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America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 12 The World War I Era (1914–1920) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper.

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Presentation on theme: "America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 12 The World War I Era (1914–1920) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper."— Presentation transcript:

1 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 12 The World War I Era (1914–1920) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

2 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: The United States Declares War Section 3: Americans on the European Front Section 4: Americans on the Home Front Chapter 12: The World War I Era (1914–1920) Section 5: Global Peacemaker Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

3 The Road to War How did Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, and Alliances cause WWI? How did the conflict expand to draw in much of Europe? In what ways did the United States respond to the war in Europe? Chapter 12, Section 1

4 Causes of World War I The immediate cause of the Great War, later to be known as World War I, was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28, However, the main causes of the war existed long before At the time of his assassination, Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had been visiting Bosnia, a new Austro-Hungarian province. He was shot by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year- old Bosnian nationalist who believed that Austria- Hungary had no right to rule Bosnia. Chapter 12, Section 1

5 Causes of World War I Competition for colonial lands in Africa and elsewhere led to conflict among the major European powers. Imperialism Main Causes of World War I By the early 1900s, powerful nations in Europe had adopted policies of militarism, or aggressively building up armed forces and giving the military more authority over government and foreign policy. Militarism One type of nationalism inspired the great powers of Europe to act in their own interests. Another emerged as ethnic minorities within larger nations sought self- government. Nationalism In a complicated system of alliances, different groups of European nations had pledged to come to one another’s aid in the event of attack. Alliances Chapter 12, Section 1

6 The Conflict Expands Convinced that Serbia was behind the Archduke’s assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, Russia, as Serbia’s protector, began mobilization, or the readying of troops for war. France, Russia’s ally, and Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, also began mobilization. Germany, located between France and Russia, wanted to conquer France quickly to avoid the need to fight on two fronts. To get to France, German forces had to pass through neutral Belgium; the invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the conflict as well. One week after the war started, all the great powers of Europe had been drawn into it. Germany and Austria-Hungary formed the Central Powers, while Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain were called the Allies. Chapter 12, Section 1

7 The War in Europe, 1914–1918 When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, the complex alliance system in Europe drew much of the continent into the conflict. Chapter 12, Section 1

8 Stalemate and Modern Warfare Stalemate By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in World War I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells. Chapter 12, Section 1

9 The American Response Because many Americans were European immigrants or the children of European immigrants, many felt personally involved in the escalating war. Although some had sympathies for the Central Powers, most Americans supported the Allies. Support for the Allies was partially caused by Germany’s rule by an autocrat, a ruler with unlimited power. In addition, anti-German propaganda, or information intended to sway public opinion, turned many Americans against the Central Powers. To protect American investments overseas, President Wilson officially proclaimed the United States a neutral country on August 4, Chapter 12, Section 1

10 The Preparedness and Peace Movements The Preparedness Movement Americans with business ties to Great Britain wanted their country to be prepared to come to Britain’s aid if necessary. In an effort to promote “preparedness,” the movement’s leaders persuaded the government to set up military training camps and increase funding for the armed forces. The Peace Movement Other Americans, including women, former Populists, Midwest progressives, and social reformers, advocated peace. Peace activists in Congress insisted on paying for preparedness by increasing taxes. Although they had hoped that a tax increase would decrease support for preparedness, the movement remained strong. Chapter 12, Section 1

11 The Road to War—Assessment Which of the following was a cause of World War I? (A)Rising nationalism in European nations (B)Decrease in militarism among European powers (C)Pro-German propaganda in Britain (D)United States support of the Central Powers Why did the United States proclaim its neutrality in August 1914? (A)To please supporters of both sides (B)To protect its overseas investments (C)To allow time for preparedness (D)To aid Great Britain Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 1

12 The Road to War—Assessment Which of the following was a cause of World War I? (A)Rising nationalism in European nations (B)Decrease in militarism among European powers (C)Pro-German propaganda in Britain (D)United States support of the Central Powers Why did the United States proclaim its neutrality in August 1914? (A)To please supporters of both sides (B)To protect its overseas investments (C)To allow time for preparedness (D)To aid Great Britain Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 1

13 The United States Declares War How did Germany’s use of submarines affect the war? What moves did the United States take toward war in early 1917? Chapter 12, Section 2

14 German Submarine Warfare To break a stalemate at sea, Germany began to employ U-boats, short for Unterseeboot, the German word for submarine. U-boats, traveling under water, could sink British supply ships with no warning. When the British cut the transatlantic cable, which connected Germany and the United States, only news with a pro-Allied bias was able to reach America. American public opinion was therefore swayed against Germany’s U-boat tactics. Chapter 12, Section 2

15 The Lusitania and the Sussex Pledge The Sinking of the Lusitania On May 7,1915, a German U-boat sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, which had been carrying both passengers and weapons for the Allies. Since 128 American passengers had been on board, the sinking of the Lusitania brought the United States closer to involvement in the war. The Sussex Pledge More Americans were killed when Germany sank the Sussex, a French passenger steamship, on March 24,1916. In what came to be known as the Sussex pledge, the German government promised that U-boats would warn ships before attacking, a promise it had made and broken before. Chapter 12, Section 2

16 Moving Toward War Unrestricted Submarine Warfare On January 31, 1917, Germany announced its intent to end the Sussex pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare. This action caused the United States to break off diplomatic relations with Germany. Despite this announcement, the German navy did not attack any American ships in February, causing the United States to continue to hope for peace. The Zimmermann Note During this time, Britain revealed an intercepted telegram to the government of Mexico from Germany’s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann. In this telegram, known as the Zimmermann note, Germany offered to return American lands to Mexico if Mexico declared war on the United States. Neither Mexico nor President Wilson took the Zimmermann note seriously, but it brought America closer to entering the war. Chapter 12, Section 2

17 The War Resolution When the Russian Revolution replaced Russia’s autocratic czar with a republican government in March 1917, the United States no longer needed to be concerned about allying itself with an autocratic nation. This removed one more stumbling block to an American declaration of war. As Germany continued to sink American ships in March, President Wilson’s patience for neutrality wore out. On April 6, 1917, the President signed Congress’s war resolution, officially bringing the United States into the war. Chapter 12, Section 2

18 The United States Declares War— Assessment What was the significance of the Lusitania? (A)Its sinking brought America closer to entering the war. (B)The weapons it carried helped Britain gain an advantage. (C)Its crew delivered the Zimmermann note. (D)It inspired the Sussex pledge. Why did the Russian Revolution help bring America into the war? (A)It helped the German navy sink British ships. (B)It caused the deaths of many Americans. (C)It set up a republican government in Russia, an Allied nation. (D)It promised American lands to Mexico in exchange for an invasion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 2

19 The United States Declares War— Assessment What was the significance of the Lusitania? (A)Its sinking brought America closer to entering the war. (B)The weapons it carried helped Britain gain an advantage. (C)Its crew delivered the Zimmermann note. (D)It inspired the Sussex pledge. Why did the Russian Revolution help bring America into the war? (A)It helped the German navy sink British ships. (B)It caused the deaths of many Americans. (C)It set up a republican government in Russia, an Allied nation. (D)It promised American lands to Mexico in exchange for an invasion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 2

20 Americans on the European Front How did the United States prepare to fight in World War I? In what ways did American troops help turn the tide of war? What were conditions like in Europe and in the United States at the end of the war? Chapter 12, Section 3

21 Moving Toward War Building an Army Despite the preparedness movement, the United States lacked a large and available military force. Congress therefore passed a Selective Service Act in May 1917, drafting many young men into the military. Draftees, volunteers, and National Guardsmen made up what was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), led by General John J. Pershing. Training for War New recruits were trained in the weapons and tactics of the war by American and British lecturers at new and expanded training camps around the country. Ideally, the military planned to give new soldiers several months of training. However, the need to send forces to Europe quickly sometimes cut training time short. Chapter 12, Section 3

22 The Convoy System and Americans in Europe The Convoy System To transport troops across the Atlantic, the United States employed convoys, or groups of unarmed ships surrounded by armed naval vessels equipped to track and destroy submarines. Due to the convoy system, German submarines did not sink a single ship carrying American troops. American Soldiers in Europe By 1918, European nations had begun to run out of men to recruit. Energetic American soldiers, nicknamed doughboys, helped replace the tired fighters of Europe. Many African Americans volunteered or were drafted for service. However, these men served in segregated units and were often relegated to noncombat roles. Chapter 12, Section 3

23 Turning the Tide of War New methods of military transportation, including tanks, airplanes, and German zeppelins, or floating airships, influenced the manner in which the war was fought. In the spring of 1918, Germany provided safe passage for Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, from Switzerland to Russia. The Bolsheviks successfully overthrew the Russian republican government and made peace with Germany. The resulting truce ceded valuable Russian land to Germany and also meant that the German military could concentrate exclusively on the Western front. Before the arrival of American troops, Germany was able to gain ground in France, coming within 50 miles of Paris. General Pershing’s troops, however, pushed back the Germans in a series of attacks. Finally, the German army was driven to full retreat in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive begun on September 26, Chapter 12, Section 3

24 Ending the War In the face of Allied attacks and domestic revolutions, the Central Powers collapsed one by one. Austria- Hungary splintered into smaller nations of ethnic groups, and German soldiers mutinied, feeling that defeat was inevitable. When the Kaiser of Germany fled to Holland, a civilian representative of the new German republic signed an armistice, or cease-fire, in a French railroad car at 5am on November 11, Although guns fell silent six hours later, many more deaths were to follow. The influenza epidemic of 1918 killed more people, both in the United States and Europe, than all of the wartime battles. Chapter 12, Section 3

25 The estimated death toll of World War I was 8 million soldiers and civilians, including tens of thousands of Americans. Many more had lost limbs or been blinded by poison gas. However, the efforts of the Red Cross and other agencies had helped save many lives. Dead and Wounded Some Results of World War I Many sensed that the war had destroyed an entire generation of young men and grieved for the loss of their talents and abilities. Loss of Young Men In an act of genocide, or organized killing of an entire people, the Ottoman Empire had murdered hundreds of thousands of Armenians suspected of disloyalty to the government. Genocide Results of the War Chapter 12, Section 3

26 Americans on the European Front— Assessment What was the convoy system? (A)A pattern of tank and airplane use (B)A method of transporting American troops across the Atlantic (C)A strategy for German advancement into France (D)A means of training new soldiers Which of the following proved to be a turning point in the war? (A)The enactment of a Selective Service Act (B)The breakup of Austria-Hungary (C)The work of Red Cross volunteers in saving lives (D)The actions of General Pershing’s troops Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 3

27 Americans on the European Front— Assessment What was the convoy system? (A)A pattern of tank and airplane use (B)A method of transporting American troops across the Atlantic (C)A strategy for German advancement into France (D)A means of training new soldiers Which of the following proved to be a turning point in the war? (A)The enactment of a Selective Service Act (B)The breakup of Austria-Hungary (C)The work of Red Cross volunteers in saving lives (D)The actions of General Pershing’s troops Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 3

28 Americans on the Home Front What steps did the government take to finance the war and manage the economy? How did the government enforce loyalty to the war effort? How did the war change the lives of Americans on the home front? Chapter 12, Section 4

29 Financing the War Modern warfare required huge amounts of money and personnel. Many sacrifices within the United States were needed to meet these demands. The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to support the Allied cause. Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for their original value plus interest. Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort. Chapter 12, Section 4

30 Managing the Economy United States entry into the war caused many industries to switch from commercial to military production. A newly created War Industries Board oversaw this production. New labor-related agencies helped ensure that labor disputes did not disrupt the war effort. Using the slogan, “Food will win the war,” Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration and future President, began to manage how much food people bought. Although he had the power to impose price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government, and rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount, Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. Daylight savings time was created to save on fuel use and increase the number of daylight hours available for work. This involved turning clocks back one hour for the summer, creating one more hour of daylight. Chapter 12, Section 4

31 Enforcing American Loyalty During World War I Fear of espionage, or spying, was widespread; restrictions on immigration were called for and achieved. Fear of Foreigners The war spurred a general hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular. “Hate the Hun” Despite Wilson’s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime. Repression of Civil Liberties Socialists, who argued that workers had no stake in the war, won popular support in some states. The radical labor organization Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) tried to interfere with war production; vigilantes took the law into their own hands. Political Radicals Enforcing Loyalty Chapter 12, Section 4

32 Changing People’s Lives African Americans and Other Minorities With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers who had once discriminated against minorities began actively recruiting them. The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration. New Roles for Women The diminished male work force also created new opportunities for women. Many women joined the work force for the first time during the war. Some found work on farms with the Woman’s Land Army; others took jobs traditionally reserved for men. Chapter 12, Section 4

33 Americans on the Home Front—Assessment Which of the following best describes Hoover’s strategy for food conservation? (A)Creation of new government agencies (B)Price controls and rationing (C)Sale of Liberty Bonds (D)Voluntary restraint and increased efficiency Why did the war provide new opportunities for women and minorities? (A)Many white men were away fighting the war. (B)Women proved to be better farm workers than men. (C)African Americans were less likely to be guilty of sedition. (D)Radical labor organizers gained popularity. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 4

34 Americans on the Home Front—Assessment Which of the following best describes Hoover’s strategy for food conservation? (A)Creation of new government agencies (B)Price controls and rationing (C)Sale of Liberty Bonds (D)Voluntary restraint and increased efficiency Why did the war provide new opportunities for women and minorities? (A)Many white men were away fighting the war. (B)Women proved to be better farm workers than men. (C)African Americans were less likely to be guilty of sedition. (D)Radical labor organizers gained popularity. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 4

35 Global Peacemaker What expectations did Wilson and the Allies bring to the Paris Peace Conference? What were the important provisions of the peace treaty? How did the federal government and ordinary Americans react to the end of war? Chapter 12, Section 5

36 President Wilson’s Proposals As the war neared an end, President Wilson developed a program for peace around the world known as the Fourteen Points, named for the number of provisions it contained. One of Wilson’s Fourteen Points called for an end to entangling alliances; another involved a reduction of military forces. Another dealt with the right of Austria- Hungary’s ethnic groups to self-determination, or the power to make decisions about their own future. Although both Wilson and the German government assumed that the Fourteen Points would form the basis of peace negotiations, the Allies disagreed. During peace negotiations, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were discarded one by one. Chapter 12, Section 5

37 The Paris Peace Conference Wilson Forced to Compromise Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. Wilson was forced to compromise on his views, especially concerning self- determination for former German colonies. The League of Nations One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations, was agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. Republicans in Congress, however, were concerned about Article 10 of the League’s charter, which contained a provision that they claimed might draw the United States into unpopular foreign wars. Chapter 12, Section 5

38 The Peace Treaty The treaty which was negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference redrew the map of Europe to the Allies’ advantage. Nine new nations were created from territory taken from Austria- Hungary, Russia, and Germany. Although most borders were drawn with the division of ethnic minorities in mind, the redivisions created new ethnic minorities in several countries. France insisted that Germany be humiliated and financially crippled. The peace treaty required Germany to pay billions of dollars in reparations, or payment for economic injury suffered during the war. Wilson, however, opposed this plan, claiming that these demands would lead to future wars. On June 28, 1919, the peace treaty, which came to be known as the Versailles Treaty, was signed at Versailles, outside of Paris. Chapter 12, Section 5

39 Redrawing the Map of Europe At the Paris Peace Conference, Britain, France, and the United States redrew the map of Europe. Chapter 12, Section 5

40 Reactions at Home Congress and the Treaty of Versailles Despite Wilson’s intensive campaign in favor of the Versailles Treaty, Congress voted against ratifying it in November The United States declared the war officially over on May 20, It ratified separate peace treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary. However, the United States did not join the newly formed League of Nations. Difficult Postwar Adjustments The war had given a large boost to the American economy, making the United States the world’s largest creditor nation. Soldiers returned home to a hero’s welcome but found that jobs were scarce. African American soldiers, despite their service to their country, returned to find continued discrimination. Many American artists entered the postwar years with a sense of gloom and disillusionment. Chapter 12, Section 5

41 Global Peacemaker—Assessment What was the League of Nations? (A)The reassignment of lands in Europe (B)A demand to Germany to pay war reparations (C)A global organization to maintain peace and security (D)A new secret alliance system Why did Wilson oppose French demands for German war reparations? (A)He thought that Germany should be forced to pay more. (B)He felt that these demands would lead to future wars. (C)He did not think that France needed the money. (D)He wanted other nations to pay reparations instead. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 5

42 Global Peacemaker—Assessment What was the League of Nations? (A)The reassignment of lands in Europe (B)A demand to Germany to pay war reparations (C)A global organization to maintain peace and security (D)A new secret alliance system Why did Wilson oppose French demands for German war reparations? (A)He thought that Germany should be forced to pay more. (B)He felt that these demands would lead to future wars. (C)He did not think that France needed the money. (D)He wanted other nations to pay reparations instead. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 5


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