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Multilingual Subject Access to Catalogues of National Libraries (MSAC) Czech Republic’s collaboration with Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Slovakia,

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Presentation on theme: "Multilingual Subject Access to Catalogues of National Libraries (MSAC) Czech Republic’s collaboration with Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Slovakia,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Multilingual Subject Access to Catalogues of National Libraries (MSAC) Czech Republic’s collaboration with Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia Marie Balíková National Library of the Czech Republic MSAC

2 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 2 introduction the aim is to provide users with an authorized indexing and retrieval tool for multilingual subject searching in online environment the initiative is complying with the main goals currently defined by IFLA for the activity of Indexing and Classification Section: –Changing Roles of Subject Access Tools (Berlin) –Implementation and Adaptation of Global Tools for Subject Access to Local Needs (Buenos Aires) –Cataloguing and Subject Tools for Global Access: International Partnerships (Oslo) MSAC

3 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 3 CZENAS - MSAC Czech National Subject Authority File/CZENAS cooperative venture of three large libraries in Czechia: –National Library of the Czech Republic –Moravian Library in Brno –Research Library in Olomouc Multilingual Subject Access to Catalogues of National Libraries/MSAC joined initiative of seven national libraries: –National and University Library, Zagreb, Croatia –National Library of the Czech Republic, Prague –National Library of Latvia, Riga –Martynas Mazvydas National Library of Lithuania, Vilnius –National and University Library St. Kliment Ohridski, Skopje, Macedonia –Slovak National Library in Martin, Slovakia –National and University Library, Ljubljana, Slovenia MSAC

4 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 4 factors affecting subject indexing the standardization of subject retrieval process and indexing and classification tools which –minimizes duplication of work in sharing information –supports shared cataloguing process at national and international level the possibility of interoperability among different indexing and classification schemes which consists in –intellectual mapping between terms in different controlled vocabularies –using a switching language as an intermediary for moving among equivalent terms in different vocabularies, above all multilingual the possibility to increase precision and recall trough Z39.50 protocol and its profiles and to apply authority control whenever possible – in all databases searched through, introducing the same subject search criteria both in remote and local databases MSAC

5 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 5 multilingualism issue in online environment is a complex issue users may want –to search a multilingual collection by using queries in one language or –to retrieve documents in a number of specific languages –to prefer an interface in the language of their choice solution: the users are provided with the language support they need possible limits: –technologies –language skills of the staff –financial means Therefore, there have been only few attempts to create a multilingual subject access tool or to integrate already existing library systems in the area of multilingual subject access MSAC

6 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 6 subject analysis process in online environment to prefer post-coordinated indexing system to simplify application syntax in subject headings strings to support conceptual compatibility of indexing formulas/preferred terms used in various indexing languages to support harmonisation between various indexing languages to support mapping between verbal terms and equivalent notations of classification scheme to improve subject access for OPACs and for Web resources MSAC

7 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 7 UDC classification system in on-line environment can enhance subject access, because it –provides context to search terms –covers all subjects –improves subject access to large databases using sophisticated methods –enables language independent notations to be linked to search terms of various verbal languages –enables other languages to be joined later without the need to classify the resources again –could serve as switching language, mapping mediator which ensures convertibility between information languages –supports very detailed expressions of complex subjects using a variety of common and special auxiliaries, specific symbols and punctuation –is flexible more than other universal classification schemes –indicates entities which occur in more than one domain (class) MSAC

8 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 8 examples Heading water UDC (inorganic chemistry) UDC (hydrology) UDC (water management) Heading incest UDC (sociology) UDC (criminal law) UDC (psychiatry) MSAC

9 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 9 MSAC and UDC UDC system proved to be the most suitable for creation of a multilingual common indexing tool all the participating libraries used it, even if in different versions in MSAC is applied as an enumerative classification, functionality very similar to that of DDC UDC numbers – single and complex (pre-combined) are treated as single numbers present revisions of UDC - more faceted structure –frequent need to use combination of numbers like 821 Literature and 94 History number 821 for literature has to be combined with the common auxiliary for language, e.g Czech literature class number captions (descriptions) added to the retrieval system and available for search in the end-user interface – most effective and user-friendly in MSAC system UDC class numbers are used alongside their descriptions MSAC

10 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 10 examples biotransformation / biotransformace gene engineering / genové inženýrství genetic engineering / genetické inženýrství transgenosis / transgenoze viral vectors / virové vektory cloning / klonování secondary metabolites / sekundární metabolity genetically modified organisms / geneticky modifikované organismy bioethics / bioetika biological safety / biologická bezpečnost MSAC

11 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 11 citation order / UDC MRF in electronic form Citation order UDC facility to adapt the citation order to fit in with local requirements international exchange of information demands consistency in building UDC class numbers the same citation order should be adopted UDC MRF in electronic form national language versions of UDC MRF in electronic form have not been prepared yet the language equivalents of controlled terms created by participating libraries are being added to the Czech Subject Authority file MSAC

12 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 12 Czech National Subject Authority File - CZENAS integrated indexing and retrieval tool in which verbal controlled terms are being linked to UDC equivalent notations respecting IFLA recommendation - to consider possible relationships between subject authority records and classification respecting LC practice topical authority file - thesaurus in which following kinds of relationships between terms are defined: equivalence (expressed: USE) hierarchy (expressed: BT-Broader term; NT-Narrower term) association (expressed: RT-Related term) Czech authority file of topical terms - base for multilingual controlled vocabulary MSAC

13 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 13 formats MSAC supports both UNIMARC and MARC 21 UNIMARC: Croatia, Lithuania Comarc (based on UNIMARC): Slovenia, Macedonia MARC 21: Latvia, Slovakia, Czechia intention - to respect MARC formats as much as possible, but in view of specific needs identified, some extensions and corrections have to be introduced fields for entering combinations of language variants and UDC notations extended by –subfield “b” (UDC equivalent notation) –subfield “c” (UDC qualifier) –UNIMARC - tag 450: subfields a, b, c –MARC 21 - tag 750: subfields a, b, c MARC 21 Format for Authority had to be extended by special field 089 for entering UDC number MSAC

14 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 14 English equivalents/approval process English equivalents of preferred terms, mostly LCSH terms are being chosen If LCSH equivalents are not found (LC terms being too broad), the reference sources like LC titles and subtitles file, encyclopedias, manuals, language vocabularies, www pages, full text databases are consulted. Approval process: The proposals of preferred terms linked to the UDC class numbers and English equivalents are being sent to the editorial staff for approval, then the approved authority records are entered via special programme procedure into the authority database. MSAC

15 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 15 mapping process is done intellectually consists in establishing equivalents between the subject controlled terms used in indexing systems of participating libraries through a switching language switching language: UDC notations based on UDC MRF and English equivalents mapping links are defined between preferred terms represented by isolated lexical units only subject headings strings as a whole are excluded, are not mapped authority records as a whole are excluded, are not mapped links are established only between topical main headings (main entries), UDC numbers and language equivalents MSAC

16 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 16 combination of verbal expressions – UDC notations simple combination one verbal expression is mapped to one simple UDC notation –painting / malířství – UDC 75 one verbal expression is mapped to one compound/complex UDC notation –medical law / medicínské právo – UDC 34:61 –history of law / právní dějiny – UDC 34(091) –Anglo-American law / angloamerické právo – UDC 34(410+73) complex combination one verbal expression is mapped to multiple UDC notations –death/smrt – UDC equivalent 128 (metaphysics) –death/smrt – UDC equivalent (theological anthropology) –death/smrt – UDC equivalent (Hinduism) –death/smrt – UDC equivalent 393 (ethnography) –death/smrt – UDC equivalent (medicine) one UDC notation is mapped to multiple verbal expressions –34 -- law / právo * laws / zákony* legal aspects / právní aspekty * legal regulations / právní předpisy MSAC

17 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 17 MSAC indexes Topical terms – Multilingual Topical terms – Czech Topical terms – English Topical terms – Croatian Topical terms – Latvian Topical terms – Lithuanian Topical terms – Macedonian Topical terms – Slovak Topical terms – Slovenian UDC Subject fields: Astronomy, Demography, Law, Politics, Sociology, Sport, Theater MSAC

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22 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 22 MSAC – two phases phase 1: development of Czech topical authority file integration of language variants of participating libraries in Czech subject authority file phase 2: combinations of UDC-natural languages and English expressions to be inserted into the special fields of respective bibliographic records of cooperating libraries process: semiautomatic - intellectual checking of data access via Z39.50 protocol or small testing database (created at the NL CR) after accomplishing the procedure of authorization and authentication users are offered –access via one single interface in the UIG –both Czech and English interfaces and both Czech and English languages for searching MSAC

23 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 23 Uniform Information Gateway (UIG) allows uniform and easy access to both traditional and electronic resources (local and remote) developed by Czech National Library and Charles University offers extended services feature (SFX) - navigation from the source to other related targets is possible basic SW: MetaLib and SFX MetaLib - parallel browser –enables to search catalogues, full texts, databases and archives –is not limited to any predefined interfaces –uses Z39.50 for communication SFX system is a context-sensitive linking between Web resources providing and coordinating cooperation between resources and targets –RESOURCE - entity through which we have just made a search –TARGET - entity where the service is being provided OpenURL is a mechanism that makes open linking in the Web- based information environment possible MSAC

24 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 24 MSAC and retrieval process in UIG Metalib enables rephrasing of queries into a format that is appropriate for the resource selected sends the queries and receives answers (results) transforms them into its own format and output them offers and performs deduplication of selected documents enables personalized elements - My Resource List of selected databases: Czech Authority Database and those of cooperating libraries (since October 2005) MSAC

25 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 25 MSAC : aplication in UIG ????????????? MSAC

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31 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 31 future development idea to create a multilingual subject retrieval tool or to introduce a mapping scheme in existing systems is considered as an essential element of The European Library service MSAC project – beginning phase problems: –only voluntary work of teams of participating libraries –communication almost only via s –no external financial support new perspective: –joining the TEL-ME-MOR project (The European Library: Modular Extensions for Mediating Online Resources) funded by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme of the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme, where the ten new member states of European Union have been invitedSixth Framework Programme Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme –integration with MACS project ? MSAC

32 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 32 Multilingual Access to Subjects (MACS) project goal - to integrate the most developed and used subject indexing systems LCSH, RAMEAU and SWD feasibility of linking mentioned Subject Heading Languages was investigated the approach by creating links between LCSH, RAMEAU and the SWD/RWSK was tested in the fields of sport and theatre a prototype was created the ways how to extend the use of MACS project has been discussed crossing the language barrier –adding new subject indexing systems –or investigating the use of other tools such as classifications if the same are available across several institutions demanding significant resources MSAC

33 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 33 comparison of MACS and MSAC MACS - fully functional prototype : –MSAC - first stage of a multilingual initiative MACS - linking existing verbal Subject Heading Languages : –MSAC - creating a multilingual retrieval system based on UDC MACS - all SHLs of the equal status, no pivot language : –MSAC - switching language UDC and English equivalents MACS and MSAC –common nouns (in MSAC the special name entities like Washington Declaration, 1918, October 18th) –only headings mapped as equivalent headings judged to be synonymous in meaning –only preferred forms mapped, hierarchical structures and thesaural relationships not mapped –syntactical structures of subject headings strings not mapped MSAC

34 Marie Balíková Czech National Library 34 Multilingual subject access A challenge Thank you for your attention MSAC: CZENAS: JIB: MSAC


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