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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition, Grade 8 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 UNIT 20 Punctuation Splash Screen

3 Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Unit 20 Overview Lesson 20.1: Using the Period and Other End Marks Lesson 20.2: Using Commas I Lesson 20.3: Using Commas II Lesson 20.4: Using Commas III Lesson 20.5: Using Semicolons and Colons Lesson 20.6: Using Quotation Marks and Italics Lesson 20.7: Using Apostrophes Lesson 20.8: Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Lesson 20.9: Using Abbreviations Lesson 20.10: Writing Numbers Grammar Review Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Unit Objectives To gain an understanding of periods, exclamation points, and question marks and to use them in writing  To identify the appropriate use of commas, semicolons, and colons and to employ them in writing  To identify the appropriate use of quotation marks, italics, and apostrophes and to employ them in writing  To gain an understanding of hyphens, dashes, and parentheses and to use them in writing  To learn about abbreviations, numerals, and spelled-out numbers and to use them in writing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Unit Overview 3

5 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Overview

6 Objective To gain an understanding of periods, exclamation points, and question marks and to use them in writing Lesson 1-1

7 Using the Period and Other End Marks
Three punctuation marks signal the end of sentences.  The period is used for declarative and mild imperative sentences.  The question mark is used for interrogative sentences. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 1-2

8 Using the Period and Other End Marks
The exclamation point is used for exclamatory sentences, strong imperatives, and interjections.  Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 1-3

9 Continued on the next slide
Using the Period and Other End Marks (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 1-4

10 Using the Period and Other End Marks (cont.)
Lesson 1-5

11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 1 Using End Marks Write the last word of each sentence and add the correct end mark. Then write whether each sentence is declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory. 1. Please tell me about the history of tractors 2. Read about tractors in your book 3. The first tractor was used in the 1870s 4. This tractor was driven by steam and required a licensed steam engineer to operate and repair it 5. Was this machine very large tractors. imperative book. imperative 1870s. declarative it. declarative large? interrogative Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 1-6

12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Close Work in groups to decide how to correctly punctuate the paragraph below. Then compare your paragraph against the original. At the airport I was questioned by an immigration official “You’re blind–totally blind– and they gave you a visa You say it’s for your studies but studies where”  At the airport I was questioned by an immigration official. “You’re blind–totally blind–and they gave you a visa? You say it’s for your studies, but studies where?” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Lesson 1 Close

13 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 1

14 Objective To identify eight situations in which commas are needed and to use them appropriately Lesson 2-1

15 Using Commas I Commas signal a pause between parts of a sentence. 
Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 2-2

16 Continued on the next slide
Using Commas I (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 2-3

17 Using Commas I (cont.) Lesson 2-4

18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 2 Using Commas Correct each sentence, adding a comma or commas where needed. If the sentence needs no changes, write correct. 1. Yes cities offer many different places to live. 2. People can live in apartment buildings private homes town houses residential hotels or rooming houses. 3. In the middle of the city you can see skyscrapers. Yes, cities offer many different places to live. People can live in apartment buildings, private homes, town houses, residential hotels, or rooming houses. In the middle of the city, you can see skyscrapers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 2-5

19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 2 Using Commas (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding a comma or commas where needed. If the sentence needs no changes, write correct. 4. Some buildings are neat clean and attractive. 5. Other buildings are dirty and neglected. Some buildings are neat, clean, and attractive. correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 2-6

20 Close Write examples of sentences that require commas. Explain the placement of commas. Lesson 2 Close

21 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 2

22 Objectives To identify appropriate use of commas in compound and complex sentences  To use commas correctly in writing compound and complex sentences Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 3-1

23 Using Commas II Commas clarify meaning in sentences with more than one clause.  A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence.  Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 3-2

24 Continued on the next slide
Using Commas II (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 3-3

25 Using Commas II (cont.) Lesson 3-4

26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 3 Using Commas with Main Clauses Correct each sentence by adding commas where necessary. If the sentence needs no commas, write correct. 1. Farmers prepare the soil and then they plant crops in the fields. 2. Sometimes they plant a cover crop and plow it into the soil in spring. 3. They sometimes add organic material, which helps build the soil. Farmers prepare the soil, and then they plant crops in the fields. correct correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 3-5

27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 3 Using Commas with Main Clauses (cont.) Correct each sentence by adding commas where necessary. If the sentence needs no commas, write correct. 4. They maintain a compost pile from which they add finished compost to the soil. 5. Some seeds are planted directly in the ground but others are started indoors. correct Some seeds are planted directly in the ground, but others are started indoors. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 3-6

28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 4 Using Commas with Subordinate Clauses Underline the subordinate clause in each sentence, adding commas where needed. , 1. Whenever farmers grow crops insects move in for the feast. 2. IPM, which stands for Integrated Pest Management helps control insects. 3. Because insects flourish in debris farmers try to keep their fields clean. 4. They make sure that seedlings are insect-free before they plant them. 5. They rotate crops so that soil insects don’t have a chance to multiply. , , Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 3-7

29 Close Write three original examples for each of the three rules about using commas taught in this lesson. Exchange your sentences with a partner to check each other’s work. Lesson 3 Close

30 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 3

31 Objectives To learn about the use of commas with dates and addresses, with titles or degrees, and in direct quotations  To use commas appropriately in writing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 4-1

32 Using Commas III Several rules for using commas–among those the rules for punctuating dates and addresses–are a matter of standard usage.  Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 4-2

33 Continued on the next slide
Using Commas III (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 4-3

34 Using Commas III (cont.)
Lesson 4-4

35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 5 Using Commas with Names, Titles, Dates, and Quotations Correct each sentence below, adding commas where necessary, or write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1. Larry said “Our conference on pollution is sure to be successful.” 2. A letter from Austin Texas arrived today. 3. It said that Jean Loubet Ph.D. will be attending. 4. “Is Dr. Jean Loubet” asked Evan “a physician?” 5. His most famous book appeared in June 1995. Larry said, “Our conference on pollution is sure to be successful.” A letter from Austin, Texas, arrived today. It said that Jean Loubet, Ph.D., will be attending. “Is Dr. Jean Loubet,” asked Evan, “a physician?” correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 4-5

36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 6 Using Commas in Letters Correct each numbered item below, adding commas where necessary. If no commas are needed, write correct. 1109 National Boulevard 2Los Angeles California September 4Dear Aunt Patricia 5Last week my teacher said “We can all do more to stop pollution.” 6I think that students too can help. 7I said to Yoko “Let’s make posters for the Stop Pollution Fair.” 8The fair will be like the one that was held on January in Denver Colorado. 9Alex Gafar M.A. will speak on recycling. 10Much love Antonia Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 4-6

37 Using Commas in Letters (cont.)
Exercise 6 Using Commas in Letters (cont.) Correct each numbered item below, adding commas where necessary. If the no commas are needed, write correct. 1correct 2Los Angeles, California September 30, 2001 4Dear Aunt Patricia, 5Last week my teacher said, “We can all do more to stop pollution.” 6I think that students, too, can help. 7I said to Yoko, “Let’s make posters for the Stop Pollution Fair.” 8The fair will be like the one that was held on January 5, 2000, in Denver, Colorado. 9Alex Gafar, M.A., will speak on recycling. 10Much love, Antonia Lesson 4-7

38 Close Write a practice letter to Dr. Ann Hayes, an expert on preserving the environment, to ask her if she will speak at your school. Include a direct quotation from a newspaper article, magazine, book, or other appropriate source. Lesson 4 Close

39 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 4

40 Objective To identify the appropriate use of semicolons and colons and to employ them in writing Lesson 5-1

41 Continued on the next slide
Using Semicolons and Colons Continued on the next slide Lesson 5-2

42 Using Semicolons and Colons (cont.)
Lesson 5-3

43 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 7 Using Semicolons and Colons Correct each sentence. Add a semicolon or a colon where needed. Remember to use a comma after a conjunctive adverb. 1. I was bored at 330 in the afternoon then the mail arrived. 2. It included these items two bills, three ads, and a letter from my cousin. 3. Jill wrote about her work in Africa she is teaching English in Tanzania. I was bored at 3:30 in the afternoon; then the mail arrived. It included these items: two bills, three ads, and a letter from my cousin. Jill wrote about her work in Africa; she is teaching English in Tanzania. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 5-4

44 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 7 Using Semicolons and Colons (cont.) Correct each sentence. Add a semicolon or a colon where needed. Remember to use a comma after a conjunctive adverb. 4. Africa contains these regions deserts, rain forests, grasslands, and farmlands. 5. The equator cuts through Africa however most of Africa lies north of the equator. Africa contains these regions: deserts, rain forests, grasslands, and farmlands. The equator cuts through Africa; however, most of Africa lies north of the equator. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 5-5

45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 8 Using Semicolons and Colons in Letters Correct the numbered items, adding a semicolon or a colon where needed. 1Dear Mr. Bishop 2I am buying a farm for my venture, I will need farming equipment. 3I will have to buy plows, tractors, and spreaders. 4In the near future, I will also need the following seed, fertilizer, and more machinery. 5I am currently pricing equipment therefore, please send me a list of your prices. Sincerely yours, Eleni Ruiz Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 5-6

46 Using Semicolons and Colons in Letters (cont.)
Exercise 8 Using Semicolons and Colons in Letters (cont.) Correct the numbered items, adding a semicolon or a colon where needed. 1Dear Mr. Bishop: 2I am buying a farm; for my venture, I will need farming equipment. 3correct 4In the near future, I will also need the following: seed, fertilizer, and more machinery. 5I am currently pricing equipment; therefore, please send me a list of your prices. Sincerely yours, Eleni Ruiz Lesson 5-7

47 Close Write a brief business letter requesting information. It should have a colon in the salutation and include a compound sentence joined by a semicolon. Proofread your letter. Lesson 5 Close

48 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 5

49 Objectives To identify the correct use of quotation marks and to use them in writing  To identify the correct use of italic type and to use it in writing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 6-1

50 Using Quotation Marks and Italics
Quotation marks enclose a person’s exact words, as well as the titles of some works. Italic type–a special slanted type that is used in printing–identifies titles of other works. In handwriting, use underlining to indicate italics.  Study the rules on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 6-2

51 Continued on the next slide
Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 6-3

52 Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.)
Lesson 6-4

53 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 9 Punctuating Titles Correct each item below, adding quotation marks or italics where needed. 1. Nanook of the North (film) 2. New York Times (newspaper) 3. The Eternal Nomad (short poem) 4. The Old Man and the Sea (book) 5. Dream-Children (essay) Nanook of the North New York Times “The Eternal Nomad” The Old Man and the Sea “Dream-Children” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 6-5

54 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 10 Using Quotation Marks and Italics Correct the following sentences, adding quotation marks and other punctuation marks and italics where needed. 1. Frieda asked Have you read the assignment in our textbook 2. Bonnie shouted What an interesting article on nomads that was 3. I didn’t know said Barry that some nomads live in northern Europe Frieda asked, “Have you read the assignment in our textbook?” Bonnie shouted, “What an interesting article on nomads that was!” “I didn’t know,” said Barry, “that some nomads live in northern Europe.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 6-6

55 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 10 Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.) Correct the following sentences, adding quotation marks and other punctuation marks and italics where needed. 4. Yes said Ms. Ito Lapland lies in Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Norway 5. Did Ms. Ito say The people of Lapland are called Lapps “Yes,” said Ms. Ito. “Lapland lies in Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.” Did Ms. Ito say, “The people of Lapland are called Lapps”? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 6-7

56 Close Write a brief dialogue. Feel free to use slang and idiomatic expressions for realism. However, correct punctuation will make the dialogue–and your stories–easier to follow. Trade papers with a classmate and read each other’s dialogue aloud, paying attention to the punctuation. Discuss needed punctuation changes to clarify meaning. Lesson 6 Close

57 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 6

58 Objectives To understand the use of apostrophes to indicate possession and contraction and to employ them in writing  To learn about the use of apostrophes with certain plurals and to employ them in writing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 7-1

59 Using Apostrophes An apostrophe shows possession as well as the missing letters in a contraction.  It can also signal the plural of letters, numbers, or words.  Study the rules on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 7-2

60 Continued on the next slide
Using Apostrophes (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 7-3

61 Using Apostrophes (cont.)
Lesson 7-4

62 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 11 Using Apostrophes in Possessives Write the possessive form of each of the words below. 1.  cities 2. nation 3. everybody 4. children 5. Mr. Schultz cities’ nation’s everybody’s children’s Mr. Schultz’s Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 7-5

63 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 12 Using Apostrophes Correct each plural, possessive, or contraction. Use apostrophes where needed. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1. This citys outlook is uncertain. 2. Ours is an uncertain future. 3. Today cities arent built beneath the earth. 4. Its strange to think of underground cities. 5. Perhaps well see cities floating on the water. city’s correct aren’t It’s we’ll Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 7-6

64 Close The year is Use apostrophes in a sentence to describe what you see. Lesson 7 Close

65 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 7

66 Objective To gain an understanding of hyphens, dashes, and parentheses and to use them in writing Lesson 8-1

67 Continued on the next slide
Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Continued on the next slide Lesson 8-2

68 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.)
Lesson 8-3

69 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 13 Using Hyphens Correct each item. Use a hyphen where needed. Write correct if the item needs no hyphens. 1. two thirds majority   2. one-half of the pie   3. exchampion   4. self knowledge   5. well loved author two-thirds majority correct ex-champion self-knowledge well-loved author Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 8-4

70 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 14 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Correct the following sentences, adding any needed hyphens, dashes, or parentheses. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1. Before people began to clear the forest for farms and cities, forests covered about one half of the earth. 2. Dr. Orzeck he is an expert on ecology spoke about deforestation. Before people began to clear the forest for farms and cities, forests covered about one-half of the earth. Dr. Orzeck–he is an expert on ecology–spoke about deforestation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 8-5

71 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 14 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.) Correct the following sentences, adding any needed hyphens, dashes, or parentheses. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 3. His presentation was well documented. 4. People have used wood products since the beginning of time but more about that later. 5. One tree may have as many as forty two uses. correct People have used wood products since the beginning of time–but more about that later. One tree may have as many as forty-two uses. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 8-6

72 Close Write a paragraph in which you discuss some of the products that can be made from materials found in forests. Use hyphens, dashes, and parentheses in your paragraph. Share your paragraph with a partner and discuss the punctuation. Lesson 8 Close

73 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 8

74 Objectives To learn about the correct use of abbreviations 
To employ abbreviations effectively in writing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 9-1

75 Continued on the next slide
Using Abbreviations Continued on the next slide Lesson 9-2

76 Using Abbreviations (cont.)
Lesson 9-3

77 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 15 Using Abbreviations Give the correct abbreviation for each underlined item. 1. anno Domini 2000 2. David Parker Junior kilometers 4. February 23 5. Wednesday A.D. Jr. km Feb. Wed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 9-4

78 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 16 Using Abbreviations in Sentences Supply the correct abbreviation for each underlined item in the following sentences. Write correct if there are no changes. 1. The address on the envelope read 48 Bolton Street, Madison, Wisconsin. 2. It contained information from Doctor Rita Tapahonso. 3. Mister Ed Jones is teaching ecology. 4. Last year, classes met from 9:30 in the morning until 3:30 in the afternoon. 5. Scheduled speakers included Doctor Robin Oren. St.; WI Dr. Mr. A.M.; P.M. Dr. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 9-5

79 Close Write ten sentences, using a different abbreviation in each. Trade papers with a classmate, point out the abbreviation in each sentence, and explain what each abbreviation stands for. Lesson 9 Close

80 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 9

81 Objective To learn about numerals and spelled-out numbers and to use them in writing Lesson 10-1

82 Writing Numbers In charts and tables, numbers are always written as figures.  However, in an ordinary sentence some numbers are spelled out and others are written as numerals.  Study the rules on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Lesson 10-2

83 Continued on the next slide
Writing Numbers (cont.) Continued on the next slide Lesson 10-3

84 Writing Numbers (cont.)
Lesson 10-4

85 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 17 Writing Numbers Correct the sentences below, using the correct form for writing numbers. Write correct if a sentence needs no changes. 1. My father graduated from Red Bank Regional High School with the class of nineteen hundred sixty-one. 2. His class recently had a reunion after thirty years. 3. The reunion was scheduled for April ninth. 4. The party began at seven-thirty p.m. 5. Dad was the 13th person to arrive that evening. 1961 correct correct 7:30 P.M. thirteenth Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 10-5

86 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Exercise 18 Writing Numbers In the following paragraph, use the correct form for writing numbers. 1In nineteen hundred ninety-one the population of the United States was approximately 248 million. 2The estimated population of North America was three hundred ninety million. 3North America has the 3rd largest population of the world’s continents. 4Asia has the largest percentage of world population, with fifty-nine percent. 5More than three billion people live in Asia. 4. 59 percent million 5. correct 3. third Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Lesson 10-6

87 Close Write a brief life story, including dates and other numbers as appropriate. Trade papers with a classmate and check each other’s usage of numbers. Lesson 10 Close

88 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Lesson 10

89 Punctuation Tourists see a place differently from the way local inhabitants do.  In A Small Place, Jamaica Kincaid writes about her homeland, the small Caribbean island of Antigua.  In the Literature Model on page 619 of your textbook, Kincaid looks at the island through the eyes of a tourist.  She describes the island’s beauty and discusses its history. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Grammar Review 1

90 Punctuation (cont.) She also expresses her hopes for the future of Antigua.  This passage by Kincaid has been annotated to show some of the rules of punctuation covered in this unit. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Grammar Review 2

91 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 1 Using Commas Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1. Tourists come for the white sand beaches colorful reefs and balmy climate. 2. Antigua unlike other islands of the Lesser Antilles is not mountainous. 3. Most of the island is flat; however there are hills in the Southwest. Tourists come for the white sand beaches, colorful reefs, and balmy climate. Antigua, unlike other islands of the Lesser Antilles, is not mountainous. Most of the island is flat; however, there are hills in the Southwest. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 3

92 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 1 Using Commas (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 4. These hills the remnants of ancient volcanoes bear patches of rain forest. 5. Did you know Catherine that Antigua was once covered by rain forest? These hills, the remnants of ancient volcanoes, bear patches of rain forest. Did you know, Catherine, that Antigua was once covered by rain forest? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 4

93 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 2 Using Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1. Blessed with low humidity and year-round trade winds Antigua has an ideal climate for tourists. 2. Fringed by coral reefs the island is a snorkeler’s paradise. 3. With its miles of undulating coastline it appeals to beach lovers from all over the world. Blessed with low humidity and year-round trade winds, Antigua has an ideal climate for tourists. Fringed by coral reefs, the island is a snorkeler’s paradise. With its miles of undulating coastline, it appeals to beach lovers from all over the world. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 5

94 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 2 Using Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 4. Shimmering in the tropical sun the turquoise waters are very inviting. 5. Indeed all kinds of water sports are popular with both natives and tourists. Shimmering in the tropical sun, the turquoise waters are very inviting. Indeed, all kinds of water sports are popular with both natives and tourists. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 6

95 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 3 Using Commas with Adverb Clauses Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 1. Because McKinnon’s Salt Pond is very shallow it appeals to sandpipers. 2. Where Indian Creek flows into the sea brown pelicans dive for tarpon. 3. You won’t find a tropical rain forest unless you drive up Boggy Peak. Because McKinnon’s Salt Pond is very shallow, it appeals to sandpipers. Where Indian Creek flows into the sea, brown pelicans dive for tarpon. correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 7

96 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 3 Using Commas with Adverb Clauses (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 4. Before you drive back down you should look for scarlet tanagers. 5. Visit the lovely beaches of Carlisle Bay after you leave Boggy Peak. Before you drive back down, you should look for scarlet tanagers. correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 8

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 4 Using Commas with Adjective Clauses Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 1. Tourists who like to explore have many options on Antigua. 2. Paradise Reef which offers a mile of coral is popular with snorkelers. 3. Glass-bottomed boats which let nonswimmers see the reef are also popular. correct Paradise Reef, which offers a mile of coral, is popular with snorkelers. Glass-bottomed boats, which let nonswimmers see the reef, are also popular. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 9

98 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 4 Using Commas with Adjective Clauses (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 4. You may see the hawksbill whose shell is used for tortoiseshell jewelry. 5. The hawksbill which is named for its beaky upper jawbone is a sea turtle. You may see the hawksbill, whose shell is used for tortoiseshell jewelry. The hawksbill, which is named for its beaky upper jawbone, is a sea turtle. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 10

99 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 5 Using Commas Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1. Leona’s home is at 1147 Schyler Street Gary Indiana. 2. Her aunt Jo lives in Falmouth Antigua. 3. Josephine Susannah Hardy M.D. is her aunt’s full name. Leona’s home is at 1147 Schyler Street, Gary, Indiana. Her aunt Jo lives in Falmouth, Antigua. Josephine Susannah Hardy, M.D., is her aunt’s full name. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 11

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 5 Using Commas (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 4. Leona arrived for a visit on July 5. Leona’s brother Conrad came too. Leona arrived for a visit on July 15, 2000. correct Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 12

101 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 6 Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons Correct each sentence, adding commas, semicolons, and colons where needed. 1. English Harbor bustled for two centuries but then its glory faded. 2. The English navy sailed for home and traders found different ports. 3. Nelson’s Dockyard itself was badly decayed old buildings had fallen in. English Harbor bustled for two centuries, but then its glory faded. The English navy sailed for home, and traders found different ports. Nelson’s Dockyard itself was badly decayed; old buildings had fallen in. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 13

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 6 Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas, semicolons, and colons where needed. 4. In 1951 the governor founded the Society of the Friends of English Harbor its purpose was to restore the harbor. 5. The group unearthed original plans consequently their restoration is historically accurate. In 1951 the governor founded the Society of the Friends of English Harbor; its purpose was to restore the harbor. The group unearthed original plans; consequently, their restoration is historically accurate. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 14

103 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 7 Using Commas and End Marks in Direct Quotations Correct each sentence, adding commas and end marks where needed. 1. “The Caribbean Islands are just like stepping stones from Venezuela to Florida” said Ron 2. Keisha added “Most of the first inhabitants came from South America” 3. “Among those who settled Antigua” said Mr. Hays “were the Arawaks” “The Caribbean Islands are just like stepping stones from Venezuela to Florida,” said Ron. Keisha added, “Most of the first inhabitants came from South America.” “Among those who settled Antigua,” said Mr. Hays, “were the Arawaks.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 15

104 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 7 Using Commas and End Marks in Direct Quotations (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas and end marks where needed. 4. Did you say “The Arawaks lived in wooden houses” 5. “Yes” said Mr. Hays “the houses were wood with thatched roofs” Did you say, “The Arawaks lived in wooden houses”? “Yes,” said Mr. Hays, “the houses were wood with thatched roofs.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 16

105 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 8 Punctuating Direct Quotations Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. 1. I have been reading about the Arawaks and Caribs in a beautiful book called Lost Empires 2. In it there is a chapter about the Caribbean called Crossroads Cultures 3. I told the class The Arawaks used sophisticated farming methods I have been reading about the Arawaks and Caribs in a beautiful book called Lost Empires. In it there is a chapter about the Caribbean called “Crossroads Cultures.” I told the class, “The Arawaks used sophisticated farming methods.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 17

106 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 8 Punctuation Direct Quotations (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. 4. They knew how to control erosion and irrigate their fields explained Tim 5. Manioc was their chief crop I said but they also grew other foods “They knew how to control erosion and irrigate their fields,” explained Tim. “Manioc was their chief crop,” I said, “but they also grew other foods.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 18

107 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 9 Using Apostrophes, Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses   Correct each sentence, inserting apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and parentheses where needed. 1. The country of Antigua and Barbuda has a total land area of 171 square miles 442 square kilometers. 2. Barbuda is a game preserve, and its anyones guess how many species of birds live there. The country of Antigua and Barbuda has a total land area of 171 square miles (442 square kilometers). Barbuda is a game preserve, and it’s anyone’s guess how many species of birds live there. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 19

108 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 9 Using Apostrophes, Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.)  Correct each sentence, inserting apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and parentheses where needed. 3. Redonda an uninhabited island is also part of the island country. 4. The country has been a self governing nation since 1981. 5. The three islands terrain is mostly flat. Redonda–an uninhabited island–is also part of the island country. The country has been a self-governing nation since 1981. The three islands’ terrain is mostly flat. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 20

109 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 10 Using Abbreviations and Numbers Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. 1. Mister Vere Cornwall was the prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda. 2. About two percent of the people live on Barbuda, the smaller island. 3. The islands receive about 45 in. of rain annually. Mr. Vere Cornwall was the prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda. About 2 percent of the people live on Barbuda, the smaller island. The islands receive about forty-five inches of rain annually. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 21

110 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 10 Using Abbreviations and Numbers (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. 4. 2 deaths and 80 million dollars in property damage resulted when Hurricane Hugo struck in 1989. 5. The island’s hospitals need qualified Drs. Two deaths and 80 million dollars in property damage resulted when Hurricane Hugo struck in 1989. The island’s hospitals need qualified doctors. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 22

111 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 11 Proofreading Rewrite the following passage, correcting the errors in spelling, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation. The young woman in Matisse’s Interior at Nice sit in front of a window on a hotel balcony in France. With her back to the sea she gazes at the observer. The sun reflects off the sea and bathe the room in silvery light. Intense pinks blues, and grays help convey the atmosphere of warmth. sits (subject-verb agreement) sea, (comma after two or more introductory prepositional phrases) bathes (subject-verb agreement) pinks, (comma in a series) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 23

112 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Review: Exercise 12 Mixed Review Write each sentence, correcting all errors in punctuation, quotation marks, italics, and numbers. 1Born on May 25, 1949 young Jamaica Kincaid loved to read, one of her favorite books was Jane Eyre. 2Although she had a happy childhood Kincaid realized that her family her mother father and three brothers underestimated her abilities she also felt stifled by the island. 3By 16 she was a very self directed young woman and she left Antigua for a job in New York. 4She attended several colleges but she never earned a degree. 5After she had written articles for teenagers magazines she became a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Grammar Review 24

113 Review: Exercise 12 Mixed Review Write each sentence, correcting all errors in punctuation, quotation marks, italics, and numbers. 1Born on May 25, 1949, young Jamaica Kincaid loved to read; one of her favorite books was Jane Eyre. 2Although she had a happy childhood, Kincaid realized that her family–her mother, father, and three brothers–underestimated her abilities; she also felt stifled by the island. 3By sixteen she was a very self-directed young woman, and she left Antigua for a job in New York. 4She attended several colleges, but she never earned a degree. 5After she had written articles for teenagers’ magazines, she became a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine. Grammar Review 25

114 Close Name the types of punctuation demonstrated in the Unit 20 Review. Grammar Review Close

115 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
End of Grammar Review

116 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Wow! What a beautiful day! The forecaster said it would rain. Can you believe how lucky we are? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 1

117 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Jan, Lily, Sam, Eli, Hiroko, and I are going to the show. With all six of us in one car, it’s a crowd. Dad, would you take us in the van? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 2

118 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
When I get confused about commas, I read the sentence out loud. Wherever I pause, I know I should consider using a comma. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 3

119 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
The box was shipped to 63 Fig Lane, Luther, Utah It was sent on December 22, 2001, and should have come by January 5, 2002. I, too, am surprised that it hasn’t arrived yet. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 4

120 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
My aunt is going to Africa next year; she plans to see the pyramids. She has traveled in Asia and Europe; however, she has never been to Africa. These are countries I would like to visit: Egypt, Kenya, and Nigeria. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 5

121 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
I saw Blue Skies, the movie based on the short story “The Blues.” My cousin thought that it was awful. “It gave me the blues,” she said, “for weeks.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 6

122 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Women’s dresses, girls’ shoes, and babies’ clothes are on the top floor. It’s anyone’s guess where the elevators are located in this store. Hold Alex’s hand, and let’s look for them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 7

123 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Sixty-one hikers set out on the ten-mile (sixteen-kilometer) hike. One-half finished, including–we all expected it–Miguel and Kathy. As ex-Marines, they are well-trained marchers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 8

124 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Mister Garza’s class will tour the UN building. They are leaving on Friday early in the morning. They are to meet at Dr. Hall’s house on Cherry Avenue. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 9

125 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Dad was born on August 8, 1965, at exactly eight o’clock at night. The fourth child, he was raised in a village of four hundred people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. DLP Transparency 10

126 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
The track meet is today. Are you going to watch it? Yeah, we won! Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. BR Transparency 1

127 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Tom, Dick, and Harry, our best blockers, all received football scholarships. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. BR Transparency 2

128 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
I really wanted to attend the play, but I had to work instead. Before making that important decision, consider all your options. Jeremy, who works at the library, called me last night. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. BR Transparency 3

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130 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Efrat thought English was difficult to learn; however, she speaks very well. I have to pack these items for my trip: a sleeping bag, a small camping stove, and a pup tent. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. BR Transparency 5

131 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Mr. Hill announced, “Tomorrow is a holiday!” or Mr. Hill announced, “Tomorrow is a holiday.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. BR Transparency 6

132 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Tom and Mary Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. BR Transparency 7

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136 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
James, did you receive a letter from your sister? Clair works for Concor, a large manufacturing company, as a systems programmer. James doesn’t know whether he will take a train, a bus, or an airplane. In Boston, as I understand it, he will stay at Copley Plaza; however, he still needs to make reservations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. TMSD Transparency 2

137 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
The little bird’s wing was caught on the door of its cage. The birds’ flight south took them less than a week. My mom belongs to a women’s committee to protect city wild life. This is our birdhouse, but that is no one’s. No one knows who put it there, but it’s very popular with the birds. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. TMSD Transparency 7

138 Apostrophes in Writing
David Weitzman uses apostrophes in the following passage from Trashin’ Time to make his farming characters’ dialogue sound realistic. Study the passage, paying close attention to the italicized words.  “What do you think about all this, Peter, steam power instead of horse power?” I wasn’t sure. “If the engine took the place of the horses, I think I’d miss Annie and Lulu and Quinn. Wouldn’t you, Pa?” “I would, but, you know, horsepower thrashin’ is awful hard on them, son. Sure, I’d miss them, but we work them hard all year plowin’ and diskin’, and seedin’ and mowin’. Then just when they’re so tuckered out, about to drop and needin’ a good rest, we put them to thrashin’.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Writing Application 1

139 Techniques with Apostrophes
Try to apply some of David Weitzman’s writing techniques when you write.  1. Use apostrophes to create contractions and to help your writing flow more smoothly.  AWKWARD VERSION I was not sure.  WEITZMAN’S VERSION I wasn’t sure. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Writing Application 2

140 Techniques with Apostrophes
Try to apply some of David Weitzman’s writing techniques when you write.  2. Dialogue conveys information about a character. Replacing missing letters with apostrophes shows a character’s natural speech patterns. The first version, although correct, is not how Pa really speaks.  LESS INFORMATION …we work them hard all year plowing and disking, and seeding and mowing.  WEITZMAN’S VERSION …we work them hard all year plowin’ and diskin’, and seedin’ and mowin’. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Writing Application 3

141 Practice Rewrite the following passage, adding apostrophes to the underlined words to make the dialogue sound more natural. “Nothing doing, Fred,” said Mr. Felters. “I cannot accept this wood. It is not cut short enough.” “Come on, Felters, we have been working together for going on ten years. Trust me. I will come tomorrow and cut it shorter for you,” implored Fred. “Nope! Before I take it, it has got to be right. Cut them down to two-foot lengths and I will be a happy man,” insisted Mr. Felters. “If I must,” sighed Fred, “I guess I may as well get going on it.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display a sample answer. Writing Application 4

142 Practice Sample answer:
“Nothin’ doin’, Fred,” said Mr. Felters. “I can’t accept this wood. It’s not cut short enough.” “Come on, Felters, we’ve been workin’ together for goin’ on ten years. Trust me. I’ll come tomorrow and cut it shorter for you,” implored Fred. “Nope! ‘Fore I take it, it’s got to be right. Cut ‘em down to two-foot lengths and I’ll be a happy man,” insisted Mr. Felters. “If I must,” sighed Fred, “I guess I may as well get goin’ on it.” Writing Application 5

143 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this unit.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Writer’s Choice Web site. At this site, you will find unit overviews, interactive activities, and Web sites correlated with the units and lessons in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to Writing Online

144 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
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145 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
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