Employee Education Alcohol- and Drug-Free Workplace
Impact of Substance Abuse in the Workplace Employee health Productivity Decision making Safety Employee morale Security Organizational image and community relations
How common are alcohol-related problems in businesses in the Manufacturing sector? For every 1000 employees: Likely number of problem drinkers:65 Likely # of family members who are problem drinkers: 127 Likely number of work days lost to sickness, injury, and absence because of problem drinking every year:541 Likely number of work days of lowered productivity associated with alcohol use each year:323 Likely number of extra nights spent in the hospital by employees and their family members each year:53 Likely number of extra emergency room visits by employees and their families each year:38
How much do alcohol-related problems cost businesses in the Manufacturing sector? For every 1,000 employees each year: Work days lost to sickness, injury, and absence because of problem drinking:$67,486 Work days with lowered productivity associated with alcohol use: $8,053 Extra nights spent in the hospital by employees and their families:$64,151 Extra emergency room visits by employees and their families:$22,708 Extra health care costs to employers and employees for treatment of alcohol-related health problems: $265,762 From: Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems, George Washington Univ. Med Center
Ways that People Use Alcohol and Other Drugs Use: Experimentation Social/Recreational As a stress reliever
Abuse: Using a substance to modify or control mood or state of mind in a manner that is illegal or harmful to oneself or others. Potential consequences of abuse include: Accidents or injuries Blackouts Legal problems Poor job performance Family problems Sexual behavior that increases the risk of HIV infection
Addiction: The irresistible compulsion to seek or use alcohol and other drugs despite adverse social, psychological, or physical consequences. It is characterized by: repeated failures to control use, physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms, increased tolerance, and increased disruption in personal, family, or work life.
Addiction to alcohol and other drugs is: Chronic Progressive Primary Terminal Characterized by denial. Understanding Addiction For one in ten people, abuse leads to addiction. 3/4 of those who use illegal drugs also work.
Risk of addiction: Addiction is a family disease Prior abuse of alcohol and other drugs Other contributing factors.
Signs and Symptoms of Substance Abuse Emotionally Behaviorally Physically Abuse of alcohol and other drugs affects people:
Behavioral effects of substance abuse: Slow reaction time Impaired coordination Slowed or slurred speech Irritability Excessive talking Inability to sit still Limited attention span Poor motivation or lack of energy.
Physical effects of substance abuse: Weight loss Sweating Chills Dilated pupils or bloodshot eyes Slurred speech Unsteady movements Drowsiness, lethargy Disorientation Odor.
Family and Coworker Impact Enabling: Action that someone takes to protect the person with the problem from the consequences of his or her actions. Unfortunately, enabling actually helps the person to NOT deal with his or her problem.
Examples of enabling: Covering Up Rationalizing Withdrawing/Avoiding Blaming Controlling Threatening.
Examples of traps family members and coworkers may fall into when confronting the person with a problem: Sympathy Excuses Apology Diversions Innocence Anger Pity Tears.
Specific Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Stimulants/ Depressants Hallucinogens Narcotics
ALCOHOL Also known as: Booze, Juice, Brew, Vino, Sauce You probably know why alcohol is abused Relaxation Sociability Cheap High
ALCOHOL But did you know that - Alcohol is a depressant that decreases the responses of the central nervous system Excessive drinking can cause liver damage and psychotic behavior As little as two beers or drinks can impair coordination and thinking Alcohol is often used by substance abusers to enhance the effects of other drugs Alcohol continues to be the most frequently abused substance among young adults.
ALCOHOL Additional Health effects of Alcohol: Decreased sexual functioning Liver disease Increased cancers of the mouth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, breast and skin Kidney disease Ulcers Spontaneous abortion Birth defects – leading cause of preventable retardation.
MARIJUANA Also known as: Pot, Grass, Joints, Roaches, Reefer, Weed, Mary Jane You probably know why marijuana is abused - Relaxation Euphoria
MARIJUANA But did you know that – Marijuana may cause impaired short-term memory, a shortened attention span and delayed reflexes Marijuana may cause relaxed inhibitions, disoriented behavior Health effects: Emphysema-like symptoms Respiratory track and sinus infections Lowered immune system response During pregnancy, marijuana may cause birth defects Marijuana may cause a fast heart rate and pulse.
COCAINE Also known as: Coke, Dust, Snow, Flake, Blow, Girl You probably know why cocaine is abused – Carefree Feeling Euphoria Relaxation In control
COCAINE But did you know that – Cocaine use may cause severe "mood swings" and irritability. You need more and more cocaine each time you want a "high" Cocaine increases your blood pressure and heart rate particularly dangerous if you have a heart condition One use can cause death! (By Cardiac Arrest or Respiratory failure) Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion Possession and use are illegal.
CRACK Also known as Crack, "Crack cocaine", Freebase rocks, Rock You probably know why crack is abused – Quick high Power Euphoria
CRACK But did you know that – Crack is almost instantly addictive One use could cause a fatal heart attack Repeated use may cause insomnia, hallucinations, seizures, paranoia The euphoric effects of crack last only a few minutes Crack possession and use are illegal in all fifty states There are more hospitalizations per year resulting from crack and cocaine use than any other illicit substance.
Methamphetamine Also known as: Meth, Crystal, Crank, Ice You probably know why meth is abused – Temporary mood elevation Exhilaration (high) Increased mental alertness Upper-increase wakefulness
ICE - Methamphetamines But did you know that – Ice is extremely addictive - sometimes with just one use! Ice can cause convulsions, heart irregularities, high blood pressure, depression, restlessness, tremors, severe fatigue An overdose can cause coma and death When you stop using ice you may experience a deep depression Ice causes a very jittery high, along with anxiety, insomnia, sometimes paranoia.
HALLUCINOGENS LSD (Acid, Red/Green Dragon), Ecstasy (designer drug)_ PCP (Angel Dust, Loveboat) PCP & Cocaine (Beam me up Scottie), Mescaline l Psilocybin You probably know why hallucinogens are abused – Fun Stimulation or depression Behavioral changes
HALLUCINOGENS But did you know that – One use of LSD or PCP can cause multiple and dramatic behavioral changes Large doses of hallucinogens may cause convulsions and coma, ruptured blood vessels in the brain, irreversible brain damage, and heart or lung failure Many hallucinogens cause unpleasant and potentially dangerous "flashbacks," long after the drug was used Most hallucinogens cause "hallucinations" i.e., changes in perception of time, smell, touch, etc.
Narcotics Narcotic analgesics include Opium, Opiates (morphine, codeine, percodan, heroin and dilaudid) and Opioids (synthetic substitutes such as vicodin, darvon, demerol, oxycontin and methadone) Health effects: Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and addiction is likely The use of contaminated syringes may result in diseases such as HIV/AIDS, endocarditis and hepatitis Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
Assistance Things to remember: Difficulty performing on the job can sometimes be caused by unrecognized personal problems - including addiction to alcohol and other drugs Help is available Although a supervisor may suspect that an employee’s performance is poor because of underlying personal problems, it is up to the employee to decide whether or not that is the case
EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EAP) Addiction is treatable and reversible Help is available An employee’s decision to seek help is a private one and will not be made public An EAP can help employees decide what to do if they or someone in his family or workgroup has a problem with alcohol or other drugs Conversations with an EAP are confidential
EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EAP) An EAP can help employees decide what to do if they have a problem with alcohol or other drugs An EAP also can help an employee decide what to do if someone in his/her family or workgroup has a problem Conversations with an EAP are confidential
Additional EAP, Mental Health and Community Resources: Private counselors or therapists Addiction treatment centers Community hotlines Self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, Al-Anon, etc.