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Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition, Grade 8 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition, Grade 8 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition, Grade 8 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen UNIT 20 Punctuation

4 Contents Unit 20 Overview Lesson 20.1:Lesson 20.1: Using the Period and Other End MarksUsing the Period and Other End Marks Lesson 20.2:Lesson 20.2: Using Commas IUsing Commas I Lesson 20.3:Lesson 20.3: Using Commas IIUsing Commas II Lesson 20.4:Lesson 20.4: Using Commas IIIUsing Commas III Lesson 20.5:Lesson 20.5: Using Semicolons and ColonsUsing Semicolons and Colons Lesson 20.6:Lesson 20.6: Using Quotation Marks and ItalicsUsing Quotation Marks and Italics Lesson 20.7:Lesson 20.7: Using ApostrophesUsing Apostrophes Lesson 20.8:Lesson 20.8: Using Hyphens, Dashes, and ParenthesesUsing Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Lesson 20.9:Lesson 20.9: Using AbbreviationsUsing Abbreviations Lesson 20.10:Lesson 20.10: Writing NumbersWriting Numbers Grammar Review Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

5 Unit Overview 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To gain an understanding of periods, exclamation points, and question marks and to use them in writing  To identify the appropriate use of commas, semicolons, and colons and to employ them in writing  To identify the appropriate use of quotation marks, italics, and apostrophes and to employ them in writing  To gain an understanding of hyphens, dashes, and parentheses and to use them in writing  To learn about abbreviations, numerals, and spelled-out numbers and to use them in writing Unit Objectives

6 End of Overview Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

7 Lesson 1-1 To gain an understanding of periods, exclamation points, and question marks and to use them in writing Objective

8 Using the Period and Other End Marks Lesson 1-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Three punctuation marks signal the end of sentences.  The period is used for declarative and mild imperative sentences.  The question mark is used for interrogative sentences.

9 Using the Period and Other End Marks Lesson 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The exclamation point is used for exclamatory sentences, strong imperatives, and interjections.  Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides.

10 Using the Period and Other End Marks (cont.) Lesson 1-4 Continued on the next slide

11 Using the Period and Other End Marks (cont.) Lesson 1-5

12 Lesson 1-6 Write the last word of each sentence and add the correct end mark. Then write whether each sentence is declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.Please tell me about the history of tractors 2.Read about tractors in your book 3.The first tractor was used in the 1870s 4.This tractor was driven by steam and required a licensed steam engineer to operate and repair it 5.Was this machine very large tractors. imperative book. imperative 1870s. declarative it. declarative large? interrogative Exercise 1 Using End Marks

13 Lesson 1 Close Work in groups to decide how to correctly punctuate the paragraph below. Then compare your paragraph against the original. Close –At the airport I was questioned by an immigration official “You’re blind–totally blind– and they gave you a visa You say it’s for your studies but studies where”  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. –At the airport I was questioned by an immigration official. “You’re blind–totally blind– and they gave you a visa? You say it’s for your studies, but studies where?”

14 End of Lesson 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

15 To identify eight situations in which commas are needed and to use them appropriately Lesson 2-1 Objective

16 Lesson 2-2 Commas signal a pause between parts of a sentence.  Using Commas I Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

17 Lesson 2-3 Using Commas I (cont.) Continued on the next slide

18 Lesson 2-4 Using Commas I (cont.)

19 Lesson 2-5 Correct each sentence, adding a comma or commas where needed. If the sentence needs no changes, write correct. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.Yes cities offer many different places to live. 2.People can live in apartment buildings private homes town houses residential hotels or rooming houses. 3.In the middle of the city you can see skyscrapers. Yes, cities offer many different places to live. People can live in apartment buildings, private homes, town houses, residential hotels, or rooming houses. In the middle of the city, you can see skyscrapers. Exercise 2 Using Commas

20 Lesson Some buildings are neat clean and attractive. 5.Other buildings are dirty and neglected. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Some buildings are neat, clean, and attractive. correct Correct each sentence, adding a comma or commas where needed. If the sentence needs no changes, write correct. Exercise 2 Using Commas (cont.)

21 Lesson 2 Close Write examples of sentences that require commas. Explain the placement of commas. Close

22 End of Lesson 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

23 To identify appropriate use of commas in compound and complex sentences  Lesson 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To use commas correctly in writing compound and complex sentences Objectives

24 Lesson 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Commas clarify meaning in sentences with more than one clause.  A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence.  Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Using Commas II

25 Lesson 3-3 Using Commas II (cont.) Continued on the next slide

26 Lesson 3-4 Using Commas II (cont.)

27 Lesson 3-5 Correct each sentence by adding commas where necessary. If the sentence needs no commas, write correct. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.Farmers prepare the soil and then they plant crops in the fields. 2.Sometimes they plant a cover crop and plow it into the soil in spring. 3.They sometimes add organic material, which helps build the soil. Farmers prepare the soil, and then they plant crops in the fields. correct Exercise 3 Using Commas with Main Clauses

28 Lesson 3-6 Correct each sentence by adding commas where necessary. If the sentence needs no commas, write correct. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 3 Using Commas with Main Clauses (cont.) 4.They maintain a compost pile from which they add finished compost to the soil. 5.Some seeds are planted directly in the ground but others are started indoors. correct Some seeds are planted directly in the ground, but others are started indoors.

29 Lesson 3-7 Underline the subordinate clause in each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1.Whenever farmers grow crops insects move in for the feast. 2.IPM, which stands for Integrated Pest Management helps control insects. 3.Because insects flourish in debris farmers try to keep their fields clean. 4.They make sure that seedlings are insect-free before they plant them. 5.They rotate crops so that soil insects don’t have a chance to multiply. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 4 Using Commas with Subordinate Clauses,,,

30 Lesson 3 Close Write three original examples for each of the three rules about using commas taught in this lesson. Exchange your sentences with a partner to check each other’s work. Close

31 End of Lesson 3 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

32 To learn about the use of commas with dates and addresses, with titles or degrees, and in direct quotations  Lesson 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To use commas appropriately in writing Objectives

33 Lesson 4-2 Several rules for using commas–among those the rules for punctuating dates and addresses–are a matter of standard usage.  Using Commas III Study the rules in the chart on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

34 Lesson 4-3 Using Commas III (cont.) Continued on the next slide

35 Lesson 4-4 Using Commas III (cont.)

36 Lesson 4-5 Correct each sentence below, adding commas where necessary, or write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1.Larry said “Our conference on pollution is sure to be successful.” 2.A letter from Austin Texas arrived today. 3.It said that Jean Loubet Ph.D. will be attending. 4.“Is Dr. Jean Loubet” asked Evan “a physician?” 5.His most famous book appeared in June Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 5 Using Commas with Names, Titles, Dates, and Quotations Larry said, “Our conference on pollution is sure to be successful.” A letter from Austin, Texas, arrived today. It said that Jean Loubet, Ph.D., will be attending. “Is Dr. Jean Loubet,” asked Evan, “a physician?” correct

37 Lesson 4-6 Correct each numbered item below, adding commas where necessary. If no commas are needed, write correct. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers National Boulevard 2 Los Angeles California September Dear Aunt Patricia 5 Last week my teacher said “We can all do more to stop pollution.” 6 I think that students too can help. 7 I said to Yoko “Let’s make posters for the Stop Pollution Fair.” 8 The fair will be like the one that was held on January in Denver Colorado. 9 Alex Gafar M.A. will speak on recycling. 10 Much love Antonia Exercise 6 Using Commas in Letters

38 Lesson 4-7 Correct each numbered item below, adding commas where necessary. If the no commas are needed, write correct. 1 correct 2 Los Angeles, California September 30, Dear Aunt Patricia, 5 Last week my teacher said, “We can all do more to stop pollution.” 6 I think that students, too, can help. 7 I said to Yoko, “Let’s make posters for the Stop Pollution Fair.” 8 The fair will be like the one that was held on January 5, 2000, in Denver, Colorado. 9 Alex Gafar, M.A., will speak on recycling. 10 Much love, Antonia Exercise 6 Using Commas in Letters (cont.)

39 Lesson 4 Close Write a practice letter to Dr. Ann Hayes, an expert on preserving the environment, to ask her if she will speak at your school. Include a direct quotation from a newspaper article, magazine, book, or other appropriate source. Close

40 End of Lesson 4 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

41 To identify the appropriate use of semicolons and colons and to employ them in writing Lesson 5-1 Objective

42 Lesson 5-2 Using Semicolons and Colons Continued on the next slide

43 Lesson 5-3 Using Semicolons and Colons (cont.)

44 Lesson 5-4 Correct each sentence. Add a semicolon or a colon where needed. Remember to use a comma after a conjunctive adverb. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.I was bored at 330 in the afternoon then the mail arrived. 2.It included these items two bills, three ads, and a letter from my cousin. 3.Jill wrote about her work in Africa she is teaching English in Tanzania. I was bored at 3:30 in the afternoon; then the mail arrived. Exercise 7 Using Semicolons and Colons It included these items: two bills, three ads, and a letter from my cousin. Jill wrote about her work in Africa; she is teaching English in Tanzania.

45 Lesson 5-5 Correct each sentence. Add a semicolon or a colon where needed. Remember to use a comma after a conjunctive adverb. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 4.Africa contains these regions deserts, rain forests, grasslands, and farmlands. 5.The equator cuts through Africa however most of Africa lies north of the equator. Africa contains these regions: deserts, rain forests, grasslands, and farmlands. The equator cuts through Africa; however, most of Africa lies north of the equator. Exercise 7 Using Semicolons and Colons (cont.)

46 Lesson 5-6 Correct the numbered items, adding a semicolon or a colon where needed. 1 Dear Mr. Bishop 2 I am buying a farm for my venture, I will need farming equipment. 3 I will have to buy plows, tractors, and spreaders. 4 In the near future, I will also need the following seed, fertilizer, and more machinery. 5 I am currently pricing equipment therefore, please send me a list of your prices. Sincerely yours, Eleni Ruiz Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 8 Using Semicolons and Colons in Letters

47 Lesson 5-7 Correct the numbered items, adding a semicolon or a colon where needed. Exercise 8 Using Semicolons and Colons in Letters (cont.) 1 Dear Mr. Bishop: 2 I am buying a farm; for my venture, I will need farming equipment. 3 correct 4 In the near future, I will also need the following: seed, fertilizer, and more machinery. 5 I am currently pricing equipment; therefore, please send me a list of your prices. Sincerely yours, Eleni Ruiz

48 Lesson 5 Close Write a brief business letter requesting information. It should have a colon in the salutation and include a compound sentence joined by a semicolon. Proofread your letter. Close

49 End of Lesson 5 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

50 To identify the correct use of quotation marks and to use them in writing  Lesson 6-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To identify the correct use of italic type and to use it in writing Objectives

51 Lesson 6-2 Quotation marks enclose a person’s exact words, as well as the titles of some works. Italic type–a special slanted type that is used in printing–identifies titles of other works. In handwriting, use underlining to indicate italics.  Using Quotation Marks and Italics Study the rules on the following two slides. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

52 Lesson 6-3 Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.) Continued on the next slide

53 Lesson 6-4 Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.)

54 Lesson 6-5 Correct each item below, adding quotation marks or italics where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.Nanook of the North (film) 2.New York Times (newspaper) 3.The Eternal Nomad (short poem) 4.The Old Man and the Sea (book) 5.Dream-Children (essay) Nanook of the North Exercise 9 Punctuating Titles New York Times “The Eternal Nomad” The Old Man and the Sea “Dream-Children”

55 Lesson 6-6 Correct the following sentences, adding quotation marks and other punctuation marks and italics where needed. 1.Frieda asked Have you read the assignment in our textbook 2.Bonnie shouted What an interesting article on nomads that was 3.I didn’t know said Barry that some nomads live in northern Europe Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 10 Using Quotation Marks and Italics Frieda asked, “Have you read the assignment in our textbook?” Bonnie shouted, “What an interesting article on nomads that was!” “I didn’t know,” said Barry, “that some nomads live in northern Europe.”

56 Lesson 6-7 Correct the following sentences, adding quotation marks and other punctuation marks and italics where needed. 4.Yes said Ms. Ito Lapland lies in Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Norway 5.Did Ms. Ito say The people of Lapland are called Lapps Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 10 “Yes,” said Ms. Ito. “Lapland lies in Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.” Did Ms. Ito say, “The people of Lapland are called Lapps”? Using Quotation Marks and Italics (cont.)

57 Lesson 6 Close Write a brief dialogue. Feel free to use slang and idiomatic expressions for realism. However, correct punctuation will make the dialogue–and your stories–easier to follow. Trade papers with a classmate and read each other’s dialogue aloud, paying attention to the punctuation. Discuss needed punctuation changes to clarify meaning. Close

58 End of Lesson 6 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

59 To understand the use of apostrophes to indicate possession and contraction and to employ them in writing  Lesson 7-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To learn about the use of apostrophes with certain plurals and to employ them in writing Objectives

60 Lesson 7-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An apostrophe shows possession as well as the missing letters in a contraction.  It can also signal the plural of letters, numbers, or words.  Study the rules on the following two slides. Using Apostrophes

61 Lesson 7-3 Using Apostrophes (cont.) Continued on the next slide

62 Lesson 7-4 Using Apostrophes (cont.)

63 Lesson 7-5 Write the possessive form of each of the words below. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1. cities 2.nation 3.everybody 4.children 5.Mr. Schultz cities’ nation’s everybody’s children’s Mr. Schultz’s Exercise 11 Using Apostrophes in Possessives

64 Lesson 7-6 Correct each plural, possessive, or contraction. Use apostrophes where needed. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1.This citys outlook is uncertain. 2.Ours is an uncertain future. 3.Today cities arent built beneath the earth. 4.Its strange to think of underground cities. 5.Perhaps well see cities floating on the water. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 12 Using Apostrophes city’s correct aren’t It’s we’ll

65 Lesson 7 Close The year is Use apostrophes in a sentence to describe what you see. Close

66 End of Lesson 7 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

67 To gain an understanding of hyphens, dashes, and parentheses and to use them in writing Lesson 8-1 Objective

68 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Lesson 8-2 Continued on the next slide

69 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.) Lesson 8-3

70 Lesson 8-4 Correct each item. Use a hyphen where needed. Write correct if the item needs no hyphens. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.two thirds majority 2.one-half of the pie 3.exchampion 4.self knowledge 5.well loved author two-thirds majority correct ex-champion self-knowledge well-loved author Exercise 13 Using Hyphens

71 Lesson 8-5 Correct the following sentences, adding any needed hyphens, dashes, or parentheses. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 1.Before people began to clear the forest for farms and cities, forests covered about one half of the earth. 2.Dr. Orzeck he is an expert on ecology spoke about deforestation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 14 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses Before people began to clear the forest for farms and cities, forests covered about one-half of the earth. Dr. Orzeck–he is an expert on ecology–spoke about deforestation.

72 Lesson 8-6 Correct the following sentences, adding any needed hyphens, dashes, or parentheses. Write correct if the sentence needs no changes. 3.His presentation was well documented. 4.People have used wood products since the beginning of time but more about that later. 5.One tree may have as many as forty two uses. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 14 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.) correct People have used wood products since the beginning of time–but more about that later. One tree may have as many as forty-two uses.

73 Lesson 8 Close Write a paragraph in which you discuss some of the products that can be made from materials found in forests. Use hyphens, dashes, and parentheses in your paragraph. Share your paragraph with a partner and discuss the punctuation. Close

74 End of Lesson 8 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

75 To learn about the correct use of abbreviations  Lesson 9-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To employ abbreviations effectively in writing Objectives

76 Lesson 9-2 Using Abbreviations Continued on the next slide

77 Lesson 9-3 Using Abbreviations (cont.)

78 Lesson 9-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Give the correct abbreviation for each underlined item. 1.anno Domini David Parker Junior kilometers 4.February 23 5.Wednesday A.D. Jr. km Feb. Wed. Exercise 15 Using Abbreviations

79 Lesson 9-5 Supply the correct abbreviation for each underlined item in the following sentences. Write correct if there are no changes. 1.The address on the envelope read 48 Bolton Street, Madison, Wisconsin. 2.It contained information from Doctor Rita Tapahonso. 3.Mister Ed Jones is teaching ecology. 4.Last year, classes met from 9:30 in the morning until 3:30 in the afternoon. 5.Scheduled speakers included Doctor Robin Oren. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 16 Using Abbreviations in Sentences St.; WI Dr. Mr. A.M. ; P.M. Dr.

80 Lesson 9 Close Write ten sentences, using a different abbreviation in each. Trade papers with a classmate, point out the abbreviation in each sentence, and explain what each abbreviation stands for. Close

81 End of Lesson 9 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

82 To learn about numerals and spelled-out numbers and to use them in writing Lesson 10-1 Objective

83 Lesson 10-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In charts and tables, numbers are always written as figures.  However, in an ordinary sentence some numbers are spelled out and others are written as numerals.  Study the rules on the following two slides. Writing Numbers

84 Lesson 10-3 Writing Numbers (cont.) Continued on the next slide

85 Lesson 10-4 Writing Numbers (cont.)

86 Lesson 10-5 Correct the sentences below, using the correct form for writing numbers. Write correct if a sentence needs no changes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.My father graduated from Red Bank Regional High School with the class of nineteen hundred sixty-one. 2.His class recently had a reunion after thirty years. 3.The reunion was scheduled for April ninth. 4.The party began at seven-thirty p.m. 5.Dad was the 13th person to arrive that evening correct 7:30 P.M. thirteenth Exercise 17 Writing Numbers

87 Lesson 10-6 In the following paragraph, use the correct form for writing numbers. 1 In nineteen hundred ninety-one the population of the United States was approximately 248 million. 2 The estimated population of North America was three hundred ninety million. 3 North America has the 3rd largest population of the world’s continents. 4 Asia has the largest percentage of world population, with fifty-nine percent. 5 More than three billion people live in Asia. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Exercise 18 Writing Numbers million 3. third percent 5. correct

88 Lesson 10 Close Write a brief life story, including dates and other numbers as appropriate. Trade papers with a classmate and check each other’s usage of numbers. Close

89 End of Lesson 10 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

90 Grammar Review 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Punctuation Tourists see a place differently from the way local inhabitants do.  In A Small Place, Jamaica Kincaid writes about her homeland, the small Caribbean island of Antigua.  In the Literature Model on page 619 of your textbook, Kincaid looks at the island through the eyes of a tourist.  She describes the island’s beauty and discusses its history.

91 Grammar Review 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Punctuation (cont.) She also expresses her hopes for the future of Antigua.  This passage by Kincaid has been annotated to show some of the rules of punctuation covered in this unit.

92 Grammar Review 3 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1.Tourists come for the white sand beaches colorful reefs and balmy climate. 2.Antigua unlike other islands of the Lesser Antilles is not mountainous. 3.Most of the island is flat; however there are hills in the Southwest. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 1 Using Commas Tourists come for the white sand beaches, colorful reefs, and balmy climate. Antigua, unlike other islands of the Lesser Antilles, is not mountainous. Most of the island is flat; however, there are hills in the Southwest.

93 Grammar Review 4 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 1 Using Commas (cont.) 4.These hills the remnants of ancient volcanoes bear patches of rain forest. 5.Did you know Catherine that Antigua was once covered by rain forest? These hills, the remnants of ancient volcanoes, bear patches of rain forest. Did you know, Catherine, that Antigua was once covered by rain forest?

94 Grammar Review 5 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 2 Using Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases 1.Blessed with low humidity and year-round trade winds Antigua has an ideal climate for tourists. 2.Fringed by coral reefs the island is a snorkeler’s paradise. 3.With its miles of undulating coastline it appeals to beach lovers from all over the world. Blessed with low humidity and year-round trade winds, Antigua has an ideal climate for tourists. Fringed by coral reefs, the island is a snorkeler’s paradise. With its miles of undulating coastline, it appeals to beach lovers from all over the world.

95 Grammar Review 6 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 2 Using Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases (cont.) 4.Shimmering in the tropical sun the turquoise waters are very inviting. 5.Indeed all kinds of water sports are popular with both natives and tourists. Shimmering in the tropical sun, the turquoise waters are very inviting. Indeed, all kinds of water sports are popular with both natives and tourists.

96 Grammar Review 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 3 Using Commas with Adverb Clauses Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 1.Because McKinnon’s Salt Pond is very shallow it appeals to sandpipers. 2.Where Indian Creek flows into the sea brown pelicans dive for tarpon. 3.You won’t find a tropical rain forest unless you drive up Boggy Peak. Because McKinnon’s Salt Pond is very shallow, it appeals to sandpipers. Where Indian Creek flows into the sea, brown pelicans dive for tarpon. correct

97 Grammar Review 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 3 Using Commas with Adverb Clauses (cont.) Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. 4.Before you drive back down you should look for scarlet tanagers. 5.Visit the lovely beaches of Carlisle Bay after you leave Boggy Peak. Before you drive back down, you should look for scarlet tanagers. correct

98 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. Grammar Review 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 4 Using Commas with Adjective Clauses 1.Tourists who like to explore have many options on Antigua. 2.Paradise Reef which offers a mile of coral is popular with snorkelers. 3.Glass-bottomed boats which let nonswimmers see the reef are also popular. correct Paradise Reef, which offers a mile of coral, is popular with snorkelers. Glass-bottomed boats, which let nonswimmers see the reef, are also popular.

99 Grammar Review 10 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. Write correct if the sentence is correct. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 4 Using Commas with Adjective Clauses (cont.) 4.You may see the hawksbill whose shell is used for tortoiseshell jewelry. 5.The hawksbill which is named for its beaky upper jawbone is a sea turtle. You may see the hawksbill, whose shell is used for tortoiseshell jewelry. The hawksbill, which is named for its beaky upper jawbone, is a sea turtle.

100 Grammar Review 11 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 1.Leona’s home is at 1147 Schyler Street Gary Indiana. 2.Her aunt Jo lives in Falmouth Antigua. 3.Josephine Susannah Hardy M.D. is her aunt’s full name. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 5 Using Commas Leona’s home is at 1147 Schyler Street, Gary, Indiana. Her aunt Jo lives in Falmouth, Antigua. Josephine Susannah Hardy, M.D., is her aunt’s full name.

101 Grammar Review 12 Correct each sentence, adding commas where needed. 4.Leona arrived for a visit on July Leona’s brother Conrad came too. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 5 Using Commas (cont.) Leona arrived for a visit on July 15, correct

102 Grammar Review 13 Correct each sentence, adding commas, semicolons, and colons where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 6 Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons 1. English Harbor bustled for two centuries but then its glory faded. 2.The English navy sailed for home and traders found different ports. 3.Nelson’s Dockyard itself was badly decayed old buildings had fallen in. English Harbor bustled for two centuries, but then its glory faded. The English navy sailed for home, and traders found different ports. Nelson’s Dockyard itself was badly decayed; old buildings had fallen in.

103 Grammar Review 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 6 Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons (cont.) 4.In 1951 the governor founded the Society of the Friends of English Harbor its purpose was to restore the harbor. 5. The group unearthed original plans consequently their restoration is historically accurate. In 1951 the governor founded the Society of the Friends of English Harbor; its purpose was to restore the harbor. The group unearthed original plans; consequently, their restoration is historically accurate. Correct each sentence, adding commas, semicolons, and colons where needed.

104 Grammar Review 15 Correct each sentence, adding commas and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 7 Using Commas and End Marks in Direct Quotations 1.“The Caribbean Islands are just like stepping stones from Venezuela to Florida” said Ron 2.Keisha added “Most of the first inhabitants came from South America” 3.“Among those who settled Antigua” said Mr. Hays “were the Arawaks” “The Caribbean Islands are just like stepping stones from Venezuela to Florida,” said Ron. Keisha added, “Most of the first inhabitants came from South America.” “Among those who settled Antigua,” said Mr. Hays, “were the Arawaks.”

105 Grammar Review 16 Correct each sentence, adding commas and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 7 Using Commas and End Marks in Direct Quotations (cont.) 4. Did you say “The Arawaks lived in wooden houses” 5.“Yes” said Mr. Hays “the houses were wood with thatched roofs” Did you say, “The Arawaks lived in wooden houses”? “Yes,” said Mr. Hays, “the houses were wood with thatched roofs.”

106 Grammar Review 17 Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 8 Punctuating Direct Quotations 1.I have been reading about the Arawaks and Caribs in a beautiful book called Lost Empires 2.In it there is a chapter about the Caribbean called Crossroads Cultures 3.I told the class The Arawaks used sophisticated farming methods I have been reading about the Arawaks and Caribs in a beautiful book called Lost Empires. In it there is a chapter about the Caribbean called “Crossroads Cultures.” I told the class, “The Arawaks used sophisticated farming methods.”

107 Grammar Review 18 Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 8 Punctuation Direct Quotations (cont.) 4.They knew how to control erosion and irrigate their fields explained Tim 5.Manioc was their chief crop I said but they also grew other foods “They knew how to control erosion and irrigate their fields,” explained Tim. “Manioc was their chief crop,” I said, “but they also grew other foods.”

108 Grammar Review 19 Correct each sentence, inserting apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and parentheses where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 9 Using Apostrophes, Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses 1.The country of Antigua and Barbuda has a total land area of 171 square miles 442 square kilometers. 2. Barbuda is a game preserve, and its anyones guess how many species of birds live there. The country of Antigua and Barbuda has a total land area of 171 square miles (442 square kilometers). Barbuda is a game preserve, and it’s anyone’s guess how many species of birds live there.

109 Grammar Review 20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 9 Using Apostrophes, Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses (cont.) 3.Redonda an uninhabited island is also part of the island country. 4.The country has been a self governing nation since The three islands terrain is mostly flat. Redonda–an uninhabited island–is also part of the island country. The country has been a self-governing nation since Correct each sentence, inserting apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and parentheses where needed. The three islands’ terrain is mostly flat.

110 Grammar Review 21 Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 10 Using Abbreviations and Numbers 1.Mister Vere Cornwall was the prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda. 2.About two percent of the people live on Barbuda, the smaller island. 3.The islands receive about 45 in. of rain annually. Mr. Vere Cornwall was the prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda. About 2 percent of the people live on Barbuda, the smaller island. The islands receive about forty-five inches of rain annually.

111 Grammar Review 22 Correct each sentence, adding quotation marks, italics, commas, and end marks where needed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 4.2 deaths and 80 million dollars in property damage resulted when Hurricane Hugo struck in The island’s hospitals need qualified Drs. Two deaths and 80 million dollars in property damage resulted when Hurricane Hugo struck in The island’s hospitals need qualified doctors. Review: Exercise 10 Using Abbreviations and Numbers (cont.)

112 Grammar Review 23 Rewrite the following passage, correcting the errors in spelling, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Review: Exercise 11 Proofreading The young woman in Matisse’s Interior at Nice sit in front of a window on a hotel balcony in France. With her back to the sea she gazes at the observer. The sun reflects off the sea and bathe the room in silvery light. Intense pinks blues, and grays help convey the atmosphere of warmth. sits (subject-verb agreement) pinks, (comma in a series) sea, (comma after two or more introductory prepositional phrases) bathes (subject-verb agreement)

113 Grammar Review 24 Write each sentence, correcting all errors in punctuation, quotation marks, italics, and numbers. Review: Exercise 12 Mixed Review 1 Born on May 25, 1949 young Jamaica Kincaid loved to read, one of her favorite books was Jane Eyre. 2 Although she had a happy childhood Kincaid realized that her family her mother father and three brothers underestimated her abilities she also felt stifled by the island. 3 By 16 she was a very self directed young woman and she left Antigua for a job in New York. 4 She attended several colleges but she never earned a degree. 5 After she had written articles for teenagers magazines she became a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

114 Grammar Review 25 Write each sentence, correcting all errors in punctuation, quotation marks, italics, and numbers. Review: Exercise 12 Mixed Review 1 Born on May 25, 1949, young Jamaica Kincaid loved to read; one of her favorite books was Jane Eyre. 2 Although she had a happy childhood, Kincaid realized that her family–her mother, father, and three brothers–underestimated her abilities; she also felt stifled by the island. 3 By sixteen she was a very self- directed young woman, and she left Antigua for a job in New York. 4 She attended several colleges, but she never earned a degree. 5 After she had written articles for teenagers’ magazines, she became a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine.

115 Grammar Review Close Close Name the types of punctuation demonstrated in the Unit 20 Review.

116 End of Grammar Review Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

117 DLP Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Wow! What a beautiful day! The forecaster said it would rain. Can you believe how lucky we are?

118 DLP Transparency 2 Jan, Lily, Sam, Eli, Hiroko, and I are going to the show. With all six of us in one car, it’s a crowd. Dad, would you take us in the van? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

119 DLP Transparency 3 When I get confused about commas, I read the sentence out loud. Wherever I pause, I know I should consider using a comma. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

120 DLP Transparency 4 The box was shipped to 63 Fig Lane, Luther, Utah It was sent on December 22, 2001, and should have come by January 5, I, too, am surprised that it hasn’t arrived yet. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

121 DLP Transparency 5 My aunt is going to Africa next year; she plans to see the pyramids. She has traveled in Asia and Europe; however, she has never been to Africa. These are countries I would like to visit: Egypt, Kenya, and Nigeria. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

122 DLP Transparency 6 I saw Blue Skies, the movie based on the short story “The Blues.” My cousin thought that it was awful. “It gave me the blues,” she said, “for weeks.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

123 DLP Transparency 7 Women’s dresses, girls’ shoes, and babies’ clothes are on the top floor. It’s anyone’s guess where the elevators are located in this store. Hold Alex’s hand, and let’s look for them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

124 DLP Transparency 8 Sixty-one hikers set out on the ten-mile (sixteen- kilometer) hike. One-half finished, including–we all expected it– Miguel and Kathy. As ex-Marines, they are well-trained marchers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

125 DLP Transparency 9 Mister Garza’s class will tour the UN building. They are leaving on Friday early in the morning. They are to meet at Dr. Hall’s house on Cherry Avenue. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

126 DLP Transparency 10 Dad was born on August 8, 1965, at exactly eight o’clock at night. The fourth child, he was raised in a village of four hundred people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

127 BR Transparency 1 The track meet is today. Are you going to watch it? Yeah, we won! Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

128 BR Transparency 2 Tom, Dick, and Harry, our best blockers, all received football scholarships. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

129 BR Transparency 3 I really wanted to attend the play, but I had to work instead. Before making that important decision, consider all your options. Jeremy, who works at the library, called me last night. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

130 BR Transparency 4

131 BR Transparency 5 Efrat thought English was difficult to learn; however, she speaks very well. I have to pack these items for my trip: a sleeping bag, a small camping stove, and a pup tent. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

132 BR Transparency 6 Mr. Hill announced, “Tomorrow is a holiday!” or Mr. Hill announced, “Tomorrow is a holiday.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

133 BR Transparency 7 Tom and Mary Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

134 BR Transparency 8

135 BR Transparency 9

136 BR Transparency 10

137 TMSD Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. James, did you receive a letter from your sister? Clair works for Concor, a large manufacturing company, as a systems programmer. James doesn’t know whether he will take a train, a bus, or an airplane. In Boston, as I understand it, he will stay at Copley Plaza; however, he still needs to make reservations.

138 TMSD Transparency 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. The little bird’s wing was caught on the door of its cage. The birds’ flight south took them less than a week. My mom belongs to a women’s committee to protect city wild life. This is our birdhouse, but that is no one’s. No one knows who put it there, but it’s very popular with the birds.

139 Writing Application 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. David Weitzman uses apostrophes in the following passage from Trashin’ Time to make his farming characters’ dialogue sound realistic. Study the passage, paying close attention to the italicized words.  “What do you think about all this, Peter, steam power instead of horse power?” I wasn’t sure. “If the engine took the place of the horses, I think I’d miss Annie and Lulu and Quinn. Wouldn’t you, Pa?” “I would, but, you know, horsepower thrashin’ is awful hard on them, son. Sure, I’d miss them, but we work them hard all year plowin’ and diskin’, and seedin’ and mowin’. Then just when they’re so tuckered out, about to drop and needin’ a good rest, we put them to thrashin’.” Apostrophes in Writing

140 Writing Application 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1.Use apostrophes to create contractions and to help your writing flow more smoothly.  Try to apply some of David Weitzman’s writing techniques when you write.  –AWKWARD VERSION I was not sure.  –WEITZMAN’S VERSION I wasn’t sure. Techniques with Apostrophes

141 Writing Application 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 2.Dialogue conveys information about a character. Replacing missing letters with apostrophes shows a character’s natural speech patterns. The first version, although correct, is not how Pa really speaks.  Techniques with Apostrophes Try to apply some of David Weitzman’s writing techniques when you write.  –LESS INFORMATION …we work them hard all year plowing and disking, and seeding and mowing.  –WEITZMAN’S VERSION …we work them hard all year plowin’ and diskin’, and seedin’ and mowin’.

142 Writing Application 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display a sample answer. Practice Rewrite the following passage, adding apostrophes to the underlined words to make the dialogue sound more natural. “Nothing doing, Fred,” said Mr. Felters. “I cannot accept this wood. It is not cut short enough.” “Come on, Felters, we have been working together for going on ten years. Trust me. I will come tomorrow and cut it shorter for you,” implored Fred. “Nope! Before I take it, it has got to be right. Cut them down to two-foot lengths and I will be a happy man,” insisted Mr. Felters. “If I must,” sighed Fred, “I guess I may as well get going on it.”

143 Writing Application 5 Sample answer: “Nothin’ doin’, Fred,” said Mr. Felters. “I can’t accept this wood. It’s not cut short enough.” “Come on, Felters, we’ve been workin’ together for goin’ on ten years. Trust me. I’ll come tomorrow and cut it shorter for you,” implored Fred. “Nope! ‘Fore I take it, it’s got to be right. Cut ‘em down to two-foot lengths and I’ll be a happy man,” insisted Mr. Felters. “If I must,” sighed Fred, “I guess I may as well get goin’ on it.” Practice

144 Writing Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this unit. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Writer’s Choice Web site. At this site, you will find unit overviews, interactive activities, and Web sites correlated with the units and lessons in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

145 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

146 End of Slide Show Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.


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