Flag Facts The stars and stripes of the American flag originated as a result of a resolution adopted by the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress at Philadelphia on June 14, 1777. The resolution read: Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field representing a new constellation. The resolution gave no instruction as to how many points the stars should have, nor how the stars should be arranged on the blue union. Realizing that the flag would become unwieldy with a stripe for each new State, Capt. Samuel C. Reid suggested to Congress that the stripes remain 13 in number to represent the Thirteen Colonies, and that a star be added to the blue field for each new State coming into the Union. The Stars and Stripes has become a symbol of sovereignty. The writer Henry Ward Beecher said: A thoughtful mind when it sees a nation's flag, sees not the flag, but the nation itself. And whatever may be its symbols, its insignia, he reads chiefly in the flag, the government, the principles, the truths, the history that belongs to the nation that sets it forth.
Our Daily Mandatory Recitation I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
Pledge Facts Francis Bellamy (1855 - 1931), a Baptist minister, wrote the original Pledge in August 1892. He was a Christian Socialist. The Pledge was published in the September 8 th 1892 issue of The Youth's Companion. In 1892 Francis Bellamy was also a chairman of a committee of state superintendents of education in the National Education Association. As its chairman, he prepared the program for the public schools' quadricentennial celebration for Columbus Day in 1892. He structured this public school program around a flag raising ceremony and a flag salute - his Pledge of Allegiance. He considered placing the word, 'equality,' in his Pledge, but knew that the state superintendents of education on his committee were against equality for women and people of color. (what do you know was signed in 1848?) In 1954, Congress, during the Red Scare, added the words “under God” to the Pledge. The Pledge was now both a patriotic oath and a public prayer. 35 states require the public schools to lead students in the pledge every day.
State Pledge of Allegiance Requirements for Schools Map
Singing Its Praises-The National Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner
Francis Scott Key The national anthem was composed by Francis Scott Key. It was inspired by the defense of Fort McHenry, September 20, 1814. In 1931, Congress designated only one song, "The Star-Spangled Banner" to be our national anthem. There are three other verses in addition to the one with which you are familiar. Thankfully, they are not included before sporting events. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/september11/ssbfacts.html
Singing Its Praises-The National Anthem Oh, say can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? The Star-Spangled Banner
Artistic Meddling Q1: Should artists be able to manipulate/ embellish the “Star- Spangled Banner,” or should the national anthem always be performed as the song was originally written?
Artistic Meddling Now that you have viewed and listened to the renditions of the flag and the anthem, you should have formulated your opinion and your response to the question: 1. Should artists be able to manipulate/ embellish the “Star-Spangled Banner,” or should the national anthem always be performed as it was originally written? Explain your position by listing at least three bulleted reasons/supporting evidence.
The Rhetoric of Image – First Image Look carefully at the following painting, taking into account any previous knowledge you bring your viewing. Write a statement in which you explain why this image is effective as a symbol for America’s past and present.
George Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851)-Emanual Leutze 2)Write a statement explaining why this image is effective as a symbol for America’s past and present.
Rhetoric of Image – Second Image Look carefully at the following photo, taking into account any previous knowledge you bring your viewing Write a statement in which you explain why this image is effective as a symbol for America’s past and present.
The Landing at Iwo Jima The Next Image: 3)Write a statement explaining why this image is effective as a symbol for America’s past and present.
Photo Op This famous image was actually the second flag raised on that day. It was set up using a larger flag and with a photographer ready to take the shot. 4. Does the second picture constitute reasonable artistic license as well? Does this information diminish the power of the symbol? (Think about your position on the artistic expression of the Star Spangled Banner.) Explain your position.
Moving into the 21 st Century: Past to Present – 9/11 Images
9/11 Photo- Image One: The Fireman Photo taken by Tom Franklin
“The After-Life of a Photo that Touched a Nation” by Tom Franklin Read Tom Franklin’s article, paying attention to his main points. Remember that as the photographer of this particular image he maintains particular authority when speaking ( ethos).
Controversy and Image We have discussed at different points the idea of artistically changing an image in order to attain a particular rhetorical effect. Read the Associated Press article concerning the proposed 9/11 memorial. Once you have finished the article, consider the ways in which this controversy relates to previous discussions we had about George Washington Crossing the Delaware and the different Iwo Jima photos. 5. Write a statement explaining your position on the Fireman memorial. In what ways is the changing of the memorial similar or different from the previous manipulations of tributes discussed?
To Life a Nation The sculpture that was commissioned in 2002 for the New York Firehouse memorial was drafted only. The controversy surrounding the change to the men was answered by scraping the project. Years later, however, sculptures have been made and can even be purchases on Amazon and Ebay. More importantly, though, two main sculptures were commission to sculptor Stan Watts who made one in 2007 which now stands in Maryland, and one 2011 which now stand in his home state of Utah. http://www.atlasbronzecasting.com/National_Fire_Fighter_Statu.html http://www.atlasbronzecasting.com/National_Fire_Fighter_Statu.html
9/11 victims: The Jumpers One of the most strikingly and horrifically memorable aspects of the day was the decision many made to escape the terrors of the twin towers. They have been come to be known as the Jumpers. The following is a short video tribute to them. Warning: graphic content. Published on Dec 23, 2012 We should never forget those who were forced into making a decision none of them deserved to make. They were everyday normal people who were going to work, making a living for themselves and their families. They didn't deserve their fate, nor our (America's) immediate denial of how "Their Final Journey" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTnrCkN8rfs
The Rhetoric of Memorial Artist Eric Fischl was commissioned to create a sculpture meant to commemorate the victims of 9/11. His bronze sculpture, entitled “Tumbling Woman,” depicted a woman tumbling out of the tower. Look carefully at the image before reading the accompanying news article and interview with the artist.
The Response Now read both the news article discussing the public response to Fischl’s memorial as well as the interview with the artist discussing his work. After you have finished both pieces, answer the following question: 6. To what extent should memorials be “real” or untouched and why?
Final Overall Thoughts 7. When, if ever, can artistic expression for memorials or tributes (songs, poems, statues) go too far? Utilize all that we have discussed and bring in any other examples from your own knowledge to support your position.