Presentation on theme: "Lets remember How kind of categories of information? Why information needed to manage the business: LECTURE-6 OBJECTIVE OF TODAY’S LECTURE Today we will."— Presentation transcript:
Lets remember How kind of categories of information? Why information needed to manage the business: LECTURE-6 OBJECTIVE OF TODAY’S LECTURE Today we will discuss about several types of information systems and there characteristics. Today course is especially important for us as we will become to be System analyst in the field of Computerization system. If we learn well this lecture, we will able to understand how we should need organized any system or problem to build a computer base information system.
THE MAINE POINTS OF TODAY’S LECTURE COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM(CBIS) CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS TRANSACTION PROCESSING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS INTEGRATING INFORMATION SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS TRANSACTION PROCESSING(TP) MANAGEMENT INFORMAION SYSTEM(MIS) Intelligent support systems (ISS), which consist of decision support systems (DSS), executive information systems (EIS), and expert systems (ES). Information Systems are classified in four types of information systems: Office automation systems (OAS)
TRANSACTION PROCESSING(TP) There are two types of transaction processing. The most common is the processing of input transaction. Examples of input transactions are given below: Input Transactions CUSTER ORDERS ACCOUNTING VOUCHERS COURSE REGISTRATIONS TIME CARDS AIRLINE RESERVATIONS PAYMENTS CHANGE CARD SLIPS BANK DEPOSIT SLIPS Output Transactions CUSTOMER INVOICES(BILLS) COURSE SEHEDULES PAY-CHECKS AIRLINE RESERVATION CONFIRMATIONS AIRLINE TICKETS PAYMENT RECEIPTS SALES RECEIPTS
Figure:7.2:- tow types of transaction processing are illustrated. In process 1 we see an input transaction being captured and processed. In process 2, we see an output transaction being generated. In process 3, we see an input transaction being processed and an output transaction being generated Figure:-6.3:- TRANSACTION PROCESSING
MANAGEMENT INFORMAION SYSTEM(MIS) The term “management Information System” has become synonymous with computer based database processing (d. p) systems. This is misleading however since it is quite possible to operate an efficient d. P. system that does not provide true management information. An example of this situation is a payroll system that provides all the necessary figures for paying the employees, and the tax and social security deductions, but no real information for management MIS concept refer to several reports MANAGEMENT REPORTS DETAILED REPORTS HISTORICAL REPORTS SUMMARY REPORTS EXCEPTION REPORTS
Figure 6.3:- Several management reports
I NTELLIGENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS(ISS):- are systems that facilitate decisions requiring the is of knowledge, intuition, experience, and expertise, systems that fall into this category are DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS(DSS) EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS(EIS) AIRTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE(AI) AND EXPERT SYSTEMS(ES)
D ECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS(DSS) D ecision support systems (DSS) are interactive, well-integrated systems that provide managers with data, tools, and models to facilitate semi structured decisions or tactical decisions. How a DSS works A DSS accesses and processes large volumes of internal and external data and integrates them with various decision-making models. Internal data are often downloading from the TPS or from other information systems. Internal Data External Data Decision-making Models Alternative solutions to problems “ What-if” analysis Goal seeking
T he concept of decision support systems is based on several assumptions about the role of the computer in effective decision making: The computer must support the manager but not replace his or her judgment it should therefore neither try to provide the "answers" nor impose a predefined sequence of analysis. The main payoff of computer support is for semi structured problems, where parts of the analysis can be systematized for the computer, but where the decision maker's judgment are needed to control the process. Effective problem solving is interactive and is enhanced by a dialog between the user and the system. The user explores the problem situation using the analytic and information providing capabilities of the system as well as human experience and insights. The decision support system should provide ease of access to the database containing relevant data and interactive testing of solutions. The designer must understand the process of decision making for each situation in order to design system to support it. C HARACTERISTIC OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
O ffice automation systems (OAS) T he fourth type information system found in organizations is Office automation systems (OAS). These are systems that support the automation of various managerial and clerical activities. The primary goals of office automation are to enhance communication in the workplace and increase the efficiency and productivity of knowledge workers and clerical workers. Office automation systems include. Word processing Desktop publishing: Voice mail: Videoconferencing: Image retrieval and storage: Facsimile transmission, or fax: Electronic meeting systems:
Word processing Desktop publishing Electronic mail Voice mail Video conferencing Image Fax E. m. systems Multimedia Knowledge Workers Office automation systems Clerical workers Figure:6.5:-An Office automation system (OAS) is designed to increase productivity and enhance communications in the workplace.
Type of System Input Processing OutputUsers Examples TPS Transaction related data Uses procedures and rules Repetitive tasks Control-oriented Summaries of transaction Lower-level managers Sales transactions Credit card payments Insurance claims MIS Output from TPS Other internal data Measures and monitors operational performance Summary and exception reports Middle-level managers Monthly production reports ISS(DSS, EIS,ES) Internal and external data and models Knowledge and experience Interactive, ad hoc reporting Alternatives Analysis reports Top managers ES: Knowledge workers Safety violation reports Investment Enterprise-wide performance OAS Data and information Formatting Summarizing Displaying Documents Graphics Multimedia Knowledge and clerical workers Fax Multimedia Video conferencing Table:-6.1:-Characrteristics of the various types information systems.
INTEGRATING INFORMATION SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS T he systems analyst should design information systems that provide complete information support to end-users, including transaction processing, management reporting, and decision support (DSS). Next, note that the management reporting and DSS primarily support all three management levels of end-users: supervisors, middle managers and professional staff, and executive managers. Figure:6.6:-Information Support by the information System.
COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM(CBIS) CBIS includes hardware, software, and processes. Technology has no universally accepted unit of measurement, but we can use a continuous scale ranging from simple to complex. For example, we can say that data capture devices, file-oriented programs, and the process of classification are simple, whereas touch sensitive CRT displays, data base Applications of CBIS can be measured similarly. File maintenance, billing and payroll preparations are simple applications, whereas sales forecasting, financial planning, and simulation are more complex. NEED OF COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS THE VOLUM OF TRANSACTIONS OBLECTIVES OF CBIS
COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS M ost systems can be described in terms of inputs, Outputs, and processes. In fact, the purpose of most systems is the processing of inputs into outputs. In the case of a manufacturing system, the inputs are raw materials, the outputs are the finished products, and the processors are the machines, tools, and people that transform raw materials into finished products. These inputs, outputs, and processors make up the arrangement d components that we call a manufacturing system., A ny system's components can be classified according to this input-process- output model The fundamental formula for an information system, an information system is Information= f (data, processing) where information is output, Data is input. Therefore, we could modify our formula to. read Output = f (input, processing)
Information = F (data, processing) Output = F ( input, processing) This is an appropriate way to look at any information system. Rotating our pyramid, we introduce the last face, the input-process-output (IPO) components for an information system (Figure 6.6 in next slide), data is the input components, and information is the output component. The process that transforms the data into information may itself consist and relate to the components listed below: End Users Methods and procedures Computer software Computer hardware Data storage
Methods and procedures Computer software Information System IPO Component Data Storage IPO Component (Process) Internal control component Data (Input) Business system (environment) Figure:6.6:- The Input process- Output Components of the Information