Presentation on theme: "Barcelona, 28-29 October 2010 Maria Helena Nazaré (former Rector) Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal EUA Vice-President “Change and Reform in Portuguese."— Presentation transcript:
Barcelona, 28-29 October 2010 Maria Helena Nazaré (former Rector) Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal EUA Vice-President “Change and Reform in Portuguese Higher Education: The Challenge of Governance at System and Institutional level”
Content: The Context; Changes over the last five years; Chalenges;
Political and administrative: 5 + 2 regions, 18 districts. Total area 92,090 km2. Little autonomy from central government. Ex: Education, Health and Justice. Demography: Total of 10.680 million residents , 58% residing in urban areas . Growth rate of.5% , average age 39 years  and a Life Expectancy of 78 years . Economy: National GDP in Purchasing Power Parity was 245,150 millions of US dollars in 2008 [for 2010 a growth of 0.3% is forecasted], corresponding to 0.33% of world total. GDP (PPP) per capita $22,027 (estimate 2010). GDP composition is 3% agriculture, 25.5% industry and 71.5% services. Largest companies are EDP-Energias de Portugal, Portugal Telecom, GALP Energy and BCP (banking). Higher Education: HE is a binary system made of University and Politechnic Education. While Licenciatura and Master degrees are awarded by both Polytechnics and Universities, the doctoral degree can be conferred only by Universities. The Context
Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Higher Education Landscape 40 Politechnic Institutions 14 Universities 1 University Institute ISCTE Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve In 2008-09 there were 373,002 students enrolled in HE (282,432 attending public institutions and 90,809 private ones). 1.4% of GDE was invested in HE (8.1x10 3 per student, av EU27 8.4x10 3 ) . The nº of HE students was 17.3% of the total, av EU27 17.4% . Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve
Changes in the Last 5 Years: signed the Bologna Declaration in 1999; Education Act (Lei de Bases) approved by the end of 2005. Ensuing needed legislation, for the change of the degree structures, introduced in March 2006. 2006/07 HE institutions adapted their study programmes to the Bologna principles. Bologna à Portuguesa Assessment of the Higher Education System conducted by the OECD (2006), the ENQA (2006) and the EUA (2006-2010). Law setting up the detail of what Autonomy mean for HEIs published in 2007. What now? Arent we done yet?---I AM AFRAID NOT!!!
Srengthened system diversity, with the emphasis on the expansion of the polytechnic sector; (????) A new framework for quality assurance with the creation of a new agency for quality assurance in tertiary education; Large-scale international partnerships between consortia of Portuguese institutions and leading world tertiary education and research institutions; (????) Change of HE governance system; A new legislative framework which facilitates the outword focus of institutions; OECD recommendations
Accreditation of programmes combined with academic audit at the level of HEIs; Accreditation Agency A3ES created by decree in 2007: Independent professional board with decision-making authority. Advisory council with a broader representation of relevant stakeholders. Pre-accreditation of New Degree Programmes; Preliminary accreditation of Degree Programmes in operation Cyclic Evaluation of Programmes in Operation; ENQA
Governance at Institutional level: Governing Bodies Board: Elect its chair from the external stakeholders, organise the election of the rector, approve strategic and budget plans, set fee levels, approve consolidated financial reports, conduct property transactions. The chair convenes and presides; s/he does not represent the institution publicly. The general council normally meets four times a year; it may invite non-voting members. The rector/president has no vote. Dimension and Composition: 15 to 35 members. The majority elected teaching/research members of the university community. At least 30% external members. 15% students. Final composition left to the Statutes. Rector (elected by Board) A university professor or researcher. National or international. The rector is the main authority within the university and may (should!?) nominate the Deans. Processes to elect the rector and appoint deans left to the Statutes. Management Council Maximum 5 members. The Rector presides, the “gerente” is a member, plus one vice rector. The council may co-opt non-voting members from any constituency, including students. It is charged with administrative and financial management, management of human resources and of the property portfolio. Final composition left to the Statutes.
Catch 22:The Statutes The new rules apply since 2007. BUT: There is not one single example of a rector coming from outside the university. WHY? The internal members of the board were elected to elect A rector! Search Party? Nomination Committee? Look abroad! Prepare for next time (4 years from now). Deans: Election versus Nomination. Evaluate and change statutes if necessary.
New Juridical Framework: Public University may have legal entity as Instituto Público (capacity to contract, to hire staff, to set budgets and develop policies---staff are civil servants). OR Fundação Pública de direito privado (capacity to contract at higher level, to hire staff and set their pay (no longer civil servants), to set budgets and devellop policies. To own property and assets and to earn money).
Public HEIs can apply to government for re-designation as a public foundation governed by private law. The request must be backed by informed argument. It may be presented by consortia or by institutions wishing to merge. A foundation is established by decree and administered by five trustees, chosen by the university and nominated by government. It enjoys autonomy in the same way as other HEIs. Although governed by private law, a foundation is a public service institution; its academic career structure must normally mirror those in the public sector. Student fees are set by law and a foundation will receive public funding on a multi-annual contract basis. It will provide student services, run on the same basis as those in public HEIs. Public Foundation:
The Law: Opens the way to the creation of what it refers to as HEIs of a foundational nature. Such HEIs will be non-profit foundations in private law, created by public initiative out of existing public institutions and with a clear public service vocation; they will effectively constitute a sub-sector of public HE and will NOT fall within the category of private universities. The legislators envisage that an existing HEI might deem foundation status to be more appropriate to its mission. They also allow the possibility of a foundation being built out of consortia of HE schools, organic entities of existing HEIs and research centres. The law specifies that the foundation’s financial, estate and HR management will be governed by private law. It does not deal with the possibility that foundation status might offer tax benefits both to the HEI and to potential benefactors.
Changes in the framework – superficial or deep? MinisterTrustees (5) Fundação Pública Instituto Público Rector Nomination Property Deals Personnel has the status of state employees. Rector Nomination Property Deals Borrowing Money Personnel has the status of University employees. Paid differently within limits.
Catch 22:The Ideological controversy Higher Education as a Public Good. Laboral link of the workers. The civil servant status. The endowment. The plurianual contract. The development plan. Doing MORE with LESS! THE CRUX OF the MATTER
–Changes in teaching and learning methodologies: Geared toward the acquisition of skills and competences. Tailored to the needs of the learners. –Programmes organized in such a way as to meet the varied needs of society and extend its offer to new publics. Creation of a diversity of learning paths and allow mobility between universities and industry. Cooperation between universities and other partners BUT SO FAR, in the majority of cases, DID NOT The Bologna Process /What should have changed ! :
Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Higher Education Landscape 40 Politechnic Institutions 14 Universities 1 University Institute ISCTE Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve 14 Universities 1 University Institute ISCTE Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Private 21 Universities 29 Politechnic Institutions Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve Minho UTAD Porto Aveiro Coimbra UBI Madeira Açores Évora U. Lisboa UTL UNL Aberta Algarve A crowded landscape!
Universities long viewed as ivory towers are increasingly recognized as oil wells of the new economy. (David Ward)
IVORY TOWER University, the Palace of Paradox OIL WELL WATCH TOWER
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