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November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I1 CSA3180: Natural Language Processing Statistics 1 – Empirical Approach Historical Background Fundamental Issues Tokenisation.

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Presentation on theme: "November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I1 CSA3180: Natural Language Processing Statistics 1 – Empirical Approach Historical Background Fundamental Issues Tokenisation."— Presentation transcript:

1 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I1 CSA3180: Natural Language Processing Statistics 1 – Empirical Approach Historical Background Fundamental Issues Tokenisation and Preprocessing

2 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I2 Introduction Slides based on Lectures by Mike Rosner (2003) and BNC2 POS Tagging Manual (Leech and Smith, 2000) “Foundations of Statistical Language Processing”, Manning and Schütze, MIT, 1999 Resources for statistical/empirical NLP McEnery & Wilson notes on Corpus Linguistics s/contents.htmhttp://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/monkey/ihe/linguistic s/contents.htm

3 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I3 Historical Perspective Pre-Chomsky linguistics (e.g. Boas 1940) was largely empirical 1970s: Rationalist approach to AI systems in restricted domains (e.g. Winograd 1972, Woods 1977, Waltz 1978) 1980s: hand-coded grammars and knowledge bases (e.g. Allen 1987) Hand-coded systems need great deal of domain- specific/expert knowledge engineering Systems brittle, unscaleable and inflexible Second half of 1980s: focus shifted from rationalist methods to empirical/corpus-based methods Development largely data driven

4 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I4 Historical Perspective Linguistics Research: Automatic Induction of lexical and syntactic information from corpora Speech Recognition: resulted in Hidden Markov Models (HMM) based methods (IBM Yorktown Heights) that outperformed previous knowledge- based approaches Use of probabilistic finite state machines to model word pronunciations Make use of hill-climbing training algorithms to fit model parameters to actual speech data

5 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I5 Application Areas Success of statistical methods in speech spread to other areas like POS tagging, spelling correction, and parsing POS Tagging: assigning appropriate syntactic class tags to words Machine Translation: training on bilingual corpora to extract word and contextual mappings Parsing: based on tree banks (large databases of sentences annotated with syntactic parse trees), such as probabilistic CFGs (PCFGs) Word-sense disambiguation: attachment, anaphora resolution, discourse segmentation Content-based document processing: –Information Extraction: text  filled templates –Information Retrieval: query text  set of relevant documents

6 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I6 Empirical Approach: Issues Potential for solutions to old problems: –Knowledge Acquisition –Coverage –Robustness –Domain Independence Feasibility depends on data and computing resources Pros –Emphasis on applications and evaluation –Scalability and applicability to real-life domains Cons –Results always corpus dependent

7 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I7 Corpus: Starting Point Corpus (corpora) is an organised body of materials from language that is used as the basis for empirical studies. Important corpus characteristics: –Statistical: Representativeness/balance –Medium: printed, electronic text, speech, video, images –Language: monolingual/multilingual –Information Content: plain text vs. tagged text –Structure: trees vs. sentences –Size –Standards –Quality

8 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I8 Corpora Examples Project Gutenberg – collection of public domain texts Brown Corpus – tagged corpus of around 1 million words put together at Brown University in 1960s and 70s. Balanced corpus of American English. British National Corpus – a balanced corpus of British English containing over 100 million words with morphosyntactic annotation. Penn Treebank WordNet Canadian Hansards LDC GigaWord

9 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I9 Tagset Example Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) AJ0 Adjective (general or positive) (e.g. good, old, beautiful) AJC Comparative adjective (e.g. better, older) AJS Superlative adjective (e.g. best, oldest) AT0 Article (e.g. the, a, an, no) AV0 General adverb: an adverb not subclassified as AVP or AVQ (see below) (e.g. often, well, longer (adv.), furthest. AVP Adverb particle (e.g. up, off, out)

10 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I10 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) AVQ Wh-adverb (e.g. when, where, how, why, wherever) CJC Coordinating conjunction (e.g. and, or, but) CJS Subordinating conjunction (e.g. although, when) CJT The subordinating conjunction that CRD Cardinal number (e.g. one, 3, fifty-five, 3609) DPS Possessive determiner-pronoun (e.g. your, their, his)

11 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I11 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) DT0 General determiner-pronoun: i.e. a determiner-pronoun which is not a DTQ or an AT0. DTQ Wh-determiner-pronoun (e.g. which, what, whose, whichever) EX0 Existential there, i.e. there occurring in the there is... or there are... construction ITJ Interjection or other isolate (e.g. oh, yes, mhm, wow) NN0 Common noun, neutral for number (e.g. aircraft, data, committee)

12 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I12 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) NN1 Singular common noun (e.g. pencil, goose, time, revelation) NN2 Plural common noun (e.g. pencils, geese, times, revelations) NP0 Proper noun (e.g. London, Michael, Mars, IBM) ORD Ordinal numeral (e.g. first, sixth, 77th, last). PNI Indefinite pronoun (e.g. none, everything, one [as pronoun], nobody) PNP Personal pronoun (e.g. I, you, them, ours)

13 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I13 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) PNQ Wh-pronoun (e.g. who, whoever, whom) PNX Reflexive pronoun (e.g. myself, yourself, itself, ourselves) POS The possessive or genitive marker 's or ' PRF The preposition of PRP Preposition (except for of) (e.g. about, at, in, on, on behalf of, with) PUL Punctuation: left bracket - i.e. ( or [

14 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I14 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) PUN Punctuation: general separating mark - i.e.., !, : ; - or ? PUQ Punctuation: quotation mark - i.e. ' or " PUR Punctuation: right bracket - i.e. ) or ] TO0 Infinitive marker to UNC Unclassified items which are not appropriately considered as items of the English lexicon.

15 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I15 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) VBB The present tense forms of the verb BE, except for is, 's: i.e. am, are, 'm, 're and be [subjunctive or imperative] VBD The past tense forms of the verb BE: was and were VBG The -ing form of the verb BE: being VBI The infinitive form of the verb BE: be VBN The past participle form of the verb BE: been VBZ The -s form of the verb BE: is, 's

16 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I16 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) VDB The finite base form of the verb BE: do VDD The past tense form of the verb DO: did VDG The -ing form of the verb DO: doing VDI The infinitive form of the verb DO: do VDN The past participle form of the verb DO: done VDZ The -s form of the verb DO: does, 's

17 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I17 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) VHB The finite base form of the verb HAVE: have, 've VHD The past tense form of the verb HAVE: had, 'd VHG The -ing form of the verb HAVE: having VHI The infinitive form of the verb HAVE: have VHN The past participle form of the verb HAVE: had VHZ The -s form of the verb HAVE: has, 's

18 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I18 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) VM0 Modal auxiliary verb (e.g. will, would, can, could, 'll, 'd) VVB The finite base form of lexical verbs (e.g. forget, send, live, return) [Including the imperative and present subjunctive] VVD The past tense form of lexical verbs (e.g. forgot, sent, lived, returned) VVG The -ing form of lexical verbs (e.g. forgetting, sending, living, returning) VVI The infinitive form of lexical verbs (e.g. forget, send, live, return) VVN The past participle form of lexical verbs (e.g. forgotten, sent, lived, returned)

19 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I19 Tagset Examples Here are some example POS tags from the BNC (CLAWS4 – BNC Basic Tagset/C5 Tagset) VVZ The -s form of lexical verbs (e.g. forgets, sends, lives, returns) XX0 The negative particle not or n't ZZ0 Alphabetical symbols (e.g. A, a, B, b, c, d)

20 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I20 Tagging Algorithms Manual Tagging Automatic Tagging –Stochastic: Most probable sequence of categories –Rule Based: E.g. if preceding word is a DT0 (determiner) then the next tag is probably NN0 or NN1 or NN2 (nouns) –Transformation Based: trainable, machine-learning taggers

21 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I21 Low Level Processing Pre-processing –Filtering headers, whitespace, etc. –Reformatting and creation of appropriate “wrappers” Data Gathering/Formatting/Transformation/Input Tokenisation Normalisation Initial Tag Assignment Tag Selection/Disambiguation Post-processing

22 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I22 Tokenisation Divide input text into units called tokens – can be either individual word tokens or orthographic sentences Tokens usually of different types: words, numbers, punctuation What is a word? “a string of contiguous alphanumeric characters with space on either side; may include hyphens and apostrophes but no other punctuation marks”. (Kucera and Francis,1967)

23 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I23 Tokenisation Token segments usually demarcated by white space or sentence boundaries (i.e. final sentence punctuation followed by initial capital letter of next sentence) Not straightforward due to ambiguity of punctuation marks and of capital letters!

24 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I24 Tokenisation Problems Words may contain non-alphanumeric characters: £27.40 B.Sc.IT(Hons.) cya l8r :-) Presence of spaces around words do not necessarily indicate a unit break, e.g. Coca Cola Items of particular semantic types that use spaces, e.g. phone numbers:

25 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I25 Tokenisation Problems Some languages use spaces very sparingly (like agglomerative languages such as German or Turkish) Geschwendigkeitsbegrenzung (speed limit) Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertra gungsgesetz (beef labelling law) [[[Rind]fleisch] beef meat [[etikettier[ungs]] label ing [[[über]wachungs] over watch [[[auf]gaben] task over [[[über]trag[ungs]] give ing [gesetz]]]]]]] law

26 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I26 Tokenisation Problems Some languages do not use spaces at all! (like Chinese, Japanese, Thai) Word segmentation for these languages can approach that of sentence segmentation in other languages Probabilistic word segmentation gives quite good results

27 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I27 Tokenisation Problems Specialised formats (like phone numbers, URLs) takes us from tokenisation towards Information Extraction Hand crafted rules and regular expressions can be used to handle some common cases Brittle and inflexible – automated learning methods are preferable

28 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I28 Punctuation Detaching spaces, semi-colons, commas, etc. from words is quite easy Periods and apostrophes present special problems Periods: –End of sentence (.) –Abbreviations (e.g., etc., B.Sc.) –Numbers and date formats

29 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I29 Apostrophe Contractions (won’t, they’re, can’t, it’s) Merged forms (dunno, aintcha) Trailing enclitics Solution is often to have lookup tables for common (and not so common) forms

30 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I30 Apostrophe: BNC2 Solution Built-in Knowledge Orthographic FormBroken down intoComponent tags 'd've'd + 'veVM0 + VHI 'tis't + isPNP + VBZ 'twas't + wasPNP + VBD 'twere't + werePNP + VBD 'twould't + wouldPNP + VM0 I'd'veI + 'd + 'vePNP + VM0 + VHI ain'tai + n'tUNC + XX0 aintai + ntUNC + XX0 aintchaai + nt + chaUNC + XX0 + PNP an'allan' + all / an'allCJC + DT0 / AV0 arentare + ntVBB + XX0

31 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I31 Apostrophe Trailing Enclitics Enclitic formAvailable Tags 'dVM0 / VHD 'mVBB 'sVBZ / VHZ / VDZ / POS 'llVM0 n'tXX0 'reVBB 'veVHB

32 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I32 Hyphens Hyphens are usually treated as word internal Not always the case (e.g. il-ktieb in Maltese) Hyphens can also be used as quotation marks

33 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I33 Uppercase/Lowercase Two tokens containing same characters are often instances of the same type The, THE, the Mapping to same case can work in reducing amount of data to be stored (e.g. map all instances of the to “the”) Heuristics: –Map first character of a sentence to lowercase –Map all words in titles to lowercase Problems: –Identification of sentence boundaries –Identification of proper names

34 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I34 Types vs. Tokens How many words are there in this sentence? The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog 9 tokens 8 types: the, quick, brown, fox, jumps, over, lazy, dog Wordform types: every different/unique form Lemmas: every root word/unique entry

35 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I35 How many words in English? Switchboard Corpus of spoken English: 2.4 million tokens, 20,000 wordform types Shakespeare: 884,647 tokens, 29,066 wordform types Gutenberg project and GigaWord sample from Morpho Challenge 2005: 24,447,034 tokens, 167,377 types ets.shtmlhttp://www.cis.hut.fi/morphochallenge2005/datas ets.shtml Type/token ratio

36 November 2005CSA3180: Statistics I36 Normalisation Are “eat” and “eats” different words? Two different wordforms Same lemma (same stem) Stemming vs. morphological analysis (depends on application) Porter stemmer


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