Presentation on theme: "Current Trends in Long Term Care Regulation, Licensure, and Enforcement Presented by Michael F. Anderson, Esq. and Meredith N. Larson, Esq. Arent Fox LLP."— Presentation transcript:
Current Trends in Long Term Care Regulation, Licensure, and Enforcement Presented by Michael F. Anderson, Esq. and Meredith N. Larson, Esq. Arent Fox LLP Washington, DC | New York, NY | Los Angeles, CA September 12, 2011
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Introduction Trends in Long Term Care Demographic changes How is the industry responding? How do changes affect day-to-day operations? What impact will the recent economic upheaval have on long term care in the future?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Trends in LTC: What is Driving Changes? Changes in Population The U.S is shifting from being predominantly young to predominantly older In 2009, 12.8% of the population was over 65 In 2050, this will be 20.2% 70% of people over the age of 65 will require long term care at some point
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Trends in LTC: What is Driving Changes? Long Term Care and Chronic Disease Increasing prevalence of chronic disease in the general population Half of Americans suffer from at least one chronic disease About a quarter of people with chronic disease have limitations on ADLs
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Trends in Long Term Care: Front-End Issues Legislative and Judicial Trends Current trends in states How judicial trends impact state regulation Federal oversight
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Trends in LTC: Reactions Enforcement and Compliance Trends in enforcement Focus on Compliance
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Trends in LTC: The Economy Economic Uncertainty and LTC Effect on consumers? Effect on providers? Effect on regulators?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE State Legislative Trends Regulating Dementia Units In 2010, Oregon released new requirements for endorsement of Memory Care units in long term care facilities In 2009, Georgia, Iowa, and New Mexico passed new regulations Is increasing regulation of these units a trend?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE State Legislative Trends What do states do now? Some do not regulate HI, DC Some require specific licenses Ex: AL, AZ, MA, MT Almost all require disclosures and training Some only require disclosures or training Some have physical plant requirements Delayed egress A few only regulate physical plant
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE State Legislative Trends Related Trend: Levels of Care Pennsylvania added a new level of care Personal care and assisted living Aging in place Scope of care Some states limit skilled care for AL residents Care by AL vs. care by a third party New: Rhode Island allows 45 days of skilled care in AL
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE State Legislative Trends Other Continuing Trends States continue to add disclosure requirements Fees and how to contest increases (ID) Medicaid policy (WA) State survey to be conspicuously available (SC) Background checks Increased or changed in FL, TX, and WA Life Safety updates CA, CO, FL, TX, OK, OR, TX
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE State Legislative Trends Enforcement Powers Several states have expanded enforcement powers KY has defined new penalties for facilities receiving more than two violations in six months MS has authorized closure of facilities to protect health and safety SC has specified when the most severe penalties to licensure apply
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends Issues in the Courts: Arbitration Agreements What is an arbitration agreement? Most states regulate resident agreements Courts also regulate Facilities can be pulled in different directions
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends Arbitration Agreements: Types of Disputes Three different areas have been litigated When is a binding agreement to arbitrate created? What happens when state and federal law about arbitration agreements conflict? When is an otherwise-valid arbitration agreement not enforceable?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends Arbitration Agreements: Enforceability When can a resident bind him or herself? Gilmore v. Life Care Centers of America (Florida, 2010): a resident with mental capacity issues cannot sign an arbitration agreement When can a family member bind a resident? When the family member has power of attorney? Yes Some courts: when the family member has apparent or implied authority When the family member has power of attorney for health care decisions only? Generally no A health care power of attorney is limited to health care decisions
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends When State and Federal Laws Conflict The Federal Arbitration Act says that arbitration agreements should be generally held to be enforceable Some state laws ban arbitration clauses in nursing home admissions agreements What happens when a facility tries to enforce an arbitration agreement in a state that doesn’t allow them in admission agreements?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends When State and Federal Laws Conflict Courts are divided on whether to enforce state laws Courts in Illinois and Tennessee have held that state laws protect the right to sue in court Another Illinois court has held that federal law applies, as have courts in Mississippi, Georgia, and Alabama
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends Arbitration Agreements: Enforceability Some courts have refused to enforce arbitration agreements on the grounds that they are “unconscionable” or “void as against public policy” WV court: federal, not state, arbitration law applies, but agreement is unenforceable These are rarely used legal doctrines
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Judicial Trends Negotiated Risk Agreements “Panelists agreed that using negotiated risk agreements with residents and their families didn’t mean it was a waiver of liability for all providers. Virtually all the panelists agreed that negotiated risk agreements are not a pressing public issue.”
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Federal Oversight Is federal oversight of assisted living coming? Consumer groups have called for this for a long time In current discussions, linked to Medicaid
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Federal Oversight Home and Community Based Waivers The Affordable Care Act provides incentives to states to increase waiver use CMS has issued regulations that would place certain requirements on AL facilities taking Medicaid Patients must have a lease rather than a residency agreement Requires aging in place Private sleeping, cooking, and bathing Compliance with person-centered plan may not be a condition of lease Problems with oversight?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Federal Oversight The CLASS Act Another part of the ACA Uncertain future: on the budgetary chopping block If it stays, it would be a voluntary LTC insurance program Regulations scheduled to be released in 2012; delayed at least a year Impact?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Enforcement and Compliance Trends in Enforcement States have increased power to enforce Well-publicized incidents lead to greater focus on enforcement Miami Herald series on negligence in assisted living facilities Changes to federal law
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Enforcement and Compliance Direct Enforcement Tools Fines Suspension of License Framingham, Mass: http://www.metrowestdailynews.com/news/x1510865645/State- suspends-certification-of-Framingham-assisted-living-facility Las Vegas, NV: http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2011/aug/26/state-closes-las- vegas-nursing-home-after-reports-/ Revocation of License Miami, FL : http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20110829/ARTICLE/110829523
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Enforcement and Compliance Indirect Enforcement Tools Criminal Prosecution Pennsylvania: http://www.phillyburbs.com/my_town/yardley/eldercare- worker-pleads-guilty-to-assaulting-alzheimer-s- patient/article_2c963fef-8d91-5f7f-8337- 1874d4aeb00b.html The False Claims Act Applies where state or federal funds are used Allows private individual to initiate enforcement action State or federal government can join the action
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Enforcement and Compliance Why a Compliance Plan? Federal government mandates for some providers; states mandate for others Avoid potential tags on surveys Allow providers to decrease risk and improve resident satisfaction
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Enforcement and Compliance Providers: Focus on Compliance Elements of a Compliance Program: OIG Compliance Officer Communication Education and Training Auditing and Monitoring Discipline and Corrective Action Policies and Procedures States also offer guidance: New York Requires mandatory compliance program for all Medicaid providers http://www.omig.ny.gov/data/images/stories/compliance_alerts/compli ance_alert_2011-05.pdf
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Economic Trends Long Term Care and The Great Recession Baby boomers have lost retirement savings Housing market means its harder to sell before a move into a facility What impact now? What impact in the future?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Economic Trends The Great Recession: Consumers Delayed retirement Greater reliance on Medicaid?
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Economic Trends The Great Recession: Providers New construction: Boom or bust? Greater reliance on fewer deals Increases reliance on regulators to aid in processing CHOWs
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Economic Trends The Great Recession: Regulators Regulation is increasing But funding is reduced in down economy Regulators must do more with less
TRENDS IN LONG TERM CARE Conclusion Looking to the future