3Politics in Recent Years Chapter 34, Section 1What led to Bill Clinton’s election in 1992, and what issues did he tackle during his first term?Why did Republicans issue a Contract with America?What scandals were debated during Clinton’s second term?What were the results of the 2000 election, and what goals did the new President set?How did America respond to the terrorist attacks in 2001?
4The 1992 Election The Candidates Chapter 34, Section 1The CandidatesPresident George Bush, a Republican, sought a second term.Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot, an independent candidate, entered the race out of frustration over government economic policies.Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, a Democrat, pledged to address the nation’s economic problems.Campaign IssuesClinton campaigned on the belief that government was necessary but that it should be made smaller and more efficient.Character issues, including reports of a past affair, marred Clinton’s campaign. Nonetheless, he won the election with 43 percent of the votes.
5Clinton’s First Term Economic Reform Chapter 34, Section 1Economic ReformClinton tried to follow a middle course in dealing with the economy.To reduce the deficit, Clinton proposed a budget including both spending cuts and tax increases. Congress passed the budget, but just barely.Neither the spending cuts nor the tax increases were well received by the public.The Battle Over HealthcareWhen Clinton took office, many Americans lacked access to affordable healthcare.Clinton proposed the creation of a government-supervised health insurance program that would guarantee affordable coverage to every American.Despite popular support for healthcare reform, Clinton’s proposal failed to gain the necessary votes in Congress.
6The Republicans’ Contract With America Chapter 34, Section 1Balancing the Budget and Welfare Reform, 1994–1996Contract With AmericaDuring the 1994 midterm elections, Georgia Representative Newt Gingrich called on Republican candidates to endorse a Contract with America, a pledge to scale back the role of the federal government, eliminate some regulations, cut taxes, and balance the budget.Congress Versus the PresidentIn the 1994 elections, Republicans won majorities in both houses of Congress. Newt Gingrich became Speaker of the House and proposed cuts in many social services to balance the budget. The debate turned from whether or not to balance the budget to how to balance it.The Government Is Shut DownAt the end of 1995, Clinton and Gingrich were unable to compromise on budget issues. As a result, budget allocations expired without reauthorization, leading to the temporary closure of government offices and disruption of services to many Americans.Welfare ReformIn August 1996, Congress and Clinton agreed on a sweeping reform of the nation’s welfare system. The new law eliminated federal guarantees of cash assistance, gave more authority to states, and placed limits on the length of time Americans could receive welfare.
7Clinton’s Second TermChapter 34, Section 1Clinton won reelection in 1996, defeating Republican Bob Dole and Ross Perot of the newly created Reform Party.A strong economy improved Clinton’s popularity. In 1998, the government achieved its first budget surplus since 1969.Charges of scandal continued during Clinton’s second term. In what came to be known as the Whitewater affair, Clinton was accused of having taken part in fraudulent loans and land deals in Arkansas years earlier.A further scandal arose when Clinton denied a sexual relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. In December 1998, the House voted to impeach Clinton on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice. In the Senate trial which followed, Clinton was acquitted.
8The 2000 ElectionChapter 34, Section 1The mixture of a strong economy and a scandal-ridden presidency promised a close presidential election in Vice President Al Gore ran for the Democrats, while the Republicans nominated Texas Governor George W. Bush.Pre-election polls showed Gore and Bush virtually tied. On election night, votes in several states were too close to call.One undecided state, Florida, could give either candidate enough electoral votes to win the presidency. Lawyers, politicians, and the media swarmed to Florida to monitor a recount of votes there.A series of court battles eventually reached the Supreme Court, which voted 5–4 to stop the Florida recounts, awarding the state’s electoral votes to Bush.Although Gore had won the popular vote, Bush won the election by 271 electoral votes to Gore’s 266.
9The George W. Bush Administration Chapter 34, Section 1Change in Presidential StyleBush’s approach to the presidency differed from that of Clinton.Bush preferred a more formal atmosphere in the White House and began keeping a stricter schedule than the former president.Advisors, staff members, and the Vice President, Dick Cheney, were granted more responsibility for setting policy under Bush’s administration.Bush on Domestic PolicyEarly in his presidency, Bush received congressional approval for a tax cut that granted most taxpayers a $300 rebate.Bush also proposed an educational reform bill that called for redirected funding and increased accountability from schools.
10Attack on AmericaChapter 34, Section 1On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes. Two hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, causing both towers as well as several surrounding buildings to collapse. A third plane hit the Pentagon, and a fourth crashed in a field near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Thousands died in the collapse of the towers, including hundreds of emergency workers who had rushed to the scene.Americans responded to the tragedy with an outpouring of support for the victims. Meanwhile, President Bush vowed to bring justice to those responsible for the attack.On October 7, an American bombing campaign known as “Operation Enduring Freedom” began against Afghanistan, whose ruling Taliban was believed to be harboring Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, suspected of masterminding the attack.
11Politics in Recent Years—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 1What was the Contract with America?(A) Bill Clinton’s proposal to reduce the deficit(B) Bush’s new approach to the presidency(C) The American bombing campaign in Afghanistan(D) A Republican pledge to scale back the federal governmentWhat was the Supreme Court’s role in the 2000 election?(A) Bringing lawyers, politicians, and the media to Florida(B) Deciding whether to continue the recount in Florida(C) Counting votes in states too close to call(D) Deliberating on results of pre-election pollsWant to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
12Politics in Recent Years—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 1What was the Contract with America?(A) Bill Clinton’s proposal to reduce the deficit(B) Bush’s new approach to the presidency(C) The American bombing campaign in Afghanistan(D) A Republican pledge to scale back the federal governmentWhat was the Supreme Court’s role in the 2000 election?(A) Bringing lawyers, politicians, and the media to Florida(B) Deciding whether to continue the recount in Florida(C) Counting votes in states too close to call(D) Deliberating on results of pre-election pollsWant to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
13The United States in a New World Chapter 34, Section 2What political changes took place in the world in the 1990s?How did the Clinton administration promote peace abroad?Describe U.S. relations with China.What was the impact of an expanding global economy?
14Political Changes Worldwide Chapter 34, Section 2Russia and Eastern EuropeThe United States applauded Russia’s move toward democracy and a free market economy, including the election of Boris Yeltsin as president.A conflict in Chechnya, a republic which sought independence from Russia, became the source of great public support for Vladimir Putin. Putin later became president of Russia.Some Eastern European nations, including Poland, joined NATO and initiated economic reforms.South AfricaIn South Africa, a system called apartheid had separated people of different racial backgrounds and denied equal rights to the nation’s black majority.Nations around the world had used economic sanctions, or trade restrictions and other economic measures, to encourage reform.Between 1990 and 1994, Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk and anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela worked together to end apartheid peacefully.
15The Difficult Search for Peace Chapter 34, Section 2Conflict Around the World, Early 1990sSomaliaIn the early 1990s, famine combined with civil war devastated the East African nation of Somalia. President Bush sent American troops to assist a United Nations relief effort, but the troops returned without having restored order.Northern IrelandIn Northern Ireland, the United States encouraged renewed efforts to end decades of violence between Protestants and Catholics. The Good Friday Accords, signed in 1998, provided for major reforms and offered the best hope yet for ending the violence.Iraq After the Gulf WarDespite defeat in the Gulf War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein continued to oppress opposition groups and failed to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors. An “oil-for-food” program allowed Iraq to export small quantities of oil in return for food and related supplies.AfghanistanIn 1996, a group of Muslim fundamentalists known as the Taliban seized the Afghan capital of Kabul from its ruling pro-Soviet government. The Taliban sought to set up what their leaders considered a pure Islamic state in Afghanistan.
16The Search for Peace in Israel and the Balkans Chapter 34, Section 2IsraelIn September 1993, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed a historic peace agreement in Washington, D.C.This agreement, however, failed to resolve all issues in the Middle East or stop violence in the region.Israeli prime ministers who succeeded Rabin were more reluctant to grant concessions to the Palestinians.The BalkansTensions among ethnic and religious groups in Yugoslavia exploded into violence after the collapse of the nation’s Communist government.Millions were killed in a ferocious “ethnic cleansing” campaign carried out by Bosnian Serbs.Steps toward peace in 1995 failed to resolve underlying issues, and violence again erupted.In 2001, Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic was indicted for war crimes by an international tribunal.
17Relations With ChinaChapter 34, Section 2The United States sought to remain on peaceful terms with China during the 1990s. However, the issue of Taiwan resulted in tensions between the two nations.China viewed the island of Taiwan as part of China. The United States, however, supplied weapons to Taiwan and opposed any military action against Taiwan by China.Relations between the United States and China improved as both nations worked on ways to expand China’s trade with other nations.A strain in relations occurred in 2001, when the Bush administration stated that the United States would defend Taiwan from military attacks by China. China, in turn, warned the United States against sales of advanced weapons to Taiwan.
18Trade and the Global Economy Chapter 34, Section 2The Continuing Growth of World TradeThe European UnionIn 1993, the European Union (EU) was formed from the older European Economic Community (EEC) to coordinate political and monetary policies. In the late 1990s, member nations agreed to gradually replace their individual currencies with the euro.NAFTAIn 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which called for a gradual removal of trade restrictions among the three nations. NAFTA produced tremendous controversy in the United States.GATT and the WTOThe United States joined other countries in adopting a revised version of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created to ensure cooperation with GATT, negotiate new trade agreements and resolve trade disputes.Rise of MultinationalsMultinational corporations, or businesses that operate in more than one country, gained importance in the 1990s. Multinationals continue to provide both advantages and disadvantages to the nations in which they operate.
19The United States in a New World—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 2Which of the following was true in both the Middle East and the Balkans during the 1990s?(A) Relations with the United States were strained over Taiwan.(B) A common currency encouraged free trade.(C) Violence marred attempts for peace between ethnic groups.(D) An end to apartheid granted blacks the right to vote.What is NAFTA?(A) A pledge of economic cooperation in Europe(B) A free trade agreement in North America(C) A lifting of trade barriers with China(D) A program of trading oil for food in IraqWant to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
20The United States in a New World—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 2Which of the following was true in both the Middle East and the Balkans during the 1990s?(A) Relations with the United States were strained over Taiwan.(B) A common currency encouraged free trade.(C) Violence marred attempts for peace between ethnic groups.(D) An end to apartheid granted blacks the right to vote.What is NAFTA?(A) A pledge of economic cooperation in Europe(B) A free trade agreement in North America(C) A lifting of trade barriers with China(D) A program of trading oil for food in IraqWant to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
21Americans in the New Millennium Chapter 34, Section 3What factors contributed to the growing diversity of the nation’s population?In what ways did Americans disagree over how to make diversity work?What is the economic and political impact of the nation’s aging population?How did the technological revolution at the end of the twentieth century affect American life?
22A Nation of DiversityChapter 34, Section 3Changing immigration policies contributed to America’s growing diversity during the 1990s. The Immigration Act of 1990 increased immigration quotas by 40 percent and erased restrictions which had denied entrance to many people in the past.Immigrants during the 1990s chose to settle in a variety of places, with different ethnic groups concentrating in particular cities or areas. Cities with large immigrant populations saw widespread competition for jobs and housing.As minority groups grew in size, they also gained new political power. Numerous African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos were elected to the Senate and House of Representatives.
23Debating Issues of Diversity Making Diversity WorkChapter 34, Section 3Debating Issues of DiversityThe Debate Over ImmigrationAmericans continue to present numerous arguments both for and against immigration. Bilingual education, in which students are taught in their native language as well as English, has come under attack.Affirmative ActionAnother continuing debate concerns affirmative action, or giving preference to African Americans, women, and other minorities who had been discriminated against in the past. Whether race should be a deciding factor in hiring, or just one of the factors, is still being debated today.MulticulturalismA movement known as multiculturalism called for greater attention to non-European cultures in areas such as education. Like immigration and affirmative action, debate over multiculturalism remains ongoing.
24America’s Aging Population Chapter 34, Section 3As the United States approached the turn of the millennium, its population was older than ever before.An increase in elderly Americans had important political and economic effects. The Social Security system became strained when the number of retirees receiving benefits rose faster than the number of workers paying taxes into the program.The American medical system began to face similar challenges. Federal lawmakers agreed that long-term changes were needed to meet these challenges, but disagreed on what those changes should be.
25A Technological Revolution Chapter 34, Section 3Information, Economic Issues, and EducationCommunication and InformationComputer ownership rose tremendously during the 1990s. The Internet, a computer network that links millions of people around the world, revolutionized many areas of American life.The “New Economy”The technological boom helped the United States enjoy the greatest period of economic expansion in its history. The face of business began to change as more companies, both old and new, adopted more casual policies.EducationEducation is becoming increasingly important in a technology-driven world, but the role of computers and the Internet in education is still being determined.
26Impacts of Technology Impact of Technology Impact on Foreign Affairs Chapter 34, Section 3Impact of TechnologyImpact on Foreign AffairsNew technologies are enabling greater communication among people around the world. However, poorer nations often lack the wealth or infrastructure to participate in this global network.Impact on GovernmentPrivacy and ownership rights have become issues faced by the federal government. In 1998, the government sued the giant software company Microsoft, accusing it of gaining a monopoly over Internet browsers.Impact on Daily LifeAmericans have come to rely on technology, such as cell phones and the Internet, for keeping in touch with friends and family, shopping, and many other tasks. However, some have begun to question whether the advantages of modern technology outweigh the disadvantages.
27Facing the FutureChapter 34, Section 3As changes occur increasingly fast in the years ahead, Americans will face new advances and new challenges.The preservation of freedom will likely remain a priority to Americans in the time to come.
28Americans in the New Millennium—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 3What is multiculturalism?(A) A program in which students are taught in two languages(B) The practice of giving preference to minorities(C) A call for greater attention to non-European cultures(D) An increase in immigration quotasWhy is an increase in older Americans of concern to the government?(A) Newer technology is being used by more older Americans.(B) Older Americans compete with immigrants for jobs and housing.(C) The Social Security and medical systems are becoming strained.(D) The Microsoft monopoly concerns mostly older Americans.Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
29Americans in the New Millennium—Assessment Chapter 34, Section 3What is multiculturalism?(A) A program in which students are taught in two languages(B) The practice of giving preference to minorities(C) A call for greater attention to non-European cultures(D) An increase in immigration quotasWhy is an increase in older Americans of concern to the government?(A) Newer technology is being used by more older Americans.(B) Older Americans compete with immigrants for jobs and housing.(C) The Social Security and medical systems are becoming strained.(D) The Microsoft monopoly concerns mostly older Americans.Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!