Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 – Matter and Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1 – Matter and Change Taken from Modern Chemistry written by Davis, Metcalfe, Williams & Castka
2Chemistry is a Physical Science Section 1 - ObjectivesDefine chemistryList examples of the branches of chemistryCompare and ContrastBasic researchApplied researchTechnological development
3Section 1-1Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.What is it made of?Makeup and internal arrangement?What happens when weheat?cool?Mix with other materials?Why does this behavior occur?
4Section 1-1 (continued)Six main Branches of ChemistryOrganic – deals with carbon containing compoundsInorganic – study of substances not classified as organic, mainly those that don’t contain carbonPhysical – study of properties, changes and relationship between energy and matterAnalytical – identification of components and composition of materialsBiochemistry – study of substances and processes occurring in living thingsTheoretical – using math and computers to design and predict the properties of new compounds
5Section 1-1 (continued)A Chemical is any substance that has a definite composition.
6(ex biodegradable material) Section 1-1 (continued)Basic Research- carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge (ex. Teflon, sticky notes)Technological developments – production of products to improve our lives(ex biodegradable material)Applied research – is carried out to solve problems (ex ozone depletion)The 3 often overlap – understanding of crystals and basic light allowed lazers to be created which lead to fiber optics
7Matter and Its Properties Section 2 - ObjectivesDistinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter.Classify changes of matter as physical or chemical.Explain the states in terms of particlesGasLiquidSolidDistinguish between a mixture and a pure substance
8Section 1-2M & M Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. Measured in Kg, g and for the less educated ☺in lbs and ozs. So . . .Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
9Section 1-2 (continued) Basic Building Blocks of Matter An Atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. and . . .an element is a pure substance made of one only kind of atom. and . . .a compound is a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
10O2 H2O Section 1-2 (continued) EXAMPLES Basic Building Blocks of Matter (continued)An molecule is the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains the properties of that element or compound .EXAMPLESO2H2O
11Properties and Changes in Matter Section 1-2 (continued)Properties and Changes in MatterExtensive properties depend on the amount of matter presentVolumeMassAmount of EnergyIntensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter presentMelting pt.Boiling pt.DensityAbility to conduct:HeatElectricity
12Physical Properties and Physical Changes Section 1-2 (continued)Physical Properties and Physical ChangesPhysical property is a characteristic that can be observed without changing the identity of the substanceMelting pt.Boiling pt.A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance is called a physical changeGrindingCuttingMelting & Boiling
13Physical Properties and Physical Changes (continued) Section 1-2 (continued)Physical Properties and Physical Changes (continued)Change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.Solid has definite volume and definite shapeLiquid has definite volume but an indefinite stateGas has neither a definite volume or a definite shape
14Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes Section 1-2 (continued)Chemical Properties and Chemical ChangesA Chemical property relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.Ability to burn in airIron rusting by combining with the oxygen in airA change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change.
15Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes (continued) Section 1-2 (continued)Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes (continued)The substances that react in a chemical change are called the reactants.The substances that are formed in a chemical change are called the products.Carbon plus oxygen yields (or forms) carbon-dioxideCarbon + oxygen carbon-dioxideC + O2 CO2
16Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes (continued) Section 1-2 (continued)Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes (continued)Chemical changes and reactions, such as combustion and decomposition, form products whose properties differ greatly from those of the reactants.However, chemical changes do not affect the total amount of matter present before and after a reaction. The amount of matter, and therefore the total mass, remains the same.
17Energy and Changes in Matter Section 1-2 (continued)Energy and Changes in MatterWhen physical or chemical changes occur, energy is almost always involved.The energy can take several different forms, such as heat or light.Although energy can be absorbed or released in a change, it is not created or destroyed. It simply assumes a different form.
18Classification of Matter - Mixture Section 1-2 (continued)Classification of Matter - MixtureA mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.A mixture that is uniform in composition they are said to be homogeneousExamplessalt-water solutionsA mixture that is not uniform in composition is said to be heterogeneousExamplesclay & water
19Classification of Matter – Pure substances Section 1-2 (continued)Classification of Matter – Pure substancesA pure substance has a fixed composition and differ from a mixture in the following ways:Every sample of a pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties.Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition.
20Classification of Matter – Laboratory Chemicals and Purity Section 1-2 (continued)Classification of Matter – Laboratory Chemicals and PurityChemicals in laboratories are generally treated as if they are pure. However all chemicals have some impurities.Purity ranking depends on the needs of the users.
21Elements Section 3 - Objectives Use a periodic table to name elements, given their symbols.Use a periodic table to write the symbols of elements given their names.Describe the arrangement of the periodic table.List the characteristics that distinguish metals, nonmetals, and metaloids.
22Introduction to the Periodic Table Section 1-3Introduction to the Periodic TableThe vertical columns of the periodic table are called groups.The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called periods.
23Introduction to the Periodic Table (continued) Section 1-3 (continued)OxygenCarbonHydrogenNitrogenCalciumPhosphorusPotassiumSulfurChlorineSodiumMagnesiumIronCobaltCopperZincIodineSeleniumIntroduction to the Periodic Table (continued)Seventeen most common elements in the Human BodyTen most common elements in the Milky Way GalaxyHydrogenHeliumOxygenCarbonNeonIronNitrogenSiliconMagnesiumSulfurTen most common elements in the Earth’s CrustOxygenSiliconAluminumIronCalciumSodiumMagnesiumPotassiumTitaniumHydrogen
24Types of Elements - Metals Section 1-3The periodic table is divided into two main groups – metals and non-metals. Metals to the left and non-metals to the right.Types of Elements - MetalsAn element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity is a metal.Most metals are malleable – they can be hammered or rolled into thin sheetsThey are also ductile which means they can be drawn in to fine wire. Metals that behave this way have a high tensile strength.
25Types of Elements - Nonmetals Section 1-3Types of Elements - NonmetalsA nonmetal is an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.Many nonmetals are gas at room temperature , when solid they tend to be brittle.
26Types of Elements - metalloids Section 1-3Types of Elements - metalloidsA metalloid is an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals.Metalloids tend to be semiconductors.
27Types of Elements – Noble Gases Section 1-3Types of Elements – Noble GasesThe elements in group 18 of the periodic table are generally unreactive.
29Chapter Summary Questions 1 - Chemistry is the study of the compostion, structure and properties of substances and the changes they under go
305 A measure of the amount of matter the amount of space occupied by matter
316The portions of elements in a pure substance are fixed.
327 A property is any characteristic of a substance or material. Properties can be compared in order to classify unknown materials as members of known groups or subgroups of substances, or to identify substances directly.
338Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Intensive properties do not.
349a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.Examples include color, odor, length, size , melting point & boiling point.
3510a property that describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes that alter its identity.Examples include the ability of coal to burn and the ability of iron (Fe) to rust.
3611A physical change is a change in a substance that does not involve a change in its identity. A chemical change is a change in which a substance is converted into other substances.
3712solids, liquids & gasesA solid has a definite shape and fixed volume , whereas a liquid has a fixed volume but takes the shape of the vessel it is in.A gas has neither fixed volume or definite shape.Liquids and gases take the shape of the container they are in.
3813A change of a substance from one state of matter to another.
3917The reactants are potassium (K) and water (H2O) and the products are potassium hydroxide (KOH) and hydrogen (H2)
4019 physical , wood still wood chemical , composition change think tastephysical, butter still butter
4120 potassium (K) metal Silver (Ag) metal Silicon (Si) metalloid sodium (Na) metalMercury (Hg) metalhelium (He) noble gas
4223 Group 14, period 2 Group 18, period 3 Group 6, period 4