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Multiple Personality Disorder Compiled by: Miss Larissa Falcao Under guidance of: Dr.Mrs.Rashmi Srivastava For more presentations and information visit.

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Presentation on theme: "Multiple Personality Disorder Compiled by: Miss Larissa Falcao Under guidance of: Dr.Mrs.Rashmi Srivastava For more presentations and information visit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multiple Personality Disorder Compiled by: Miss Larissa Falcao Under guidance of: Dr.Mrs.Rashmi Srivastava For more presentations and information visit

2 Introduction MPD or DID is defined as a condition in which “two or more distinct identities or personality states” exist. MPD or DID is defined as a condition in which “two or more distinct identities or personality states” exist. MPD is an incredibly creative defense mechanism. MPD is an incredibly creative defense mechanism. For more presentations and information visit

3 Symptoms of MPD Depersonalization Depersonalization Amnesia Amnesia Depression Depression Hallucinations Hallucinations Multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs that are dissimilar to each other Multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs that are dissimilar to each other Headaches and other body pains Headaches and other body pains Distortion or loss of subjective time Distortion or loss of subjective time For more presentations and information visit

4 Other Minor Symptoms Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia, Epilepsy, Epilepsy, Anxiety, Anxiety, Mood disorders, Mood disorders, Sleepwalking, repeated self-injury, chronic suicidal tendencies, emotional dysregulation, phobias, Sleepwalking, repeated self-injury, chronic suicidal tendencies, emotional dysregulation, phobias, Posttraumatic stress, Posttraumatic stress, Personality and eating disorders. Personality and eating disorders. For more presentations and information visit

5 Causes of MPD MPD arises in childhood, there is no adult onset MPD. MPD arises in childhood, there is no adult onset MPD. MAJOR CAUSE: A child, suffering unspeakable, life- threatening sexual/ physical/ emotional abuse. A child, suffering unspeakable, life- threatening sexual/ physical/ emotional abuse. For more presentations and information visit

6 OTHER CAUSES: OTHER CAUSES: Overwhelming stress, trauma, Overwhelming stress, trauma, Insufficient childhood nurturing, Insufficient childhood nurturing, Is created iatrogenically, Is created iatrogenically, For more presentations and information visit

7 MECHANISM For more presentations and information visit

8 Cerebral changes: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with MPD: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with MPD: Decreased in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. Decreased in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. Increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. Increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. Median and superior frontal Region Occipital Orbitofrontal For more presentations and information visit

9 Psychological Aspect: For more presentations and information visit

10 ALTERS Alters is the name given to the distinct personalities which are formed. Number varies, Number varies, Particular job, Particular job, Co-consciousness, Co-consciousness, Behaviors and interests, Behaviors and interests, Perception, Perception, Different nationalities, races, languages, vision, handwriting and time periods. Different nationalities, races, languages, vision, handwriting and time periods. For more presentations and information visit

11 Different types of Alters are: Host, Host, Original Birth Child, Original Birth Child, Child Alters, Child Alters, Teens, Teens, Gatekeepers, Gatekeepers, Internal Self Helpers, Internal Self Helpers, For more presentations and information visit

12 Alters contd… Protectors, Protectors, Fully-fledged personalities, Fully-fledged personalities, Fragment alters. Fragment alters. For more presentations and information visit

13 Triggers Seeing the abuser Seeing the abuser A certain smell, sound, touch or even time, colour, music, A certain smell, sound, touch or even time, colour, music, Arguments, anger and aggression, Arguments, anger and aggression, Sex, Sex, Tensions, etc. Tensions, etc. For more presentations and information visit

14 Diagnosis The diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV Dissociative disorders section require : The diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV Dissociative disorders section require : Two or more distinct identities or personality states, Two or more distinct identities or personality states, Inability to recall important personal information Inability to recall important personal information Disturbance, not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance, or a general medical condition. In children, symptoms not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. Disturbance, not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance, or a general medical condition. In children, symptoms not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. For more presentations and information visit

15 Diagnostic tests: Dissociative Experience Scale Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) : (DES) : A set of 28 questions A set of 28 questions Scale: (Never) o o o o o o o o o o (Always) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV: (SCID-D) : Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV: (SCID-D) : 30 mins hrs: depending on individual's experiences. 30 mins hrs: depending on individual's experiences. For more presentations and information visit

16 Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS): Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS): minutes minutes. Has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90%. Has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90%. For more presentations and information visit

17 Treatment For more presentations and information visit

18 Psychotherapy: Several stages: an initial phase for uncovering and "mapping" the patient's alters; an initial phase for uncovering and "mapping" the patient's alters; a phase of treating the traumatic memories and "fusing" the alters; a phase of treating the traumatic memories and "fusing" the alters; and a phase of consolidating the patient's newly integrated personality. and a phase of consolidating the patient's newly integrated personality. For more presentations and information visit

19 The first practice to be called a psycho therapy. The first practice to be called a psycho therapy. Classical technique. Classical technique. Psychoanalysis For more presentations and information visit

20 Rorschach inkblot test: Rorschach inkblot test : A psychological projective test of personality. A psychological projective test of personality. Subject's interpretations of ten standard ink blots. Subject's interpretations of ten standard ink blots. For more presentations and information visit

21 Cognitive behaviour therapy: Group therapy: To treat social phobia. To treat social phobia. Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT): The user interacts with computer software (either on a PC, or sometimes via a voice- activated phone service), instead of face to face with a therapist. The user interacts with computer software (either on a PC, or sometimes via a voice- activated phone service), instead of face to face with a therapist. For more presentations and information visit

22 Medication: Antidepressants: Moclobemide Moclobemide Imipramine Imipramine Desipramine Desipramine Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Venlafaxine Venlafaxine Others Others For more presentations and information visit

23 For more presentations and information visit

24 Anti anxiety drugs: Diazepam Diazepam Buspirone Buspirone Hydroxyzine Hydroxyzine Propranolol Propranolol Tranquillizers: Haloperidol Haloperidol Clozapine Clozapine For more presentations and information visit

25 Alternative treatment: Expressive Therapy : e.g.: Art therapy Expressive Therapy : e.g.: Art therapy Hydrotherapy, Botanical medicine, therapeutic massage and yoga. Hydrotherapy, Botanical medicine, therapeutic massage and yoga. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) if appropriate Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) if appropriate For more presentations and information visit

26 For more presentations and information visit

27 History Books: Sidney Sheldon’s Tell me your dreams, Sidney Sheldon’s Tell me your dreams, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Movies influenced by reality: Sybil, Sybil, MPD in fiction: Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Aparichit(Hindi), etc. Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Aparichit(Hindi), etc. For more presentations and information visit

28 SURVEY For more presentations and information visit

29 Epidemiology INDIA INDIA 0.015% 0.015% SWITZERLAND SWITZERLAND % % CHINA CHINA 0.4% 0.4% GERMANY GERMANY 0.9% 0.9% NETHERLANDS NETHERLANDS 2% 2% U.S.A. U.S.A. ~6-10% ~6-10% TURKEY TURKEY 14% 14% For more presentations and information visit

30 Bibliography: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine dard/transform.jsp dard/transform.jsp desensitization desensitization /loose.dtd /loose.dtd For more presentations and information visit

31 9/web3/Sancar.html 9/web3/Sancar.html D:\Mpd\Multiple Personality Disorder and the Consciousness Restructuring Process-black screen.mht D:\Mpd\Multiple Personality Disorder and the Consciousness Restructuring Process-black screen.mht ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pub med ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pub med For more presentations and information visit

32 x.html x.html l_therapy l_therapy test test For more presentations and information visit

33 mmon/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/heal thatoz/Atoz/ency/antianxiety_drugs.jsp mmon/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/heal thatoz/Atoz/ency/antianxiety_drugs.jsp Essentials of Medical pharmacology – K. D. Tripathi. Essentials of Medical pharmacology – K. D. Tripathi. Principles of anatomy and Physiology – Tortora and Derrickson. Principles of anatomy and Physiology – Tortora and Derrickson. For more presentations and information visit

34 THANK YOU For more presentations and information visit


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