Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Psychological well-being - does physical activity make us feel good? “Running and worrying don’t mix”(Glasser 1976) “Exercise dissipates tension,"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 Psychological well-being - does physical activity make us feel good? “Running and worrying don’t mix”(Glasser 1976) “Exercise dissipates tension, and tension is the enemy of serenity” (Mandela 1994)
Chapter 8: Aims highlight the concept of health-related quality of life and how it is typically measured review the evidence linking physical activity and exercise with measures of mood and affect highlight the definitional problems associated with the construct of enjoyment in exercise and present four approaches to the study of enjoyment in physical activity comment on the psychological effects of depriving people of exercise provide evidence on factors moderating the relationship between exercise and mood/affect summarise the evidence linking physical activity with the development and enhancement of self-esteem and physical self-perceptions comment on studies investigating the links between exercise and cognitive functioning, and exercise and personality/psychological adjustment briefly highlight results from meta-analyses on the effect of exercise on sleep discuss how physical activity and exercise may provide benefits for women experiencing menstruation, pregnancy or menopause
Activated Pleasant Activated Unpleasant Unactivated Pleasant Unactivated Unpleasant 0° 45° 90° 135° 180° 225° 270° 315° (-) Valence (+) (-) Activation (+) Figure 8.1 The circumplex model of affect proposed by Russell (1980).
Figure 8.2 Affective responses to two bouts of physical activity, plotted in circumplex space. (Ekkekakis 2003) VT =Ventilatory threshold
Figure 8.3 Effect sizes from McDonald and Hodgdon’s (1991) meta-analysis of aerobic fitness training and mood states.
Type of PAIntensity Figure 8.4 Effect sizes for experimental studies investigating exercise and affective (‘mood’) states in older adults (Arent, Landers, and Etnier 2000)
Figure 8.5 Intra-individual variability in affective responses to different exercise stimuli (Ekkekakis et al. 2005 Study 1: 10 minute self-paced walk Study 2: 15 minutes self-paced walk Study 3: 30 mintues of cycling at 60% max oxygen consumption Study 4: Incremental tread mill running to exhaustion Study 5: Cycling to exhaustion under conditions of dehydration
Challenge Skills anxiety boredom Figure 8.6 Csikzentmihalyi’s model of ‘flow’(1975)
HIGH SE OR PSW PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MAINTAIN OR SE & PSW Figure 8.7A ‘Motivational’ approach to self-esteem (Sonstroem 1997a, 1997b)
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SE & PSW SE & PSW + - Figure 8.7B ‘self- enhancement’ approach to self- esteem (Sonstroem 1997a, 1997b)
Fitness change?Programme Figure 8.8 Effect sizes for exercise and self-esteem in adults (Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005)
Figure 8.10 Mean scores for perceptions of coping assets over the course of pregnancy (Rankin, 2002)
Box 8.1: Can physical activity reduce anti-social behaviour? Governments make much of sport, exercise and physical activity as a ‘social good’, including the belief that involvement can help with the social ills of society such as crime and anti-social behaviour. Can it? Politicians often argue that sport is a viable way of creating positive moral and social behaviour (Biddle 2005). While professional and spectator sport, in particular, can also be associated with undesirable behaviours, most people involved in sport believe that positive behavioural outcomes are possible and should be sought (Chang et al., 2004). Mutrie and Parfitt (1998) reviewed 8 papers investigating sport involvement for young people and delinquency. They concluded that “there is equivocal evidence about the relationship between involvement in sport and anti-social behaviour” (p. 61). Similarly, Coalter’s (2005) review concluded that “because of a widespread lack of robust, cumulative, and comparative research data it is very difficult to be precise about the relationship between sports participation and reduced anti-social behaviour and crime” (p. 205). He goes on to conclude “taking the balance of probabilities”: “the most effective use of sport to address systematically anti-social behaviour and criminal behaviour is in combination with programs that seek to address wider personal and social development Sports’ salience can be used to attract young people to integrated programs that offer formal programs in personal development, health awareness, and employment training Leadership is perhaps the most important element in determining the positive impact of a program Locally recruited leaders and a bottom-up approach maximize the chances of success” (Coalter, 2005, pp. 205-206).
Table 8.1. Defining features of affect, emotion and mood. ConstructDefining featuresIntensity and time Cognitive mediationExample AffectBasic and generic valenced (pleasant/unpleasant) responses. VariedA cognitive appraisal might be involved when affect is a component of emotion or mood, but is not necessary (see text). Affect can occur independently Energetic or tired EmotionAffective states resulting from an appraisal of specific events. Usually high intensity; short duration Cognitive appraisal of a specific eliciting event Proud or ashame d MoodDiffuse affective states not resulting from specific events but more likely associated with general views at a point in time. Lower intensity; can be prolonged Cognitive appraisal of larger issues or events in the distant past or future Irritable or jovial
Table 8.2 i ( dimensional) A summary of categorical and dimensional measures of mood and affect commonly used in physical activity research. InstrumentReferenceMeasuresComments BFS (Befindlichkeitssk alen) Abele & Brehm (1993)40-item scale devised in German to assess two dimensional model of mood: activation (high/low) and evaluation (positive/negative). 8 sub-scales: 1.activation (high/positive) 2.elation (high/positive) 3.calmness (low/positive) 4.contemplativeness (low/positive) 5.excitation (high/negative) 6.anger (high/negative) 7.fatigue (low/negative) 8.depression (low/negative) 1.extensive German research supporting validity of scale in sport and exercise settings 2.state scale
Table 8.2 (ii dimensional) A summary of categorical and dimensional measures of mood and affect commonly used in physical activity research. PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) Watson et al. (1988)Two 10-item affect scales assessing: 1.positive affect: e.g. excited, enthusiastic, inspired 2.negative affect: e.g. distressed, hostile, irritable. 1.Good psychometric properties 2.assesses only two general dimensions 3.time instructions can be varied 4.can be a state or trait scale 5.general scale not specific to physical activity FS (Feeling Scale)Hardy & Rejeski (1989)1.single-item scale assessing hedonic tone (pleasure- displeasure) 1.developed for exercise research 2.state scale 3.11-point scale ranging from -5 to +5
Table 8.2 (iii categorical) A summary of categorical and dimensional measures of mood and affect commonly used in physical activity research. POMS (Profile of Mood States) McNair et al. (1971)65-item scale assessing: 1.tension 2.depression 3.anger 4.vigour 5.fatigue 6.confusion 1.Only one positive sub-scale 2.used extensively in PA research 3.short and bipolar forms available 4.time instructions can be varied 5.can be a state or trait scale 6.general scale not specific to physical activity MAACL ( Multiple Affect Adjective Check List) Zuckerman & Lubin (1965) 1.scale comprises 132 adjectives 2.assesses anxiety, depression and hostility 1.time instructions can be varied 2.can be a state or trait scale 3.general scale not specific to physical activity 4.some doubts expressed about psychometric properties (see McDonald & Hodgdon (1991). EFI (Exercise Feeling Inventory) Gauvin & Rejeski (1993) 12-item adjective scale assessing four dimensions: 1.positive engagement 2.tranquillity 3.revitalisation 4.physical exhaustion 1.developed for exercise research 2.sound psychometric properties 3.state scale SEES (Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale) McAuley & Courneya (1994) 12-item adjective scale assessing three dimensions: 1.positive well-being 2.psychological distress 3.fatigue 1.developed for exercise research 2.sound psychometric properties 3.state scale
Table 8.3(i) Summary of findings from British population surveys investigating the relationship between physical activity and psychological well-being. StudySurvey Design and ScopeResults and Conclusions Hendry et al. (1989)Postal and supervised survey of 5862 14- 20 year olds in Scotland. Assessment with General Health Questionnaire and sports participation GHQ (mental health) scores improved as participation in sport increased for both boys and girls. Competitive sports ‘types’ had better mental health than non-competitive ‘types’ Sports Council & Health Education Authority (1992) Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (ADNFS) for England of 16-74 year olds (N=4316). One section of interview assessed perceived well- being Small but consistent trend showing relationship between PA and well-being. Same trend evident for those in poorest health, reducing the chance that only those who are ‘well’ choose to exercise association between PA and well-being stronger for those 55 years and over trends evident for all age groups and both sexes Thirlaway & Benton (1996) National Health & Lifestyle Survey data. Representative British sample (N=6200). Assessed on PA and General Health Questionnaire. (Unpublished survey data reported in book chapter.) higher PA associated with better mental health in women over 30 years and men over 50 years no relationship for those under 30 years of age
Table 8.3 (ii). Summary of findings from British population surveys investigating the relationship between physical activity and psychological well-being. StudySurvey Design and ScopeResults and Conclusions Steptoe & Butler (1996) Investigation of the association between emotional well-being and regular sport/vigorous PA in 16 year olds (N=5061). Data from 1986 follow-up to 1970 British Cohort Study. greater sport/vigorous PA was positively associated with emotional well-being independent of gender, SES or health status Participation in non-vigorous activity was associated with high psychological and somatic symptoms on Malaise Inventory Gordon & Grant (1997) 1634 teenagers from Scotland (aged 13.5- 14.5 years). Qualitative method used with open-ended questionnaire responses to ‘how do you feel today?’ About one quarter reported that sport made them feel happy and good about themselves Large gender differences
Table 8.4. Affective responses to varying levels of exercise intensity, proposed by Ekkekakis and colleagues (Biddle & Ekkekakis, 2005; Ekkekakis, 2003). Intensity rangeAffective reaction to exercise Variability of responseInfluencing factors ModeratePleasureHomogeneousCognitive factors play small role HeavyPleasure or displeasureVariableCognitive factors play a major role SevereDispleasureHomogeneousInteroceptive factors play a major role
Table 8.5. Example items from the 20-item Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) (Kendzierski & DeCarlo, 1991). All items are rated on a 7-point scale anchored by statements, such as those shown. The instructions state “please rate how you feel at the moment about the physical activity you have been doing”. ItemAnchor 1 (score 1 or 7)Anchor 2 (score 7 or 1) 1I enjoy it (score = 7)I hate it (score = 1) 9It’s very pleasant (score = 7)It’s very unpleasant (score = 1) 15It’s not all stimulating (score = 1)It’s very stimulating (score = 7)
Menstruation Interventions have shown positive effects from regular exercise on both dysmenorrhea, and pre- menstrual syndrome Cross-sectional studies suggest that regular exercise may protect women from a deterioration in mood pre-menstrually PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MAY HAVE A ROLE IN PROMOTING POSITIVE MOODS AT KEY POINTS IN THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
menopause Many of the key issues of menopause could be addressed by exercise- –Increased risk of CVD –Increased risk of osteoporosis –Possible decrease in positive mood and self-esteem Large scale surveys show negative relationships between high levels of activity and vasomotor symptoms and a positive relationship between high levels of activity and quality of life Little experimental evidence available PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MAY BE BENEFICIAL FOR WOMEN WHO ARE EXPERIENCING MENOPAUSE
Key point: Defining the key terms of affect, mood and emotion is not easy, but we should provide working definitions in research projects and not assume they are one and the same. For example affect can be a component of emotion (or mood)- pride feels pleasant while being ashamed feels unpleasant
Key point How you measure affective responses to exercise will depend on the research question.
Key point Evidence points to beneficial affective changes with exercise, but this relationship is influenced by the intensity of exercise.
Key point Empirical evidence and intuition tell us that enjoyment is important for exercise motivation. However, the contruct of enjoyment has been poorly understood.
Key point The belief that exercise improves self- esteem is too simplistic. Exercise can enhance self-esteem, and this is likely due to changes in physical self-perceptions.
Key point Physical activity may have a role in promoting positive moods at key points in the menstrual cycle.
Key point Physical activity may help pregnant women maintain pre-pregnancy levels of psychological well-being and should be explored as a means to prevent and treat post-natal depression.
Key point Physical activity may be beneficial for women who are experiencing menopause.
Key point ‘Fit’ is a feminist issue and exercise psychologists must explore how to promote motivations for exercise that will help women remain active throughout the life course.
Chapter 8: Conclusions exercise and physical activity participation is consistently associated with positive mood and affect quantified trends show that aerobic exercise has small-to-moderate positive effects on vigour, and small-to-moderate negative effects for fatigue, confusion, depression, anger and tension experimental trials support the effect of moderate exercise on psychological well-being exercise is related to positive changes in self-esteem and related physical self- perceptions exercise can have a positive effect on personality and psychological adjustment small effects suggest that individuals who exercise fall asleep faster, and sleep longer and deeper than those not exercising exercise can have positive benefits for women’s experiences of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.