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LEARNER LANGUAGE. LEARNER LANGUAGE: MAIN TENETS >>errors are important >> SL learners are creative >> SL learning follows a developmental sequence.

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNER LANGUAGE. LEARNER LANGUAGE: MAIN TENETS >>errors are important >> SL learners are creative >> SL learning follows a developmental sequence."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEARNER LANGUAGE

2 LEARNER LANGUAGE: MAIN TENETS >>errors are important >> SL learners are creative >> SL learning follows a developmental sequence

3 CAH, Error Analysis, Interlanguage CAH fails to explain SL mistakes CAH fails to explain SL mistakes (1)The dog eats the cookie. (1)The dog eats the cookie. The dog eats it The dog eats it (2)Le chien mange le biscuit (2)Le chien mange le biscuit "the dog eatthe cookie" "the dog eatthe cookie" The dog eats the cookie. The dog eats the cookie. Le chien le mange. Le chien le mange. "the dog it eats" "the dog it eats" "The dog eats it" "The dog eats it"

4 CAH, Error Analysis, Interlanguage Error Analysis: analyzing the errors that learners make analyzing the errors that learners make understanding what learners really know about their interlanguage understanding what learners really know about their interlanguage not predictive, but descriptive and analytic not predictive, but descriptive and analytic

5 Error Analysis: Sample 1 Error Analysis: Sample 1 Learner 1: French first language, secondary school student Learner 1: French first language, secondary school student During a sunny day, a cowboy go in the desert with his horse. he has a big hat. His horse eat a flour. In the same time, Santa Clause go in aciq,to give some surprises. He has a red costume and a red packet of surprises. You have three robbers in the mountain who sees Santa Clause with a king of glaces that it permitted us to see at a long distance. Every robbers have a horse. They go in the way of Santa Clause, not Santa Clause but his pocket of surprises. After theywill go in a city and they go in a saloon. [...] During a sunny day, a cowboy go in the desert with his horse. he has a big hat. His horse eat a flour. In the same time, Santa Clause go in aciq,to give some surprises. He has a red costume and a red packet of surprises. You have three robbers in the mountain who sees Santa Clause with a king of glaces that it permitted us to see at a long distance. Every robbers have a horse. They go in the way of Santa Clause, not Santa Clause but his pocket of surprises. After theywill go in a city and they go in a saloon. [...] (unpublished data from P. M. Lightbown and B. Barkman) (unpublished data from P. M. Lightbown and B. Barkman)

6 Error Analysis: Sample 1 Error Analysis: Sample 1 Learner 1: French first language, secondary school student Learner 1: French first language, secondary school student During a sunny day, a cowboy go in the desert with his horse. he has a big hat. His horse eat a flour. In the same time, Santa Clause go in aciq to give some surprises. He has a red costume and a red packet of surprises. You have three robbers in the mountain who sees Santa Clause with a king of glaces that it permitted us to see at a long distance. Every robbers have a horse. They go in the way of Santa Clause, not Santa Clause but his pocket of surprises. After they will go in a city and they go in a saloon. [...] During a sunny day, a cowboy go in the desert with his horse. he has a big hat. His horse eat a flour. In the same time, Santa Clause go in aciq to give some surprises. He has a red costume and a red packet of surprises. You have three robbers in the mountain who sees Santa Clause with a king of glaces that it permitted us to see at a long distance. Every robbers have a horse. They go in the way of Santa Clause, not Santa Clause but his pocket of surprises. After they will go in a city and they go in a saloon. [...] (unpublished data from P. M. Lightbown and B. Barkman) (unpublished data from P. M. Lightbown and B. Barkman)

7 Error Analysis: Sample 2 Learner 2: Chinese first language, adult This year Christmas comes soon! Santa Claus ride a one horse open sleigh to sent present for children. on the back of his body has big packet. it have a lot of toys. in the way he meet three robbers. They want to take his big packet. Santa Claus no way and no body help, so only a way give them, then three robbers ride their horse dashing through the town. There have saloon, they go to drink some beer and open the big packent. They plays toys in the Bar. They meet a cow boy in the saloon. (unpublished data provided by M. J. Martens)

8 Error Analysis: Sample 2 Learner 2: Chinese first language, adult This year Christmas comes soon! Santa Claus ride a one horse open sleigh to sent present for children. on the back of his body has big packet. it have a lot of toys. in the way he meet three robbers. They want to take his big packet. Santa Claus no way and no body help, so only a way give them, then three robbers ride their horse dashing through the town. There have saloon, they go to drink some beer and open the big packent. They plays toys in the Bar. They meet a cow boy in the saloon. (unpublished data provided by M. J. Martens)

9 Developmental Sequences like L1 learners, L2 learners go through similar stages like L1 learners, L2 learners go through similar stages it is a very remarkable thing, considering that they already know one language and they have different linguistic backgrounds it is a very remarkable thing, considering that they already know one language and they have different linguistic backgrounds features that are heard most are not the ones learned most, i.e. articles features that are heard most are not the ones learned most, i.e. articles

10 Developmental Sequnces: NEGATION Stage 1: No bicycle. I no like it. Not my friend. Stage 1: No bicycle. I no like it. Not my friend. Stage 2: He don't like it. I don't can sing. Stage 2: He don't like it. I don't can sing. Stage 3: You cannot go there. He was not happy. She don't like rice. Stage 3: You cannot go there. He was not happy. She don't like rice. Stage 4: It doesn't work. We didn't have supper. I didn't went there. Stage 4: It doesn't work. We didn't have supper. I didn't went there.

11 Developmental Sequences: Questions QUESTIONS QUESTIONS Stage 1: Stage 1: Dog? Dog? Four children?, Four children?, Stage 2: Stage 2: It's a monster in the right corner? It's a monster in the right corner? The boys throw the shoes? The boys throw the shoes? Stage 3: Stage 3: Do you have a shoes on your picture? Do you have a shoes on your picture? Where the children are playing? Where the children are playing? Does in this picture there is four astronauts? Does in this picture there is four astronauts? Is the picture has two planets on top? Is the picture has two planets on top? Stage 4: Stage 4: Where is the sun? Where is the sun? Is there a fish in the water? Is there a fish in the water? Like you baseball?' Like you baseball?'

12 Developmental Sequences: Questions Stage 5: Stage 5: How do you say proche? How do you say proche? What's the boy doing? What's the boy doing? At this stage some French speakers make the mistake of assuming that At this stage some French speakers make the mistake of assuming that the NP cannot be inverted if it is a noun rather than a pronoun, because of a rule in L1 which does not allow noun inversion in French. the NP cannot be inverted if it is a noun rather than a pronoun, because of a rule in L1 which does not allow noun inversion in French. Stage 6: Stage 6: Complex questions. Complex questions. question tag: It's better, isnt it? question tag: It's better, isnt it? negative question: Why cant you go? negative question: Why cant you go? embedded question: Can you tell me what the date is today? embedded question: Can you tell me what the date is today?

13 Developmental Sequnces: Possesive Determiners Subjects: French and Spanish learners of English Subjects: French and Spanish learners of English In French and Spanish, the choice of the correct possesive determiner depends on the gender of the possessed object, In French and Spanish, the choice of the correct possesive determiner depends on the gender of the possessed object, which is different from the English paradigm. which is different from the English paradigm. Sa mire= his mother or her mother Sa mire= his mother or her mother Son chien= his dog or her dog Son chien= his dog or her dog Ses enfants = his children or her children Ses enfants = his children or her children Note that when the object possessed is a body part, French often uses a Note that when the object possessed is a body part, French often uses a definite article rather than a possessive determiner. definite article rather than a possessive determiner. Il iest cassi le brar - He broke the [his] arm. Il iest cassi le brar - He broke the [his] arm.

14 Developmental Sequnces: Possesive Determiners Stage 1: Pre-emergence Stage 1: Pre-emergence No use of 'his' and 'her'. Definite article or 'your' used for all persons, No use of 'his' and 'her'. Definite article or 'your' used for all persons, genders, and numbers. genders, and numbers. The little boy play with the bicycle. The little boy play with the bicycle. He have band-aid on the arm, the leg, the stomach. He have band-aid on the arm, the leg, the stomach. This boy cry in the arm ofyour mother. This boy cry in the arm ofyour mother. There is one girl talkwith your dad. There is one girl talkwith your dad. Stage 2: Emergence Stage 2: Emergence Emergence of 'his' and/or'her', with a strong preference to use only one of Emergence of 'his' and/or'her', with a strong preference to use only one of the forms. the forms. The mother is dressing her little boy, and she put her clothes, her pant, The mother is dressing her little boy, and she put her clothes, her pant, her coat, and then she finish. her coat, and then she finish. The girl making hisself beautiful. She put the make-up on his hand, on The girl making hisself beautiful. She put the make-up on his hand, on his head, and his father is surprise. his head, and his father is surprise.

15 Developmental Sequnces: Possesive Determiners Stage 3 : Post-emergence Stage 3 : Post-emergence Differentiated use of 'his' and 'her' but not when the object possessed has Differentiated use of 'his' and 'her' but not when the object possessed has natural gender. natural gender. The girl fell on her bicycle. She look his father and cry. The girl fell on her bicycle. She look his father and cry. The dad put her little girl on his shoulder, and after, on his back. The dad put her little girl on his shoulder, and after, on his back. Stage 4 Stage 4 Error-free use of 'his' and 'her' in all contexts including natural gender and Error-free use of 'his' and 'her' in all contexts including natural gender and body parts. body parts. The little girl with her dad play together. And the dad take his girl on The little girl with her dad play together. And the dad take his girl on his shoulder and he hurt his back. his shoulder and he hurt his back.

16 Developmental Sequences: RC "The accessibility hierarchy" "The accessibility hierarchy" Edward Keenan and Bernard Comrie (1977) Three types of first language interference: Three types of first language interference: a) difficulty in learning of a specific type if that type is missing in L1 a) difficulty in learning of a specific type if that type is missing in L1 b) avoidance of using RC if L1 strategy for forming RC is significantly different b) avoidance of using RC if L1 strategy for forming RC is significantly different c) using the pronoun with the relative pronoun in the same sentence if L1 allows such structures (Arabic) c) using the pronoun with the relative pronoun in the same sentence if L1 allows such structures (Arabic)

17 Developmental Sequences: Past reference Locating events in time Locating events in time Learners with different ling. backgrounds acquire past reference in a similar pattern Learners with different ling. backgrounds acquire past reference in a similar pattern 1. Simply refer to the order in which the events have occured. 1. Simply refer to the order in which the events have occured. My son come. He work in a restaurant. Vietnam. We work too hard. 2. Attaching grammatical morphemes Me working for a long time. Now stop. 3. Irregular past forms We went to school everyday. We spoke Spanish 4. Overgeneralization My sister catched a big fish. She has lived here since 15 years. (Bardovi-Harlig(2000): learners are more likely to mark past tense on some verbs than others Which ones? Why?

18 MORE ON FIRST LANGUAGE INTERFERECE: VOCABULARY

19 Pragmatic Development The study of how language express their intentions through different speech acts such as requests, politeness etc. The study of how language express their intentions through different speech acts such as requests, politeness etc. Gabriele Kasper and Kenneth Rose (2002): a longitudinal study of how L2 learners develop the ability to request Gabriele Kasper and Kenneth Rose (2002): a longitudinal study of how L2 learners develop the ability to request Stage1: Pre-basic Stage1: Pre-basic Highly context dependant. No syntax. Me no blue. Sir. Stage 2: Formulaic Stage 2: Formulaic Formulaic expressions. Reliance on unanalyzed formulas or expressions. Let’s play the game. / Let’s eat breakfast. /Don’t look. Stage 3: Unpacking Stage 3: Unpacking Formulas incorporated into productive langauge use, shift to conventional indirectness. Can you pass the pencil please / Can you do another for me. Stage 4: Pragmatic expension Stage 4: Pragmatic expension Addition on new forms to repertorie, increased use of mitigation, more complex syntax. Can I see it so I can copy it / Could I have another chocolate because my children – I have 5 children.

20 OBSERVING LEARNING AND TEACHING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGECLASSROOM

21 Natural vs. Instructional Settings Natural Settings: Natural Settings: Learner is exposed to language interaction in action in a social setting. Instructional Settings: Instructional Settings: Focus is on the language rather than the meaning carried by the language. The purpose of the teacher is to see the learners have learned the vocabulary and grammatical rules correctly. Communicative, Content-based, task-based intstructional settings Communicative, Content-based, task-based intstructional settings learners whose goal is learning the language itself but the style of instruction places the emphasis on interaction, conversation, and language use rather than on learning about the language.

22 Natural vs. Instructional Settings Communicative and Task based environments: Topics discussed include those that are of general interest to the learner Ex: How to reply to a classified advertisement in a newspapar. Content-based instruction: Focus of the lesson is on the subject matter, Language is used only as a medium. The important thing is to get things done with the language, not teaching a specific feature of the language.

23 Natural vs. Instructional Settings

24 IN NATURAL ACQUISITION SETTINGS: Language is not presented step by step. In natural communicative interactions, the learner is exposed to a wide variety of vocabulary and structures. Language is not presented step by step. In natural communicative interactions, the learner is exposed to a wide variety of vocabulary and structures. Learners'errors are rarely corrected. Learners'errors are rarely corrected. The learner is surrounded by the language for many hours each day. Sometimes the language is addressed to the learner; sometimes it is simply overheard. The learner is surrounded by the language for many hours each day. Sometimes the language is addressed to the learner; sometimes it is simply overheard. The learner usually encounters a number of different people who use the target language proficiently. The learner usually encounters a number of different people who use the target language proficiently. Learners observe or participate in many different types of language events: brief greetings, commercial transactions, exchanges of information, arguments, instructions at school or in the workplace. Learners observe or participate in many different types of language events: brief greetings, commercial transactions, exchanges of information, arguments, instructions at school or in the workplace. Learners must often use their limited second language ability to respond to Learners must often use their limited second language ability to respond to questions or get information. Modified input is available in many one-to-one conversations Modified input is available in many one-to-one conversations

25 IN STRUCTURE-BASED SETTINGS: Linguistic items are presented and practised in isolation, one item at a rime, in a sequence from what teachers or textbook writers believe is 'simple' to that which is 'complex'. Linguistic items are presented and practised in isolation, one item at a rime, in a sequence from what teachers or textbook writers believe is 'simple' to that which is 'complex'. Errors are frequently corrected. Accuracy tends to be given priority over meaningful interaction. Errors are frequently corrected. Accuracy tends to be given priority over meaningful interaction. Learning is often limited to a few hours a week. Learning is often limited to a few hours a week. The teacher is often the only native or proficient speaker the student comes in contact with, especially in situations of FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING. The teacher is often the only native or proficient speaker the student comes in contact with, especially in situations of FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING. Students experience a limited range of language discourse types. Students experience a limited range of language discourse types. Students often feel pressure to speak or write the second language and to do so correctly from the very beginning. Students often feel pressure to speak or write the second language and to do so correctly from the very beginning.

26 OTHER VARIABLES AFFECTING LEARNING AND TEACHING IN CLASSROOM Physical environment Physical environment Age and motivation of the students Age and motivation of the students The amount of time available for learning etc. The amount of time available for learning etc. Principles that guide teacher in their methods of teaching. Principles that guide teacher in their methods of teaching. In communicative and content-based settings: In communicative and content-based settings: The emphasis is on the communication of meaning, both between teacher and students and among the students themselves in group or pair work. Grammatical forms are focused on only in order to clarify meaning. The emphasis is on the communication of meaning, both between teacher and students and among the students themselves in group or pair work. Grammatical forms are focused on only in order to clarify meaning. Input is simplified and made comprehensible by the use of contextual cues, props, and gestures, rather than through structural grading. Input is simplified and made comprehensible by the use of contextual cues, props, and gestures, rather than through structural grading. There is a limited amount of error correction on the part of the teacher, and meaning is emphasized over form. There is a limited amount of error correction on the part of the teacher, and meaning is emphasized over form. A varietyty of discourse types may be introduced through stories, peer- and group-work, the use of 'authentic' materials such as newspapers and television broadcasts. A varietyty of discourse types may be introduced through stories, peer- and group-work, the use of 'authentic' materials such as newspapers and television broadcasts. There is little pressure to perform at high levels of accuracy, There is little pressure to perform at high levels of accuracy, Modified input is a defining feature of this approach to instruction. The teacher makes every effort to speak to students in a level of language they can understand. Modified input is a defining feature of this approach to instruction. The teacher makes every effort to speak to students in a level of language they can understand.

27 Two Methodologies for Classroom Teaching and Learning Observational Schemes. Observational Schemes. Classroom ethnography Classroom ethnography

28 Observational Schemes researchers anticipate the occurrence of particular events and behaviours and make note of them within preplanned frameworks or checklists. researchers anticipate the occurrence of particular events and behaviours and make note of them within preplanned frameworks or checklists. Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching (COLT) Observation Scheme Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching (COLT) Observation Scheme Nina Spada and Maria Frcjhlich (1995). PART A: description of activities in terms of content, focus, and organization of activity types. description of activities in terms of content, focus, and organization of activity types. observer records whether the pedagogical activities are teacher- or learner-centred, whether the focus is on language form or meaning, and whether there are opportunities for students to choose the topics for discussion. observer records whether the pedagogical activities are teacher- or learner-centred, whether the focus is on language form or meaning, and whether there are opportunities for students to choose the topics for discussion. PART B: specific aspects of the language produced by teachers and students, for example, specific aspects of the language produced by teachers and students, for example, how much (or how little) language students produce, how much (or how little) language students produce, whether their language production is restricted in any ways, whether their language production is restricted in any ways, the kinds of questions teachers ask, the kinds of questions teachers ask, and whether and how teachers respond to learners' errors. and whether and how teachers respond to learners' errors.

29 OBSERVATIONAL SCHEMES: AN EXAMPLE Two samples of classroom interaction from two different classrooms: a) structure based instruction b) communicative approach For each sample, indicate whether certain things are happening in the classroom, from the point of view of the teacher and the student. Use the chart below for your analysis and answers.

30 CATEGORIES Errors: are there errors in the language of either the teacher or the students? Errors: are there errors in the language of either the teacher or the students? Feedback on errors: when students make errors, do they receive feedback? From whom? Feedback on errors: when students make errors, do they receive feedback? From whom? GENUINE QUESTIONS : do teachers and students ask questions to which they don't know the answer in advance? GENUINE QUESTIONS : do teachers and students ask questions to which they don't know the answer in advance? DISPLAY QUESTIONS: do teachers ask questions that they know the answers to so that learners can display their knowledge of the language (or lack of it)? DISPLAY QUESTIONS: do teachers ask questions that they know the answers to so that learners can display their knowledge of the language (or lack of it)? Negotiation of meaning: do the teachers and students work to understand what the other speakers are saying? What efforts are made by the teacher? By the students? Negotiation of meaning: do the teachers and students work to understand what the other speakers are saying? What efforts are made by the teacher? By the students? Metalinguistic comments; do the teachers and students talk about language, in addition to using it to transmit information? Metalinguistic comments; do the teachers and students talk about language, in addition to using it to transmit information?

31 Classroom A: A structure-based approach (Students in this class are fifteen-year-old French speakers.) T OK, we finished the book-we finished in the book Unit I, 2, 3. T OK, we finished the book-we finished in the book Unit I, 2, 3. Finished. Workbook 1,2,3. So today we're going to start with Unit 4. Don’t take your books yet, don‘t take your books. In I, 2, 3 we worked in what tense? What tense did we work on? OK? S Past. T In the past-What auxiliary in the past? S Did. T Did (writes on board 'I-2-3 Past'). Unit 4,Unit 4, we're going to work in the present, present progressive, present continuous-OK? You don’t know what it is? SYes TYes? What is it? SLittle bit. TA little bit. [...] TEh? SUh, present continuous TPresent continuous? What’s that?

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33 Classroom B: A communicative approach Classroom B: A communicative approach (Students in this class are ten-year-old French speakers. In this activity they are telling their teacher and their classmates what 'bugs' them. They have written 'what bugs them' on a card or paper that they hold while speaking.) S It bugs me when a bee string me. TOh, when a bee stings me. SStings me. TDo you get stung often? Does that happen ofteni The bee stinging many times? S Yeah. T Often? (Teacher rurns to students u'ho arent paying atrenrion) OK. Sandra and Benoit, you may begin working on a research project, hey? (Teacher turns her attention back to '\Whar bugs me', S It bugs me (inaudible) and my sister pur on my clothes. S It bugs me (inaudible) and my sister pur on my clothes. S It bugs me (inaudible) and my sister pur on my clothes. T Ahl She borrows your clothes? \When you're older, you may appreciate it because you can switch clothes, maybe. (Turns to check another student’s written work) Milanie, this is yours, I will check. OK.It's good. T Ahl She borrows your clothes? \When you're older, you may appreciate it because you can switch clothes, maybe. (Turns to check another student’s written work) Milanie, this is yours, I will check. OK.It's good. S It bugs me when I'm sick and my brother doesn't help me-my-my brother, 'cause he-me-. S It bugs me when I'm sick and my brother doesn't help me-my-my brother, 'cause he-me-.

34 T OK. You know-when (inaudible) sick, you're sick at home in bed and you say, oh, to your brother or your sister: “Could you please get me a drink of water?'-Ah! Drop dead! -- you know, 'Go play in the trafficl 'You know, it's not very nice. Martin!” S It bug me to have -- T It bugs me. It bugzz me. S It bugs me when my brother takes my bicycle. Every day. T Every day? Ah! Doesn’t your bro-(inaudible) his bicycle? Could his brother lend his bicycle? Uh, your brother doesn’t have a bicycle? S Yeahl A new bicycle (inaudible) bicycle. T Ah, well. Talk to your mom and dad about it. Maybe negotiate a new bicycle for your brother. S (inaudible) T He has a new bicycle. But his brother needs a new one too. S Yes! T Hey, whoa, just a minute! Jean? S Martin’s brother has- T Martin, who has a new bicycle? You or your brother? S My brother. T And you have an old one. S(inaudible) T And your brother takes your old one? S (inaudible) bicycle. T His bicycle! How old is your brother? S March 23. T His birthday? S Yeah!

35 T And how old was he? S Fourteen. T Fourteen. Well, why don’t you tell your brother that when he takes your bike you will take his bike? And he may have more scratches than he figures for. OK?

36 Characteristics of input and interaction CLASSROOM A: CLASSROOM A: Errors:Very few on the part of the teacher, speech reflects structures of this level of teaching (i.e. Declarative questions). Feedback on errors:Whenever the students make errors, teacher corrects it. Genuine questions: A few, almost always related to classroom management. None from students. Displayquestions:Almost all the questions of the teacher are display questions. Although they are usually interpreted as genuine questions by students. Negotiation of meaning: Very litlle. Metalinguistic comments: Yes, this is how the teacher starts the lesson and lets students know what really matters! really matters!

37 Characteristics of input and interaction CLASSROOM A: CLASSROOM A: Errors:Even the students’ sentences contain incomplete sentences somehow, simplified ways of speaking and informal speech. Feedback on errors:Yes, sometimes. However corrections are not consistent of intrusive as the focus is on meaning. Genuine questions: Yes, almost all of the teachers’ questions are genuine questions. Displayquestions:No, because there is a focus on meaning rather than the accuracy of grammatical form. Negotiation of meaning: Yes, on the teacher’s side, especially in the long conversation about who has a bicycle. Metalinguistic comments: No

38 Classroom Comparisons: Peer to peer interaction S1 And o-on the right, there is a [tree]. Itt a- a, the ki-, the kite is up. (Points up in the air) This is the kite. (Points up again)This is the kite. (Points yet again) And the [tree] is up there. S1 And o-on the right, there is a [tree]. Itt a- a, the ki-, the kite is up. (Points up in the air) This is the kite. (Points up again)This is the kite. (Points yet again) And the [tree] is up there. S2 Three bird? S2 Three bird? S1 Huh? S1 Huh? S2 Is a three bird? S2 Is a three bird? S1 Huh? S1 Huh? S2 UP, uP-uP the kite? S2 UP, uP-uP the kite? S1 Yeah, the kite is u-, the kite is up and the [tree] is down' (Points directions) S1 Yeah, the kite is u-, the kite is up and the [tree] is down' (Points directions) S2 The [bird] down? S2 The [bird] down? S1 The kite-, the [tree] is down' S1 The kite-, the [tree] is down' S2 What's the [tee]? S2 What's the [tee]? S1 Huh? S1 Huh? S2 What's the [tree] ? (Imitates Learner 1 's production) S2 What's the [tree] ? (Imitates Learner 1 's production) S1 Feel? S1 Feel? S2 Fell? Fell down? (Points down) S2 Fell? Fell down? (Points down) S1 No, it's not uh fell down' No' it's just at the bottom' S1 No, it's not uh fell down' No' it's just at the bottom'

39 Classroom Comparisons: Peer to peer interaction S2 The bird? S2 The bird? S1 No' the tree. S1 No' the tree. S2 The tree? (Emphatic stress) S2 The tree? (Emphatic stress) S1 Yes. S1 Yes. S2 It is left and right? S2 It is left and right? S1 kt right. (Points) S1 kt right. (Points) S2 It's long? It's [little]? S2 It's long? It's [little]? S1 lt's-what? S1 lt's-what? S2 lt's long and [little]? S2 lt's long and [little]? S1 Um, a little-. It-' um, a middle size' S1 Um, a little-. It-' um, a middle size' S2 Middle size tree? S2 Middle size tree? S1 Yes. S1 Yes. S2 It's little. (Says as drawing the tree) S2 It's little. (Says as drawing the tree)

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41 Classroom Comparisons: Peer to peer interaction

42 Corrective Feedback in the Classroom Study 1: Recasts in content-based classrooms Lyster and Ranta(1997): in what different ways teachers give feedback in classrooms and how students respond to it (the student UPTAKE). The scheme was developed in French immersion classrooms where students were taught via subject matter instruction. Explicit correction: Explicit provision of the correct form, indication that what the students said was incorrect (via forms like “you mean... You should say..”) S The dog run fastly. T “Fastly” doesn’t exist. 'Fast' does not take -ly.That’s why I picked 'quickly'. Recast: Teacher’s reformulation of all or some parts of the students utterance. S1 Why you don’t like Marc? T Why don't you like Marc? S2 I don’t know, I don’t like him.

43 Corrective Feedback in the Classroom Elicitation: refers to at least three techniques that teachers use to directly elicit the correct form from the students. First, teachers elicit completion of their own utterance (for example, 'It's a...'). Second, teachers use questions to elicit correct forms (for example,... 'How do we say x in English?'). Third, teachers occasionally ask students to reformulate their utterance. Elicitation: refers to at least three techniques that teachers use to directly elicit the correct form from the students. First, teachers elicit completion of their own utterance (for example, 'It's a...'). Second, teachers use questions to elicit correct forms (for example,... 'How do we say x in English?'). Third, teachers occasionally ask students to reformulate their utterance. S My father cleans the plate. T Excuse me, he cleans the ??? S Plates? Repetition: refers to the teacher’s repetition of the student's erroneous utterance. In most cases, teachers adjust their intonation so as to highlight the error. Repetition: refers to the teacher’s repetition of the student's erroneous utterance. In most cases, teachers adjust their intonation so as to highlight the error. In this example, the repetition is followed by a recast: S He's in the bathroom. T Bathroom? Bedroom. He's in the bedroom. In the next example, the repetition is followed by metalinguistic comment and explicit correction: S We is... T We is? But it's two people, right? You see your mistake? You see the error?'{When it's plural it's 'we are'.

44 Questions in the classroom Teachers’ Questions in the ESL Classrooms Teachers’ Questions in the ESL Classrooms The roles display and genuine questions play in the classroom environment. The roles display and genuine questions play in the classroom environment. Michael Long and Charlene Sato (1983): The ratio of display questions with respect to the genuine questions in the classroom environment is considerably higher that that of real world environment. The interactional environment of the classroom should be changed. Michael Long and Charlene Sato (1983): The ratio of display questions with respect to the genuine questions in the classroom environment is considerably higher that that of real world environment. The interactional environment of the classroom should be changed. Especially in communicative teaching classrooms, teachers have been urged to ask more referential (or genuine) questions since they require more cognitive effort and processing for the student and generate more complex answers. Especially in communicative teaching classrooms, teachers have been urged to ask more referential (or genuine) questions since they require more cognitive effort and processing for the student and generate more complex answers. Scaffolding, Display and Referential (Genuine) questions Scaffolding, Display and Referential (Genuine) questions Scaffolding: the process in which a more knowledgeable (or expert) speaker helps a less knowledgeable (or novice) learner by providing assistance. Scaffolding: the process in which a more knowledgeable (or expert) speaker helps a less knowledgeable (or novice) learner by providing assistance. The teacher’s use of questions during scaffolded interactions-and how it contributes to class participation and learner comprehension. (Questions should be analyzed within the framework of scaffolded interaction and in tems of how they contribute to the teacher’s goals) The teacher’s use of questions during scaffolded interactions-and how it contributes to class participation and learner comprehension. (Questions should be analyzed within the framework of scaffolded interaction and in tems of how they contribute to the teacher’s goals) T Palace? T Palace? S1 Like castle? S2 Specialplace,verygood. S3 Very nice. T Castle, special place, very nice. til/ho usually lives in palaces? Ss Kings. T Kings, and queens, princes and princesses. Ss Yeah S4 Maybe beautiful house? T Big, beautiful house, yeah, really big


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