles o When using guide, bit should pull router into guide, guide on left of cut Cut end grain first to avoid chipout Keep router base flat on the work surface - gouges Don’t cut too deeply, cut in stages A quick moving, shallow final pass takes off burn marks

55 Operation - Pitfalls Inserting bit too far - bit can slip out of collet Base plate not flat to surface - causes gouges Cutting too much or too deep o Can cause rough cuts, gouges, splintering and control problems o Do multiple passes with one shallow final pass Moving too slowly o Causes burning o You may be moving the router at the right speed, but the bit may be too fast for the wood (cherry, maple and others) Bit speed too fast o Similar issues to moving router too slow Don’t measure more than necessary to avoid most human error

56 Operation - Techniques Edges o Three goals  Keep the bearing against the wood  Keep the router base flat against the surface  Keep moving

57 Operation - Techniques Templates o Collars - cut template larger than final piece o Template bits - cut template exact to size o Needs to be smooth - imperfections with telegraph to work

58 Operation - Techniques Setup Blocks o Can be used to  Set height for certain bits or profiles  Set distance from straight edge for dado or rabbet o Some interlocking bits are very sensitive to height  Glue Joint Bit  Lock-miter bit.

59 Operation - Techniques Freehand drawing or lettering o Best done with smaller/lighter router for better control o Print or draw template and attach to stock with spray adhesive  Spray on paper, wait a minute, then apply o Select the appropriate bit, usually a 60 or 90 degree vee bit o Take it slow and watch your lines

60 Random Orbit Sander

61 So, what is it? also called Dual-Action or D.A. sanders (referring to the rotation of the disk and the head) are hand-held power sanders where the action is a random orbit - Wikipedia

62 What is it used for?

63 Capabilities Power assisted sanding to create scratch patterns Primarily for finish sanding, not for aggressive stock removal Sand with two power assisted actions: Rotation of the disc Orbit of the disc Sanding with two actions creates a scratch pattern that if done right, is not easily visible to the human eye Origins from the from the automotive industry

64 Anatomy

65 Operation Sanding through grits Don’t skip grits, go up ~50% of the previous grit DescriptionGritUse Coarse40 – 60Distressing, heavy stock removal, or initial sanding of rough (unsurfaced) wood Medium80 – 120Initial sanding of flattened or surfaced wood Fine Final sanding grits for most wood surfaces Extra Fine240+Extra fine sanding or polishing of finishes/top coats https://generalfinishes.com/retail-products/finishing-design-center/preparation-sanding

66 Accessories Must-haves Sandpaper Personal safety equipment Helpful Active dust extraction (connected vacuum system) Neat, but not really required Multiple sanders Accessory sanding or polishing pads

67 Safety Eyes, ears, and lungs Safety glasses Ear protection Dust mask or respirator Start and Stop Make sure the material is secured and will not move during the sanding operation Start the tool on the material Stop the tool off the material Maintain control of the tool until it comes to a complete stop

68 Techniques Setup Installing hook and loop sand paper Align the dust extraction holes Connecting dust extraction tools Setting up your speed control Securing your work piece Pencil marks on your work piece Operation Start the sander on the work piece, stop the sander off the work piece Move slowly at a steady pace (~1 inch per second) Keep the sander flat (don’t tilt the sander)

69 References and Resources General About Woodworking - The Wood Whisperer – Low Entertainment Center Series built with handheld power tools o https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8616E2DC65E41C81 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8616E2DC65E41C81 Drill/Driver Articles Popular Woodworking: Screws are Screws – Aren’t They? o Wood Screws: Best Uses for the Best Types o Videos Skil Tools - How to use a cordless drill o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grnoi528kCY Wood Work Web – All About Wood Drill Bits o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L53FQrXOgVE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L53FQrXOgVE

70 References and Resources Circular Saw Videos This Old House – How to choose a circular saw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1APf46AhM4g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1APf46AhM4g This Old House – How to make a Circular Saw Guide o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIeIZdrbz-Y https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIeIZdrbz-Y Howcast – How to use a jigsaw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUyL92r20UA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUyL92r20UA Skil Tools - How to use a circular saw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jU3k5D5n5xo Jon Peters – How to make a “rip fence jig” for a circular saw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwcOKX7PaRg

71 References and Resources Jigsaw Videos Howcast – How to use a jigsaw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUyL92r20UA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUyL92r20UA Skil Tools – How to use a jigsaw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5P38s_Yj_kM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5P38s_Yj_kM Lowes – How to use a jigsaw o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNoNeOswCt8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNoNeOswCt8 Home Addition Plus – Jigsaw and Jigsaw Blades o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQfDlTNyAlE

72 References and Resources Router Informational Sites Router Forums - Router Workshop - Info and TV show DVDs for sale - Videos Woodworking for Mere Mortals o o Router Wood Whisperer o Routers, Parts and Supplies o Rockler - o Woodcraft - local stores in Springfield and Leesburghttp://woodcraft.com o MLCS Woodworking - o Amazon - o Lowes / Home Depot has smaller selection o Might be others, let me know if you find a good resource

73 References and Resources Sanders Articles Fine Woodworking Tool Test – Sanding Disks o Videos Woodworking for Mere Mortals – Sanding for absolute beginning woodworkers o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69hXo44i0Ms https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69hXo44i0Ms Wood Whisperer – Episode 161 Sanding Efficiency o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtkIuWcW3cE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtkIuWcW3cE THISisCarpentry – Swirl-Free Sanding with Larry Smith from Festool o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZZyypf-Qqk Sanding Supplies Home Depot has a selection of Freud/Diablo sandpaper with a universal hole pattern Lowes has a selection of Gator/ShopSmith sandpaper with two different hole patterns (5” x 5 or 5” x 8) Klingspor VD900 sandpaper received the Fine Woodworking award for Best Overall and ValueVD900 sandpaper o https://www.woodworkingshop.com/ https://www.woodworkingshop.com/


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