Presentation on theme: "Religion & Public Education: The Pledge of Allegiance Draft your own pledge: 1)Promise allegiance or loyalty to the United States or the American flag."— Presentation transcript:
Religion & Public Education: The Pledge of Allegiance Draft your own pledge: 1)Promise allegiance or loyalty to the United States or the American flag. 2)Make it short (no more than words). 3)Make it inspirational.
A Brief History of the Pledge Francis Bellamy & the First Pledge (1892) Minor Edits (1920s) & Official Status (1942) “Under God” (1954) Bellamy’s original pledge: “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all.”
Eisenhower’s Explanation of “Under God” (1954) “These words will remind Americans that despite our great physical strength, we must remain humble. They will help us keep constantly in our minds and hearts the spiritual and moral principles which alone give dignity to man, and upon which our way of life is founded.” —President Dwight Eisenhower to the Knights of Columbus
Congressional Explanation of “Under God” (1954) “At this moment of our history the principles underlying our American Government and the American way of life are under attack by a system whose philosophy is at direct odds with our own. Our American Government is founded on the concept of the individuality and the dignity of the human being. Underlying this concept is the belief that the human person is important because he was created by God and endowed by Him with certain inalienable rights, which no civil authority may usurp. The inclusion of God in our pledge therefore would further acknowledge the dependence of our people and our Government upon the moral directions of the Creator. At the same time it would serve to deny the atheistic and materialistic concepts of communism with its attendant subservience of the individual.” Congressional Record (1954)
“Under God,” Under Fire ( ) Michael Newdow & Atheism The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals (2002) The Supreme Court (2004) “There’s a principle here, and I’m hoping the Court will uphold this principle, so that we can finally go back and have every American want to stand up, face the flag, place their hand over their heart and pledge to one nation, indivisible—not divided by religion—with liberty and justice for all.” –Michael Newdow’s closing argument at the Supreme Court (2004)
Ashcroft’s Assessment of the Court Ruling Against Newdow “Today’s ruling ensures that school children in every corner of America can start their day by voluntarily reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. For centuries, America has referenced God as we have expressed our patriotism and national identity in the National Motto (“In God we trust”), the National Anthem, the Declaration of Independence, and in speeches like the Gettysburg Address. An unbroken line of court precedents had approved these common-sense acknowledgments of the role of religion in our founding, history and character, until the Ninth Circuit struck down the Pledge. The Justice Department worked hard to protect the Pledge, and we are pleased that the Supreme Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s holding that the Pledge violates the Constitution.” –US Attorney General John Ashcroft (2004)
Concept Mapping Sample Map: Reading, Discussion Section, A+, F-, bribe, nap, professor, students Your Concept Map: American Flag, “Under God,” Indivisible, Liberty, Allegiance, Atheists, Church, and State