Lake Okeechobee SETTLEMENTWATER DEMAND FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE Source: Google Images
By taming Mother Nature by Constructing The HEBERT HOOVER DIKE Early 1900’s ? What was the
Hebert Hoover Dike Today the earthen barrier of Herbert Hoover Dike—140 miles (225 kilometers) long, 35 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) high—stands between area residents and the nearly Rhode Island-size lake Importance of the Constructed Dike: water control structures to provide flood protection, Navigation, Recreation, Freshwater for the communities of South Florida, Water for agriculture, Prevention of saltwater intrusion, and Enhancement of environmental resources.
Herbert Hover Dike Photo Album by Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie Source: US Army Corps of Engineers
Environmentalists are adamant that the water from Lake Okeechobee should be used to maintain existing ecosystems. Environmentalists are adamant that the water from Lake Okeechobee should be used to maintain existing ecosystems. Agricultural representatives warned the district that Lake Okeechobee water rights must be protected to keep growers at the south of the lake in business. Communities in the area are experiencing severe water shortages, and they argue that the highest priority should be for drinking water. Communities in the area are experiencing severe water shortages, and they argue that the highest priority should be for drinking water. Conflict Of Interest
In a Dilemma ??? Recent droughts in the Southeast have increased the debate. One big issue in the region is that the Corps has been keeping Lake Okeechobee at a foot (0.3 m) lower than normal because when the Lake reaches high water levels, the dike system leaks, and the risk of dike failure increases significantly. At a time when there is such a shortage of water, though, intentionally keeping the lake level lower is a source of irritation for many water users in the region.
Planning Efforts A number of planning efforts strive to restore the lake and its watershed. 1.The Florida State legislature passed the Lake Okeechobee Protection Act (LOPA) during the year 2000 session which takes a watershed- based approach to restoring and protecting the lake, and its overall objective is to help meet state water quality standards by reducing the total phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL). 2. Since 2000, Florida has invested more than US$ 70 million to improve farming practices, construct wetlands, and implement phosphorus reduction technologies.
Planning Efforts Cont. 3.In 2005, the state initiated a comprehensive plan to accelerate restoration and recovery of Lake Okeechobee. The US$ 200 million the Lake Okeechobee and Estuary Recovery project focused on expanding water storage areas, constructing treatment marshes, and expediting environmental management initiatives to enhance the ecological health of the lake and downstream coastal estuaries (Reppen, 2005).
Planning Efforts Cont. 4.Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan: the goal is to capture freshwater and redirect it to critical areas, with most of the water being used for environmental restoration. The US$ 8 billion project includes the implementation of several watershed improvement projects as well as the construction of aquifer storage and recovery wells.
Planning Efforts Cont. 5.The Lake Okeechobee Watershed Construction Project Phase II Technical Plan identifies facilities to achieve Lake Okeechobee’s TMDL, by increasing water storage and reducing excess water levels, by utilizing 42,000 acres for treatment wetlands, implementing 1.7 million acres for agricultural best management practices, and utilizing innovative “ green ” nutrient control technologies.
Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast was initiated in November 2005, when the state legislature enacted a law creating the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). The CPRA was mandated to coordinate efforts to achieve long-term, comprehensive coastal protection and restoration.
Objectives of the Comprehensive Master Plan 1.Reduce economic losses from storm-based flooding 2.Promote a sustainable coastal ecosystem by harnessing natural system processes 3.Provide habitats suitable to support an array of commercial and recreational activities coast-wide 4.Sustain Louisiana’s unique heritage and culture
26 Background Stabilizing the landscape is paramount importance for protection and restoration Complete plan based on “Multiple Lines of Defense” strategy Hurricane protection strategies are defined based on a stable landscape
32 Land Building Diversions Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan
33 Special Focus: Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO)
34 “…navigation channels…and their associated levees and spoil banks may offer opportunities to integrate storm protection and coastal restoration. These artificial features of the coastal landscape might be modified to distribute freshwater and sediment resources across the landscape.” -- Working Group for Post-Hurricane Planning for the Louisiana Coast Total Closure of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO)
36 What Does Science and Engineering Say? First line of defense should not be last line of defense Longer and more complex protection systems are more prone to failure Give water room to move Altered hydrology can be opportunities
55 Acadiana Area Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan
56 Western Chenier Plain Source: Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan
57 What are potential policy, legislative, or institutional issues that would affect implementation of the plan?
58 Policy, Institutional, and Legislative Issues Land Use Planning/Zoning Land Owner Concerns Adaptive Management Federal/State Partnership Consistency Priority
Restoration Planning Process for the Gulf Coast In 2005,Hurricane Katrina, Hurricanes Rita and Wilma damaged the Gulf of Mexico. Levees and floodwalls failed New Orleans were inundated with more than 20 feet (6.1 meters) of water Millions of people without homes, jobs, schools, and properties damaged 59
Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina near downtown New Orleans, 2005 Source: Google Images
Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana, 2005 Source: Google Images
Contemplation before restoration of Gulf coast Do we strengthen the levee system and build more levees, focus on restoring barrier islands and wetlands, or perhaps both? Can we design new communities that can withstand the impacts of hurricanes while still protecting our natural resources? Do we need to stop development along all or part of the Gulf Coast? How do we protect and restore the natural resources in the region?
Understanding the Problem was Part of the Solution More than 900,000 acres of coastal land have been lost. Louisiana’s 3 million acres of wetlands have borne the brunt of human activity, population increase, and natural processes for decades. Sediment carried by the Mississippi River historically has been deposited at the mouth of the river, creating a complex system of deltas. Natural flow of water have been changed
Modelling Sustainability With all of the available data, the key is to assess the data and determine how it should influence decisions about rebuilding the Gulf Coast Wind - Impact Models: e.g:Inland High-wind Model Sea - Level Models Storm - Surge Models Loss - Prediction Software Societal Risk Vulnerability Mapping
1.James Sipes. Sustainable Solutions for Water Resources. Policies, Planning, Design, And Implementation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2.Louisiana’s Comprehensive Masterplan: Pre-Preliminary Draft Master Plan. Available at: http://www.lacpra.org. 3.US Army Corps of Engineers. Available at: http://www.saj.usace.army.mil/Missions/CivilWorks/LakeOkeechobee/HerbertH ooverDike.aspx. 4.Lake Okeechobee Levels Concerning Nearby Residents (Video). Available at: http://miami.cbslocal.com/2013/08/09/lake-okeechobee-levels-concerning- nearby-residents/. 5.Videos downloaded from youtube.com 6.Treasury releases RESTORE Act regulations, restoration process advances. Available at: http://www.mississippiriverdelta.org/blog/2013/09/25/treasury- releases-restore-act-regulations-restoration-process-advances/. Accessed on: 21/12/2014 REFERENCES