2The Early English Settlements Essential Question:Why did the English settle in North America?
3The Early English Settlements Main IdeaAfter defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more and more interested in establishing colonies in North America.
4Lost Colony of Roanoke1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh claims Roanoke Island for Queen Elizabeth1587 – Raleigh sends John White, 91 men, 17 women and 9 children to RoanokeWhen English ships return 3 years later, all Colonists have disappeared
6Lost Colony of RoanokeFor a time, the failure of the Roanoke colony discouraged others from planning English colonies in North AmericaHowever, the idea emerged again in 1606.Several groups of merchants sought charters, documents granting the right to organize settlements in an area, from King James I.
7The Virginia Company Joint Stock Company Investors bought stock, or part ownership, in the company in return for a share of its futureSettlers in America were to search for gold and establish trade in fish and furs1607 – 144 settlers entered Chesapeake Bay and name their new settlement Jamestown
9Jamestown Survives Colonists faced hardships of disease and hunger Colony survives the first 2 years because of 27 year old Captain John SmithExperienced explorerForced settlers to workSought corn from Native Americans led by chief Powahatan
11Jamestown Winter of 1606-1610 known as “the starving time” Fighting breaks out with Native AmericansFinally, colonists begin to make money for investors by growing tobaccoRelations with Native Americas improve when John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powahatan
13The House of Burgesses Virginia Colony government Burgesses meet to make local laws for the colony1619 – First meeting of the House of Burgesses1624 – King James cancels the Virginia Company charter and makes Jamestown the first royal colony in America.
14Why did the English settle in North America? They hoped to profit from resources found in America
15New England Colonies Essential Question: Why did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in North America?Read passage in notes!
16The Pilgrims’ JourneySome Separatists in the Netherlands made an arrangement with the Virginia CompanySeparatists could settle in Virginia and practice their religion freelyIn return, they would give the company a share of their profitsOnly 35 of 102 passengers on board the Mayflower in 1620 were Pilgrims
17The Mayflower CompactColonists on Mayflower drop anchor in Cape Cod BayBefore going ashore, the Pilgrims drew up a formal documentPledged their loyalty to EnglandNecessary step in the development of representative government in the new American colonies
18Mayflower CompactRead and complete questions that follow.
19Help From the Native Americans First winter in America – Nearly ½ the Pilgrims die of malnutrition, disease and coldSpring – the befriend two Native Americans (Squanto and Samoset)Showed pilgrims how to grow corn, beans and pumpkinsHelped them to make peace with WampanoagThe two groups lived in harmony
20New Settlements: New England Colonies In 1625, Charles I became the king of England. Charles objected to the Puritans’ calls for reform in the Anglican Church. Persecution of Puritans within the country increased. As a result, some Puritans wanted to leave England.
21Massachusetts Founded by Massachusetts Bay Company Governor John WinthropPuritans chance to create a new society based on the Bible
22Massachusetts Growth and Government 1630s – more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times in EnglandAt first, John Winthrop and the colony’s stock holders known as “The General Court” made the laws
23Massachusetts Growth and Government 1634 – Settlers demanded a bigger role in governmentThe General Court became an elected assemblyAdult male church members were allowed to vote for the governor and for representativesWhat does this tell you about their society?
24MassachusettsPuritans came to America to put their religious beliefs into practice. However, they had littler toleration for other religious beliefs. They criticized and persecuted people of other faiths. This lack of toleration led people to form new colonies in neighboring areas.
25ConnecticutDissatisfied with the way the Massachusetts Colony was run, the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield were established in the Connecticut wildernessThey adopted a plan called the Fundamental Orders of ConnecticutFirst written constitution in AmericaDescribed the organization of representative government in detail
26Rhode IslandFounded by Roger Williams who believed in religious toleration and believed it was wrong to take land from Native AmericansReceived charter for Rhode Island in 1644First place in America where people of all faiths could worship freely (including Jews!)
27Conflict with Native Americans Settlers move onto Native American land without payment or permissionEnglish settlers and the Native Americans compete fiercely for land throughout entire periodEventually, settlers and their Native Americans allies defeat the WampanoagNow the colonists are free to expand their settlements
28Making ConnectionsWhat did the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut have in common?Both provided organization in the form of gov’tWhy did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in N. America?Separatists: Escape persecution but maintain their religious values and English way of lifePuritans: Escape persecution and establish a new society based on their religious beliefs.
29Middle Colonies Essential Question How did the Middle Colonies develop?
30England’s Colonies1660 – England has two clusters of colonies in AmericaNorth: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode IslandSouth: Maryland and VirginiaBetween the two groups was land controlled by the Dutch
31Dutch Main settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island Center of trade and shipping due to its seaportDutch East India Company offers large estates to anyone bringing at least 50 settlers to New NetherlandWhy do you think New Netherland, later New York, was a valuable colony?
32England Takes OverEnglish want to acquire the valuable Dutch colony of New Netherland1664 – English fleet attacks New AmsterdamUnprepared Dutch governor surrenders the colony quicklyEnglish King Charles II gives colony to the Duke of York
33New York Colony Proprietary Colony New York has a diverse population Proprietor owns all landProprietor controls governmentNew York has a diverse populationGerman, Dutch, Swedish, Native American, Jewish
34New JerseyProprietors Lord John Berkley and Sir George Cateret wanted to attract settlers. They offeredLarge tracts of landFreedom of religionTrial by juryRepresentative AssemblyEthnically and religiously diverseWith no major ports, it was difficult for proprietors to make money
35PennsylvaniaIf given a choice, would you take land or money for a debt that someone owed you? Why?1681 – William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, received land as payment for a debt owed by King Charles IIWilliam Penn saw Pennsylvania as a chance to put his Quaker ideals into practice
36Quaker “Society of Friends” Believed everyone was equal People could follow their own “inner light” to salvationPacifistsConsidered a threat in England and were persecuted
37DelawareSwedes had settled in Southern Pennsylvania before English took overCharter of Privileges allowed these lower counties to form their own legislatureThese counties operated as a separate colony under Pennsylvania’s governor
38Essential Question Answer the Essential Question How did the Middle Colonies develop?NY: Thriving Dutch colony seized by the English; Major port; Proprietary Colony, Diverse populationNJ: Land and freedom offered to attract settlers; Diverse population; lacked major port so less profitable; Became royal colonyPA: Established under Quaker ideals; Welcomed diverse immigrants; Constitution; elected legislatureDelaware: lower part of VA; settled by Swedes; Allowed to function as separate colony
39Southern Colonies Essential Question How and why did the Southern Colonies grow?
40Establishing Maryland Sir George Calavert, Lord Baltimore wanted a safe place for his fellow CatholicsKing Charles I gave him a proprietary colony north of VirginiaCalavert dies, his son Cecilius inherits the colony and sends his two brothers to Maryland in 1634
41Maryland Cecilius gave large estates to English aristocrats Enslaved People in the ColoniesMarylandCecilius gave large estates to English aristocratsAs the number of plantations grew, more workers were neededThe colony imported indentured servants and enslaved AfricansEnslaved people in the ColoniesYearNorthSouthTotal1650880720160016701,1253,4104,53516903,34013,38916,72917108,30336,56344,866
42Bacon’s RebellionWhile other colonies were being founded, Virginia continued to growSettlers moved west and settled Native American lands1640s – Virginia governor, William Berkley made a pledge with the Native Americans to avoid conflictNative Americans gave Berkley large piece of landBerkley would keep settlers from pushing farther into their territoryShowed that settlers would not be limited to the coast.
43Bacon’s RebellionSome western Virginians resent Berkley’s agreement to stay out.Bacons army marches to Jamestown and drives Berkley into exile1676: Nathaniel Bacon, a young planter in western Virginia, led attacks on Native American villages1640s: Berkley makes pledge with Native Americans to avoid conflictEngland recalled Berkley and sent troops to Virginia to restore orderOctober 1676: Bacon dies suddenly
44The Carolinas and Georgia In 1633, King Charles II created a proprietary colony south of Virginia called Carolina. The king gave the colony to eight nobles who had helped him regain his throne. The proprietors set up estates and sold or rented land to settlers brought from England.
45Northern Carolina Grew tobacco, sold timber and tar Lacked a good harborUsed Virginia’s ports to conduct trade
46Southern Carolina Fertile farmland Harbor at Charles Town (Charleston) Trade in deerskin, lumber and beef thrived
47Northern and Southern Carolina Two crops came to dominate Carolina agricultureRiceIndigo1719 – Settlers in Southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors1729 – Carolina became two royal colonies – North and South Carolina
48Georgia Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe Intended as a colony where debtors or poor people could make a fresh startAlso set up as a barrier to Spanish FloridaSettled by hundreds of poor British, religious refugees from Central Europe and a small group of JewsOglethorpe give colony to king in 1751
49Making Connections Who was John Locke and what did he do for Carolina? English philosopher who wrote Carolina’s constitutionWhy did demand for enslaved workers increase in the Southern colonies?The number of plantations increased as more settlers arrived, increasing the need for a cheap source of permanent labor
50Answer the Essential Question How and why did the Southern colonies grow?Use chart in notes