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Bullying and Self-Injury Emma-Jayne Brown. Bullying Bullied adolescents report higher levels of self-injury. Prevalence Internationally 10%-75% experience.

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Presentation on theme: "Bullying and Self-Injury Emma-Jayne Brown. Bullying Bullied adolescents report higher levels of self-injury. Prevalence Internationally 10%-75% experience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bullying and Self-Injury Emma-Jayne Brown

2 Bullying Bullied adolescents report higher levels of self-injury. Prevalence Internationally 10%-75% experience traditional victimisation at some point (e.g. Demaray & Malecki, 2003; Storch et al., 2002) 5%-25% experience cybervictimisation (e.g. Hinduja & Patchin, 2012; Brank et al., 2012) NZ 27%-75% experience traditional victimisation at some point (e.g. Coggan et al., 2003; Garisch & Wilson, 2010) 3%-6% experience cybervictimisation (e.g. Fenaulty, 2010) Our study (n=210) 42% experienced traditional bullying 4% experienced cyberbullying often

3 Bullying Those involved in traditional bullying are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying (e.g. Jose, 2011) Up to 60% of cyber-victims are also traditional-victims (e.g. Schneider et al., 2012).

4 Myths about bullying It occurs between a bully and a victim It is impossible to stop bullying Anti-bullying policies are ineffective Bullying prevention and intervention are complicated and expensive

5 Myths about bullying Bullies suffer from insecurity and low self-esteem Bullies are looking for attention – ignore them and the bullying will stop Boys will be boys Kids can be cruel about differences Victims need to learn to stand up for themselves and deal with the situation Most bullying occurs outside of school Bullying affects only a small number of students Teachers know if bullying is a problem in their classes “Sticks and stones will break your bones, but names can never hurt you”

6 The effects of being bullied Intrapersonal e.g. Depression Poor emotion regulation Suicidal ideation & attempts Interpersonal Negative family relationships Negative family environments Lack of friends Poor academic performance

7 What about cyber- victimisation? Research is inconsistent Same impact as traditional (e.g. Brank et al., 2012) Less impact than traditional (e.g. Patchin & Hindjua, 2006) Threat not immediate or face-to-face More impact than traditional (e.g. Smith et al., 2008; Drogin & Young, 2008; Bonanno & Hymel, 2013)

8 How is cyberbullying different? Anonymity Bullies less aware of the impact of their behaviour Increases fear and mistrust in victims (Sticca & Perren, 2013) Access to victims At any place or time of the day or night Wider audiences Can be circulated through many social networks Distinction between bully and victim less clear (Law et al., 2012) Might influence why some individuals are unaffected

9 Protective factors Friends Having a best friend decreases both victimisation and the negative effects of it (Bollmer et al., 2005) Family Showing lots of love Being supportive – open communication, active listening Providing freedom – developing social skills and circles Encouraging assertiveness when necessary Modelling behaviour

10 How to spot signs of bullying Refusing to go to school or making excuses to not be at school Expressing fear of school or saying “I hate school” Becoming more isolated from others at school Start doing poorly at school Show noticeable changes in behaviour or emotions Having lower self-confidence or self-esteem Becomes sad, angry, or distressed during/after internet or phone use Appears anxious when receiving a text or facebook Avoids discussion or is secretive about cell phone and internet activities

11 What can we do to prevent cyberbullying? Netsafe Information and tips about cyberbullying for Young people – increasing cyber-safety, telling someone you trust Teachers – promoting responsible and safe use, creating a classroom pledge to be positive bystanders Parents – talking about cyberbullying with their kids and teaching safe internet use Peers – actively standing against bullying, being positive bystanders

12 The school’s role? Avoid labeling students as bullies and victims consider multiple explanations for bullying behaviours A Whole-School Approach Focus more widely on creating a caring and respectful school climate and positive outcomes Promote social and emotional learning Have a long-term ongoing focus and specific plans

13 Resources Netsafe – cyberbullying website Stop Bullying website Building a safe and caring school climate that deters bullying. being-at-School-overview-paper.pdf being-at-School-overview-paper.pdf


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