Presentation on theme: "Thriller Research. An Overview Of Thriller Genre The term ‘Thriller' refers to a film that generates excitement and suspense. They create intense emotions."— Presentation transcript:
An Overview Of Thriller Genre The term ‘Thriller' refers to a film that generates excitement and suspense. They create intense emotions especially those of apprehension and exhilaration. Keeps the audience ‘on the edge' as the plot will build towards a climax at the end. Usually, a crime is the core of the narrative in a thriller film, In a thriller there will usually be a hero (protagonist) oftenly a good looking, strong male role. Who are usually ordinary folk who are drawn to danger unknowingly or unwillingly. Usually, the protagonist will spoil a plan of the antagonists (villain). The antagonist may present obstacles throughout the film, which the protagonists must overcome. There are lots of different sub-genres within thriller films and some may be part of more than one category. Thrillers contain lots of twists and turns, contributing to keeping the audience focused. Main characters usually seem to be quite smart, complex characters.
History Of The Thriller Genre ‘Homers Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the thriller.’ The Lumiere Brothers had their film as the first public screening in 1895, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dg LEDdFddk, This clip of the train pulling up to the station shows the change from when film first came out till now, there is such a big change in different cinematography, editing and continuity. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dg LEDdFddk The early thriller film ‘Safety Last’(1923), was most remembered for its climax in that time, the film scared viewers because you don't know what may happen to the person climbing the building, keeping the audience nervous throughout. Hitchcock decided to add Technicolor to his thriller films now with recognisable stars, the film ‘Rope’(1948), Hitchcock's first Technicolor film was seen to be taken place in ‘real time' and it being edited to appear as one continuous shot throughout long takes. Hitchcock's technique is still used today, it is called continuity editing and it is used to make several shots come together to make one continuous shot without making it seem like scenes have been cut.
Hybrid Thrillers and Sub-Genres Thrillers are often hybrids- there are lots of varieties of suspense- thrillers, Action or Adventure thrillers, Sci-Fi thrillers (Such as Alien) Crime-Caper thrillers, such as 'The French Connection) Western Thrillers (such as High Noon) Film-Noir thrillers, (for example Double Indemnity There can also be romantic comedy- thrillers, such as Harold Lloyds ‘Safety Last’ Thrillers have different sub- genres, Examples of sub-genres are: Crime, Medical, Eco/Disaster, Romance ‘gone bad?’/stalker, serial killer, psycholigisized, legal, spy, action, An example of a Eco/Disaster is, ‘The Day After Tomorrow' this is a good example because it has ecological factors in it which relate to Eco and Disaster, but however it also creates tension throughout the film because the audience don’t know what will happen next.
Narrative Themes and Conventions In thriller films there is always an element of protagonist vs. antagonist, for example in Casino Royale, there is a clear relationship of hate between the two characters. This makes the movie more interesting when there is conflict between two or more people, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gvr 6uRvESvM. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gvr 6uRvESvM For example, in ‘Shutter Island' the narrative from the beginning makes you seem like you are part of the film, when the story starts to unfold it plays with your mind to make you feel vulnerable and that your mind is playing tricks on you. But actually it is just the way the story is set out, it is a very clever way to make the audience confused and anxious. Thrillers expose sin and corruption which is usually hidden beneath the surface of the theme. In thriller films there tends to be a ‘restricted narration' this is to give the audience as little as possible information about what will happen in the movie. This keeps the audience engaged on what is going on throughout the film and questions will be left unanswered till the end. Thriller films tend to be psychological, they make the audience feel like they are the main character, this is also engages the audience, because the feel like part of the film.
Tzvetan Todorovs Theory Of Narrative Tzvetan was a philosopher and Literary theorist who suggested that conventional narratives are structured in five stages: 1.A state of equilibrium at the outset, 2.A disruption of the equilibrium, through some sort of action, 3.Recognition that there has been a disruption, 4.Attempt to repair the disruption, 5.Reinstatement of the equilibrium. An example of where Todorovs theory works is in the film ‘The Pact’ because at the start of the film everything is equally balanced and you see the characters normal everyday life. Then you see a disruption of the equilibrium, which then people start to realise this disruption. Later on in the story the main character starts to try and repair this disruption and in the end there is a reinstatement of equilibrium where the disruption is no longer present.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjBT7z3lhf8http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjBT7z3lhf8
Characters Main characters usually have some sort of secret about them or have a hidden identity/dark past. A good example of this is in ‘The Dark Knight' because the dark knight himself has a hidden identity, this being that he is a normal person, but then the other side of him shows that he is known as a different name to everyone else and that he is a hero and defeats the villain. The protagonist is always in some sort of danger, this makes more thrills throughout the film, it also makes the audience anxious and nervous for what is to come. Antagonists are usually smart, psychotic characters, this makes it difficult for them to be caught, it disadvantages the protagonist because usually the antagonists plans sometimes injure or worse, kill the protagonist. The protagonist character will sometimes have one disadvantage to them, which the antagonist will use against them. The antagonist will try and exploit the protagonist in some sort of way. Characters
Mise-en-Scene Mise-en-Scene gives the audience more knowledge about the characters and narrative by using iconic settings, props, figure expression, costumes, lighting and representation. Themes of Thrillers are usually based on evil, the Mise-en-Scene helps to show this. The Mise-en-Scene in thriller films shows the audience the literal meaning of what we see (denotations) and what is being suggested by (connotations) the use of these conventions. In a thriller the setting is particularly important because it tells the audience where the film is based, usually the setting of a thriller is set in a remote area where help is limited, but however it could be set in a very populated area, for example in ‘Phone Booth’ the location is a largely populated city. This is used because it connotes that the large amount of people and then links in to the amount of mobile phones that would be in that city, linking back to the title of the thriller. The use of props in a thriller film is also an important part of the Mise-en-Scene because it tells the audience the importance of a certain prop that is used. Typical props you would see in a thriller film may be: Sport cars, guns, explosives etc. Props contribute to adding suspense and tension to thrillers, the use of certain props can determine to the audience who is the protagonist or antagonist.
Costumes and make up, determine how the audience see a certain character. In a thriller, usually the protagonist would wear casual clothing, for example in ‘Mission Impossible’the clothing that the person we see straight away is wearing a white shirt, the denotations of this is that the guy is a businessman, but the connotations of the way the guy is dressed connotes that maybe he could be a businessman but what kind of business? Because sometimes the antagonist is dressed up very smartly to show their power. Costumes and make up can represent a characters social status. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0317919/http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0317919/ Figure expression is also important in the Mise-en-Scene because it can show a relationship between certain characters. For example if there is a big spatial gap between two or more characters it implies that they may be in conflict with each other. Eye contact between characters is vital because it captures the emotion of the characters. It gives an inside to the audience what the character is feeling inside without saying anything. Lastly, lighting and colour determines the genre of the film. De-saturated colours like blue, green, yellow tints add feel to the film. Colours can also represent the emotion a character is feeling, for example the colour black may represent danger, death, sadness and darkness. Whereas the colour yellow would usually represent happiness and warmth.
In thriller films, usually there is not an establishing shot because you don't want to give away the whole location straight away. Pan and Tracking shots are commonly used in thriller films, because it makes the audience focus on specific characters which may be an important part of the narrative. A wide angled shot may be used in a thriller because it shows the spatial distance between characters, this can show the relationship between certain characters. Associated POV shot is a good camera shot to use because it shows what the character is seeing from the audiences or their own perspective, it engages the audience and makes them feel like they are the character. A good example of this is in ‘Collateral’ when the character is walking out of the airport it shows it from his perspective. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZfEEzKFEv8http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZfEEzKFEv8 Medium close up is a good shot because it shows the characters whole face, this will show you the emotion the character is feeling in detail. Close up is a very common camera shot to use because it focuses on one part of the face, for example in Alfred Hitchcock's‘Psycho’the close up of the women's mouth shows in great detail that she is in pain and that she is screaming for help. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VP5jEAP3K4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VP5jEAP3K4 Cinematography
Camera Angles High and Low angles are a good camera angle to use in a thriller because a low angle shot is used to show that a certain character is more powerful than another character, it shows who is more dominant over one another. The high angle shot is used to make a person feel vulnerable towards something else, it makes the character seem weak. Aerial View is a camera view directly overhead to create a clear view of the setting, this may be used in a thriller when showing if a person is looking at a certain location. For example in ‘Brick' there is an aerial view of the surroundings, and how desolate the setting is. It contributes to the feel of the narrative. High and Low angles are used in thrillers because when a person feels vulnerable it makes the audience seem sympathetic towards the character, but at the same time it creates tension because you don’t know what is going to happen to the character. It’s the same as a character who seems more overpowering than another character, it tells the audience that they may have a better social status and that they are more superior. https://learn.varndean.ac.uk/mod/resource/vie w.php?inpopup=true&id=18077 https://learn.varndean.ac.uk/mod/resource/vie w.php?inpopup=true&id=18077
Editing should not be noticeable in a film, Continuity editing is where the cuts of separate shots are not seen by the audience it seems like one big shot. However if you do notice the cut between scenes it has been done for a reason to create a certain affect or emotion, editing is used to imply a change in time or events. 180 degree rule: gives the audience an idea of the set up of where the characters are placed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wq40uhYowBI&playnext=1&list=PL4DFD1B54DF6AAB5 A&feature=results_main for example in this film ‘The Professional' the camera always stays on one side of the room, this is done because if the camera was places anywhere it would confuse the audience. If the 180 degree rule is not followed, this has been done intentionally, because the director wants to make the audience feel disorientated. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wq40uhYowBI&playnext=1&list=PL4DFD1B54DF6AAB5 A&feature=results_main Editing
Editing Count Graphic Match: there is a familiar relationship between shots to make change seem smooth. For example in ‘Brick’ https://learn.varndean.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=tru e&id=18077,the girls bracelet is used in both scenes after each other, it keeps the attention on the girl and that she is dead. https://learn.varndean.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=tru e&id=18077,the Graphic Contrast: when the next shot is in obvious contrast with the one before it, creating a huge impact. It makes the audience confused about what is going on, making them feel uneasy and paranoid. Match On Action: this is when the cut is made on an action, e.g. when a person is opening a door the next shot will be the person walking into the room. This is used in thrillers because it shows two different points of view, it shows what one character is doing and how they may be feeling and then it switches to another character who is inside the room. Eye Line Match occurs when a character reacts to something and the audience is then shown what the character is reacting to in the next shot, this is typical in thriller films because the audience cant see what they are reacting to, but then when the shot is shown it makes the audience jump because the anxiety of the waiting to see what it is.
Shot reverse shot is a technique where one character is shown looking at another who is off screen, the other character is then shown looking back at the first character, this shows the relationship between two people. This technique is used in thrillers because it shows how the characters feel about the other one. You can see the figure expression the characters make, this will imply how they are being in each others company. Parallel Editing: cuts continuously between two or more scenes, happening at the same time but in different places. An example of this is in ‘Silence Of The Lambs' shows how the technique can be used to create a heighten state of tension, anxiety and suspense in thriller films. Parallel editing is used because it convinces the audience that the people are going to meet at some point but in the end they are in two different places. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ts1x6uADFtM
Sound There are two types of sounds that make up a ‘soundtrack' in thriller, Diegetic sound (doors shutting, cars going past,) is used to help to create tension in thriller films. Ambient sounds give the audience an idea of how true the setting is. Non-diegetic sound (voiceovers etc) can be used in moment of anxiousness but sometimes it can spoil the effect of a thriller film because it takes away the edginess and tension that the film creates. To help screen action, there is pleonastic sound, which makes sounds louder than they actually are, for example this could be a gun shot. This is used in thrillers because it creates tension, by making the sound louder, it makes the audience think that the sound is coming closer and closer. Contrapunctual sound is in opposition to what is happening on screen, a good example of this is in Clockwork Orange http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v90KPJ6n4Ew, the voiceover doesn’t fit in to the scene neither does the music. But this is done because they want it to oppose what you see and what you hear.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v90KPJ6n4Ew
Target Audience And Audience Expectations Many psychological thrillers are for an audience of 18+,mainly because some of the issues which might disturb younger children. Some thriller films may be for a certain gender e.g. action/spy thriller may attract the male gender more than females. This is a good example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Uks_lHTua3o, where as women might watch thrillers because they like the tension but also because usually the hero is played by a good looking man. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Uks_lHTua3o What and audience looks for in a thriller: They want to be put in a position where you don't know what's going to happen next. Even though we don’t like the suspense we still like watching the thriller films that make us ‘on edge' throughout the film.
Who watches a thriller? The typical age rating for a thriller film is usually 12,15 or 18,this is because younger people prefer to watch a film that makes them jump and creates anxiety. Even though some thrillers are rated 12 and some are rated 18, it depends on what elements the film has in it. Both genders like to watch thriller films, Males like to watch them because there is a lot of action and violence such as car chases and gun fights. However, females prefer to watch thrillers because they enjoy the tension and thrills it gives, also they watch thrillers because the main character is usually a strong male protagonist. The typical age group that watch thrillers is aged 15-30. Thriller Audiences
Taken Certification Sub-genre: action,crime,thriller. Drugs: Drug taking may be shown but the film as a whole must not promote or encourage drug misuse. The misuse of easily accessible and highly dangerous substances( for example, aerosols or solvents) is unlikely to be acceptable. Drug use is shown in the film, part of the film is based on drug use/addiction but isn't highlighted throughout the film. Imitable Behaviour: Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised. In this film, imitable behaviour is portrayed throughout but however it is not shown consistently and weapons arent glamorised as' toys’ Nudity: Nudity is allowed, but in a sexual context must be brief and discreet. Partly in the film nudity is shown but it isn't glamorised and is hidden and brief,
Silence Of The Lambs Certification In line with the consistent findings of the BBFC’s public consultations and The Human Rights Act 1998, at ‘18’ the BBFC’s guideline concerns will not normally override the principle that adults should be free to choose their own entertainment. Exceptions are most likely in the following areas: Where the material is in breach of the criminal law, or has been created through the commission of a criminal offence Where material or treatment appears to the BBFC to risk harm to individuals or, through their behaviour, to society – for example, any detailed portrayal of violent or dangerous acts, or of illegal drug use, which may cause harm to public health or morals. This may include portrayals of sexual or sexualized violence which might, for example, eroticize or endorse sexual assault. Where there are more explicit images of sexual activity which cannot be justified by context. Such images may be appropriate in ‘R18’ works, and in ‘sex works’ (see below) would normally be confined to that category.