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SUSTAINABLE PLANNING APPROACHES FOR WATER RESOURCES: CASE STUDIES Samuel ASUMADU-SARKODIE 2104164 Adapted from Spies, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE PLANNING APPROACHES FOR WATER RESOURCES: CASE STUDIES Samuel ASUMADU-SARKODIE 2104164 Adapted from Spies, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE PLANNING APPROACHES FOR WATER RESOURCES: CASE STUDIES Samuel ASUMADU-SARKODIE Adapted from Spies, 2010

2 Introduction Lake Okeechobee, Florida Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast Restoration Planning Process for the Gulf Coast Conclusion

3 Source: US Army Corps of Engineers

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9 Lake Okeechobee SETTLEMENTWATER DEMAND FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE Source: Google Images

10 By taming Mother Nature by Constructing The HEBERT HOOVER DIKE Early 1900’s ? What was the

11 Hebert Hoover Dike Today the earthen barrier of Herbert Hoover Dike—140 miles (225 kilometers) long, 35 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) high—stands between area residents and the nearly Rhode Island-size lake Importance of the Constructed Dike: water control structures to provide flood protection, Navigation, Recreation, Freshwater for the communities of South Florida, Water for agriculture, Prevention of saltwater intrusion, and Enhancement of environmental resources.

12 Herbert Hover Dike Photo Album by Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie Source: US Army Corps of Engineers

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16 Environmentalists are adamant that the water from Lake Okeechobee should be used to maintain existing ecosystems. Environmentalists are adamant that the water from Lake Okeechobee should be used to maintain existing ecosystems. Agricultural representatives warned the district that Lake Okeechobee water rights must be protected to keep growers at the south of the lake in business. Communities in the area are experiencing severe water shortages, and they argue that the highest priority should be for drinking water. Communities in the area are experiencing severe water shortages, and they argue that the highest priority should be for drinking water. Conflict Of Interest

17 In a Dilemma ??? Recent droughts in the Southeast have increased the debate. One big issue in the region is that the Corps has been keeping Lake Okeechobee at a foot (0.3 m) lower than normal because when the Lake reaches high water levels, the dike system leaks, and the risk of dike failure increases significantly. At a time when there is such a shortage of water, though, intentionally keeping the lake level lower is a source of irritation for many water users in the region.

18 Drought Dike Failure Making a CHOICE??

19 Planning Efforts A number of planning efforts strive to restore the lake and its watershed. 1.The Florida State legislature passed the Lake Okeechobee Protection Act (LOPA) during the year 2000 session which takes a watershed- based approach to restoring and protecting the lake, and its overall objective is to help meet state water quality standards by reducing the total phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL). 2. Since 2000, Florida has invested more than US$ 70 million to improve farming practices, construct wetlands, and implement phosphorus reduction technologies.

20 Planning Efforts Cont. 3.In 2005, the state initiated a comprehensive plan to accelerate restoration and recovery of Lake Okeechobee. The US$ 200 million the Lake Okeechobee and Estuary Recovery project focused on expanding water storage areas, constructing treatment marshes, and expediting environmental management initiatives to enhance the ecological health of the lake and downstream coastal estuaries (Reppen, 2005).

21 Planning Efforts Cont. 4.Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan: the goal is to capture freshwater and redirect it to critical areas, with most of the water being used for environmental restoration. The US$ 8 billion project includes the implementation of several watershed improvement projects as well as the construction of aquifer storage and recovery wells.

22 Planning Efforts Cont. 5.The Lake Okeechobee Watershed Construction Project Phase II Technical Plan identifies facilities to achieve Lake Okeechobee’s TMDL, by increasing water storage and reducing excess water levels, by utilizing 42,000 acres for treatment wetlands, implementing 1.7 million acres for agricultural best management practices, and utilizing innovative “ green ” nutrient control technologies.

23 Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast was initiated in November 2005, when the state legislature enacted a law creating the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). The CPRA was mandated to coordinate efforts to achieve long-term, comprehensive coastal protection and restoration.

24 Coastal Louisiana is Facing a Crisis

25 Objectives of the Comprehensive Master Plan 1.Reduce economic losses from storm-based flooding 2.Promote a sustainable coastal ecosystem by harnessing natural system processes 3.Provide habitats suitable to support an array of commercial and recreational activities coast-wide 4.Sustain Louisiana’s unique heritage and culture

26 26 Background Stabilizing the landscape is paramount importance for protection and restoration Complete plan based on “Multiple Lines of Defense” strategy Hurricane protection strategies are defined based on a stable landscape

27 27 Delta Plain: Stabilizing the Landscape

28 28 Shorelines and Ridges Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

29 29 Navigation Channels Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

30 30 Land Sustaining Diversions Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

31 31 Marsh Creation Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

32 32 Land Building Diversions Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

33 33 Special Focus: Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO)

34 34 “…navigation channels…and their associated levees and spoil banks may offer opportunities to integrate storm protection and coastal restoration. These artificial features of the coastal landscape might be modified to distribute freshwater and sediment resources across the landscape.” -- Working Group for Post-Hurricane Planning for the Louisiana Coast Total Closure of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO)

35 35 Delta Plain: Hurricane Protection

36 36 What Does Science and Engineering Say? First line of defense should not be last line of defense Longer and more complex protection systems are more prone to failure Give water room to move Altered hydrology can be opportunities

37 37 Pontchartrain Barrier (Pre) Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

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40 40 Pontchartrain Barrier (Post) Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

41 41 Barataria Basin and West Bank Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

42 42 Plaquemines Parish Protection Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

43 43 Terrebonne Parish and Atchafalaya Delta Protection Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

44 44 Delta Plain Protection Plan Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

45 45 Manage Remaining Risk Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

46 Bring New Orleans Back Infrastructure Committee Levees and Flood Protection January 18, Old Monticello Levee 6 Compartmentation Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

47 47 Water Management Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

48 48 Chenier Plain: Stabilizing the Landscape

49 49 Shoreline Stabilization Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

50 50 EvacuationRoutes Evacuation Routes Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

51 51 Navigation Channels Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

52 52 Marsh Creation Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

53 53 Managing Water and Sediment Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

54 54 Chenier Plain: Hurricane Protection

55 55 Acadiana Area Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

56 56 Western Chenier Plain Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan

57 57 What are potential policy, legislative, or institutional issues that would affect implementation of the plan?

58 58 Policy, Institutional, and Legislative Issues Land Use Planning/Zoning Land Owner Concerns Adaptive Management Federal/State Partnership Consistency Priority

59 Restoration Planning Process for the Gulf Coast In 2005,Hurricane Katrina, Hurricanes Rita and Wilma damaged the Gulf of Mexico. Levees and floodwalls failed New Orleans were inundated with more than 20 feet (6.1 meters) of water Millions of people without homes, jobs, schools, and properties damaged 59

60 Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina near downtown New Orleans, 2005 Source: Google Images

61 Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana, 2005 Source: Google Images

62 Albert Einstein Source: Google Images

63 Contemplation before restoration of Gulf coast Do we strengthen the levee system and build more levees, focus on restoring barrier islands and wetlands, or perhaps both? Can we design new communities that can withstand the impacts of hurricanes while still protecting our natural resources? Do we need to stop development along all or part of the Gulf Coast? How do we protect and restore the natural resources in the region?

64 Understanding the Problem was Part of the Solution More than 900,000 acres of coastal land have been lost. Louisiana’s 3 million acres of wetlands have borne the brunt of human activity, population increase, and natural processes for decades. Sediment carried by the Mississippi River historically has been deposited at the mouth of the river, creating a complex system of deltas. Natural flow of water have been changed

65 Modelling Sustainability With all of the available data, the key is to assess the data and determine how it should influence decisions about rebuilding the Gulf Coast Wind - Impact Models: e.g:Inland High-wind Model Sea - Level Models Storm - Surge Models Loss - Prediction Software Societal Risk Vulnerability Mapping

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67 1.James Sipes. Sustainable Solutions for Water Resources. Policies, Planning, Design, And Implementation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2.Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan: Pre-Preliminary Draft Master Plan. Available at: 3.US Army Corps of Engineers. Available at: ooverDike.aspx. 4.Lake Okeechobee Levels Concerning Nearby Residents (Video). Available at: nearby-residents/. 5.Videos downloaded from youtube.com 6.Treasury releases RESTORE Act regulations, restoration process advances. Available at: releases-restore-act-regulations-restoration-process-advances/. Accessed on: 21/12/2014 REFERENCES

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