Presentation on theme: "We are all English Language Learners, aren’t we? Summer Institute Presentation Oregon Department of Education Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:
We are all English Language Learners, aren’t we? Summer Institute Presentation Oregon Department of Education Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Frank Hernandez, Program Advisor for ELL Unit
Immigrant Drop-Out Rates by Language Proficiency LEPNon-LEP 1 st Gen nd Gen rd Gen Mexican Hispanic Asian N-H White
Equal Educational Opportunity: Legal Foundations Hobson v Hansen – forbids inappropriate use of norm referenced tests for minority students (1965) Bilingual Ed. Act, Title VII of ESEA – Funding for programs designed to enable students to proficiency in English (1968) May 25 th Memorandum, U.S. Dept. of Health, Ed., and Welfare – Where the inability to speak and understand English excludes national origin minority children from participation in the educational programs, a district must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency (1968), upheld that Civil Rights Act violated if students are excluded from effective participation because of inability to understand language of instruction
Legal Foundations (1970,s): Lau v Nichols – Districts must take affirmative steps to overcome educational barriers faced by non- English speakers – Provided OCR with authority to establish regulations which are basis of our current ELL plans Rios v Read, NY – Established effectiveness & quality of bilingual programs must be considered, ESL alone violates Lau Drycia v Board of Ed. – Clarified guidelines for identifying & serving ELL students, a student must receive both services if identified – Sp Ed/ELL
Legal Foundations (1980 -) Castaneda v Pickard – Instructional programs for LEP students must pass a three-pronged test of appropriateness Plyler v Doe – Supreme Court affirmed the states’ obligation to enroll, serve undocumented immigrants Keys v S.D. 1 – Established responsibility of district to assure language skills of teachers in bilingual classrooms Gomez v Illinois – requires that states as well as LEA ensure that the needs of LEP children are met NCLB – Part A (if funding exceeds $650 million)
Mexican-American girl’s response when asked how is school in the U.S. going: _____________________ “I just sit in my chair and listen. Mostly I try and look like I understand what is going on. But mostly I think of a time when I was happy and I didn’t feel stupid.” -Crossing the Schoolhouse Border.
Recognized Educational Theory and Research on Best Practices for English Language Learners Linguists Steven Krashen Stages of Language Acquisition Jim Cummins BICS/ CALP Dual Iceberg/ Linguistic Transfer David Freeman and Yvonne Freeman Providing Access to Second Language Acquisition and Essential Linguistics
Recognized Educational Theory and Research on Best Practices for English Language Learners Schools of Education/ Leadership Lilly Wong Fillmore and Catherine Snow What Teachers Need to Know About Language Robin Scarcella Academic English: A Conceptual Framework Susan Dutro A Focused Approach for English Language Development
Recognized Educational Theory and Research on Best Practices for English Language Learners Education Research Base Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier Longitudinal Study of ELL Program Models D. Short, J. Echevarria, and MaryEllen Vogt Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners: The SIOP Model Aida Walqui Program Design and Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition
Contextual Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition Primary Language Access to Language Age/ Prior Education Learning style Peers and role models Motivation Cultural Background Quality of Instruction Home Support Aida Walqui, 2000
How do we acquire language ? Dr. Steven Krashen’s theories Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Natural Order Hypothesis Input Hypothesis Affective Filter Hypothesis
Language Development Cognitive Development Academic Development Social and Cultural Processes Language Acquisition for School Virginia Collier 1994
Dr. Jim Cummins’ Theories BICS vs. CALP Dual Iceberg Linguistic Transfer L1-----> L2 Context Embedded vs Context Reduced Four Quadrants
Language and Content Activities Cummins’s Quadrants Cognitively Undemanding (Easy) AC Developing survival vocabulary Engaging in telephone conversations Following demonstrated direct ions Reading and writing for personal purposes: Playing simple games notes, lists, sketches, etc. Engaging in face-to-face interactions Participating in art, music, physical educations BD Participating in hands-on science and math Understanding academic presentations activities without visuals or demonstrations: Making maps, models, charts and graphs lectures Solving math computational problems Making formal oral presentations Making brief oral presentations Solving math word problems without Understanding academic presentations illustrations through the use of visuals, demonstrations, Writing essays, research reports in content active participation, realia, etc. areas, and compositions Understanding written texts through Reading for information in content discussion, illustrations and, visuals families Writing academic reports with the aide of Taking standardized achievement tests outlines, structures, etc. Cognitively Demanding (Hard)
Oceanside School District Proposition 227 Data G2: 32 G3: 22 G4: 23 G5: 19 G6: 20 G7: 13 G8: 18 G9: 11 G10: 6 G11: 8
We are all English language learners! Aren’t we? What is the difference between the language needs of an ELL student and students with: Language Disabilities Poverty Issues Mainstream
Language of Academic Discourse From a 10 th Grade Math Textbook: If the known relation between the variables consists of a table of corresponding values, the graph consists only of the corresponding set of isolated points. If the variables are known to vary continuously, one often draws a curve to show the variations
A second grade math sample question for State Assessment Bill had 12 trucks, he gave Sally 5, how many trucks did he have left? Which word(s) would give an ELL student the most trouble in answering this question?
Another Passage Example What is the meaning of: rouche Favorable conditions are necessary to do this activity. That is, you have to have enough rouche. If there is too much rouche, the object might break. But if conditions are too calm, you will have problems because the rouche makes the object go up. If there are obstacles, a serious problem can result because you cannot control the rouche.
Your assessment of the following sentence by an ELL student: Tha bol no break. Is this a conventions issue or an English language proficiency issue? What would you have to know about the child to answer the question?
LEP Language Demands Language proficiency stages Pre-Emergent Beginning Intermediate Early Fluent Proficient Instructional Language Requirements Explicit Language Implicit Language
Explicit Language Language Arts Curriculum Punctuation Paragraphs Mechanics Verb Tenses Negation Person Etc.
Simple Implicit Language What an L1 learns by growing up in the environment & an L2 must be taught I ran into – encountered “As I told you” Look up a word – look up a chimney Do the dishes Fathom the puzzle
Complex Implicit Language Vocabulary Hibernation Classroom ELP Strategies Language Enrichment Classroom Activity Instructions Do an Experiment Conceptual Transfer Background Information
L2 Transfer Rule - U
What is Sheltered Instruction? “Sheltered Instruction is an approach for teaching content to English Language Learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students’ English language development.” (Push-In Model) Echevarria, Vogt and Short, Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, 2000
Frameworks of Instruction That Provide Access to Academic English Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach CALLA Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol SIOP Guided Language Acquisition Design GLAD
Components of the SIOP Model Preparation Building Background Comprehensible Input Learning Strategies Interaction Practice/ Application Lesson Delivery Review/ Assessment
Lesson Preparation Objectives Content Objectives Discuss the results of experiment on pressure and volume Language Objectives Use “if... then” statement to describe results of experiment on pressure & volume Learning Strategies