Presentation on theme: "1587-1770. Essential Question: Why did the English settle in North America?"— Presentation transcript:
Essential Question: Why did the English settle in North America?
Main Idea After defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more and more interested in establishing colonies in North America.
1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh claims Roanoke Island for Queen Elizabeth 1587 – Raleigh sends John White, 91 men, 17 women and 9 children to Roanoke When English ships return 3 years later, all Colonists have disappeared
For a time, the failure of the Roanoke colony discouraged others from planning English colonies in North America However, the idea emerged again in Several groups of merchants sought charters, documents granting the right to organize settlements in an area, from King James I.
Joint Stock Company Investors bought stock, or part ownership, in the company in return for a share of its future Settlers in America were to search for gold and establish trade in fish and furs 1607 – 144 settlers entered Chesapeake Bay and name their new settlement Jamestown
Colonists faced hardships of disease and hunger Colony survives the first 2 years because of 27 year old Captain John Smith Experienced explorer Forced settlers to work Sought corn from Native Americans led by chief Powahatan
Winter of known as “the starving time” Fighting breaks out with Native Americans Finally, colonists begin to make money for investors by growing tobacco Relations with Native Americas improve when John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powahatan
Virginia Colony government Burgesses meet to make local laws for the colony 1619 – First meeting of the House of Burgesses 1624 – King James cancels the Virginia Company charter and makes Jamestown the first royal colony in America.
Why did the English settle in North America? They hoped to profit from resources found in America
Essential Question: Why did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in North America? Read passage in notes!
Some Separatists in the Netherlands made an arrangement with the Virginia Company Separatists could settle in Virginia and practice their religion freely In return, they would give the company a share of their profits Only 35 of 102 passengers on board the Mayflower in 1620 were Pilgrims
Colonists on Mayflower drop anchor in Cape Cod Bay Before going ashore, the Pilgrims drew up a formal document Pledged their loyalty to England Necessary step in the development of representative government in the new American colonies
Read and complete questions that follow.
First winter in America – Nearly ½ the Pilgrims die of malnutrition, disease and cold Spring – the befriend two Native Americans (Squanto and Samoset) Showed pilgrims how to grow corn, beans and pumpkins Helped them to make peace with Wampanoag The two groups lived in harmony
In 1625, Charles I became the king of England. Charles objected to the Puritans’ calls for reform in the Anglican Church. Persecution of Puritans within the country increased. As a result, some Puritans wanted to leave England.
Founded by Massachusetts Bay Company Governor John Winthrop Puritans chance to create a new society based on the Bible
1630s – more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times in England At first, John Winthrop and the colony’s stock holders known as “The General Court” made the laws
1634 – Settlers demanded a bigger role in government The General Court became an elected assembly Adult male church members were allowed to vote for the governor and for representatives What does this tell you about their society?
Puritans came to America to put their religious beliefs into practice. However, they had littler toleration for other religious beliefs. They criticized and persecuted people of other faiths. This lack of toleration led people to form new colonies in neighboring areas.
Dissatisfied with the way the Massachusetts Colony was run, the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield were established in the Connecticut wilderness They adopted a plan called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut First written constitution in America Described the organization of representative government in detail
Founded by Roger Williams who believed in religious toleration and believed it was wrong to take land from Native Americans Received charter for Rhode Island in 1644 First place in America where people of all faiths could worship freely (including Jews!)
Settlers move onto Native American land without payment or permission English settlers and the Native Americans compete fiercely for land throughout entire period Eventually, settlers and their Native Americans allies defeat the Wampanoag Now the colonists are free to expand their settlements
What did the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut have in common? Both provided organization in the form of gov’t Why did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in N. America? Separatists: Escape persecution but maintain their religious values and English way of life Puritans: Escape persecution and establish a new society based on their religious beliefs.
Essential Question How did the Middle Colonies develop?
1660 – England has two clusters of colonies in America North: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island South: Maryland and Virginia Between the two groups was land controlled by the Dutch
Main settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island Center of trade and shipping due to its seaport Dutch East India Company offers large estates to anyone bringing at least 50 settlers to New Netherland Why do you think New Netherland, later New York, was a valuable colony?
English want to acquire the valuable Dutch colony of New Netherland 1664 – English fleet attacks New Amsterdam Unprepared Dutch governor surrenders the colony quickly English King Charles II gives colony to the Duke of York
Proprietary Colony Proprietor owns all land Proprietor controls government New York has a diverse population German, Dutch, Swedish, Native American, Jewish
Proprietors Lord John Berkley and Sir George Cateret wanted to attract settlers. They offered Large tracts of land Freedom of religion Trial by jury Representative Assembly Ethnically and religiously diverse With no major ports, it was difficult for proprietors to make money
If given a choice, would you take land or money for a debt that someone owed you? Why? 1681 – William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, received land as payment for a debt owed by King Charles II William Penn saw Pennsylvania as a chance to put his Quaker ideals into practice
“Society of Friends” Believed everyone was equal People could follow their own “inner light” to salvation Pacifists Considered a threat in England and were persecuted
Swedes had settled in Southern Pennsylvania before English took over Charter of Privileges allowed these lower counties to form their own legislature These counties operated as a separate colony under Pennsylvania’s governor
Answer the Essential Question How did the Middle Colonies develop? NY: Thriving Dutch colony seized by the English; Major port; Proprietary Colony, Diverse population NJ: Land and freedom offered to attract settlers; Diverse population; lacked major port so less profitable; Became royal colony PA: Established under Quaker ideals; Welcomed diverse immigrants; Constitution; elected legislature Delaware: lower part of VA; settled by Swedes; Allowed to function as separate colony
Essential Question How and why did the Southern Colonies grow?
Sir George Calavert, Lord Baltimore wanted a safe place for his fellow Catholics King Charles I gave him a proprietary colony north of Virginia Calavert dies, his son Cecilius inherits the colony and sends his two brothers to Maryland in 1634
Cecilius gave large estates to English aristocrats As the number of plantations grew, more workers were needed The colony imported indentured servants and enslaved Africans Enslaved people in the Colonies YearNorthSouthTotal ,1253,4104, ,34013,38916, ,30336,56344,866 Enslaved People in the Colonies
While other colonies were being founded, Virginia continued to grow Settlers moved west and settled Native American lands 1640s – Virginia governor, William Berkley made a pledge with the Native Americans to avoid conflict Native Americans gave Berkley large piece of land Berkley would keep settlers from pushing farther into their territory Showed that settlers would not be limited to the coast.
Some western Virginians resent Berkley’s agreement to stay out. 1676: Nathaniel Bacon, a young planter in western Virginia, led attacks on Native American villages Bacons army marches to Jamestown and drives Berkley into exile 1640s: Berkley makes pledge with Native Americans to avoid conflict October 1676: Bacon dies suddenly England recalled Berkley and sent troops to Virginia to restore order
In 1633, King Charles II created a proprietary colony south of Virginia called Carolina. The king gave the colony to eight nobles who had helped him regain his throne. The proprietors set up estates and sold or rented land to settlers brought from England.
Grew tobacco, sold timber and tar Lacked a good harbor Used Virginia’s ports to conduct trade
Fertile farmland Harbor at Charles Town (Charleston) Trade in deerskin, lumber and beef thrived
Two crops came to dominate Carolina agriculture Rice Indigo 1719 – Settlers in Southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors 1729 – Carolina became two royal colonies – North and South Carolina
Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe Intended as a colony where debtors or poor people could make a fresh start Also set up as a barrier to Spanish Florida Settled by hundreds of poor British, religious refugees from Central Europe and a small group of Jews Oglethorpe give colony to king in 1751
Who was John Locke and what did he do for Carolina? English philosopher who wrote Carolina’s constitution Why did demand for enslaved workers increase in the Southern colonies? The number of plantations increased as more settlers arrived, increasing the need for a cheap source of permanent labor
How and why did the Southern colonies grow? Use chart in notes