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FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF ACCRA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Sustainable Water Resources (SEES-503) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC.

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Presentation on theme: "FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF ACCRA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Sustainable Water Resources (SEES-503) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC."— Presentation transcript:

1 FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF ACCRA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Sustainable Water Resources (SEES-503) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC

2 2 Introduction Problem Statement Justification Research Objectives Critical Analysis Proposal Conclusion Recommendations References Outline

3 3 Source: Google Earth, 2014

4 4 Source: MOE, 2012

5 5 Several natural disasters have occurred since the time of biblical Noah up till now. These natural disasters have taken various forms such as; flooding, earthquake, volcanic eruption tsunamis, tornadoes, landslides, hurricane, among others. Flooding was defined by Hague: 1997 as “a natural hazard which displaces people by destroying their land, houses and other tangible goods and assets” [2] Introduction

6 6 Within the last decades, Accra has experienced periodic floods. Between 1955 and 1997, about GH¢300 billion worth of properties has been destroyed, 100 lives have been lost either during the flood period or after the floods and 10,000 people have been displaced from their homes [8]. Against this background, the research seems necessary. Problem Statement

7 7 The Government of Ghana has signed a contract (US$ 660 million) with the Conti Group of Companies from the USA on a five year project to tackle the flooding situation in Accra [7]. Justification

8 8 1.To assess the natural and manmade activities that causes flood in Accra. 2.To examine suitable structural measures that can be to undertaken to reduce and manage flood impacts in Accra. 3.Propose a mitigation approach to manage flood impacts using Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for The 21 st Century. Research Objectives

9 9 Natural Disaster in Ghana from 1900 to 2014 Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster (Adapted)

10 10 Source: Profile of the Study Area

11 Drainage System & Characteristics 1 Accra consists of eight drainage basins with Characteristics of lowlands, and hilly areas that runs out into the sea. As a result of these basins, storm water runs out from the city through it. 11

12 12 Source: Waterworld, 2010

13 Drainage System & Characteristics 2 According to waterworld, the design capacity of these basins is based on a 25-year return period: which means that the maximum rainfall reoccurs in 25 years [3]. 13

14 Drainage System & Characteristics 3 Over a period from 1970 – 2008, the average annual rainfall is 756 mm with about km 3 /year as the total amount of rain that falls in Accra within one year with a rainfall intensity variations of 203 mm/h [6]. 14

15 15 The Ghana Meteorological Service relays information to the Accra Metropolis through national television, local radio stations and newspapers to highlight impending storm that would hit the metropolis but unfortunately, the intensity and the extent of flash floods are always not predicted [6]. Early Warning Signs

16 16 There are a number of different ways to categorize such flood management interventions. These flood management interventions can be either structural or non-structural; physical and institutional; implemented before, during and after the flood and these categories are interwoven [2]. Traditional Flood Management Possibilities

17 What Are The Flood Issues In Accra??? 17

18 18 Source: Guidelines for Planning Authorities: 2009

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22 22 Water run-off with the basins in Accra was deduced using the modified rational model by Viessman & Lewis, 1996; and Mannaerts, 1996 to calculate individual discharge for each section in the entire catchment areas. i.e. Q p = 0.278×C s ×C×i×A Research Analysis and Discussion

23 23 Research Analysis and Discussion 3

24 24 Research Analysis and Discussion 2

25 25 Global Water Partnership (GWP), defines Integrated Water Resources Management as ‘a process which promotes the coordinated management and development of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems’ [4] Integrated Flood Risk Management Approach 1

26 26 An Integrated Flood Management plan should address the following six key elements that follow logically for managing floods in the context of an IWRM approach: Manage the water cycle as a whole; Integrate land and water management; Manage risk and uncertainty; Adopt a best mix of strategies; Ensure a participatory approach; and Adopt integrated hazard management approaches. Integrated Flood Risk Management Approach 2

27 27 Integrated Flood Risk Management Model Integrated Flood Management Water Resource Management Hazard Management Costal Zone Management Land Use Management Source: Adapted from WMO: 2006

28 28 Strategies And Options For Flood Management

29 29 STRATEGYOPTIONS Reducing FloodingDams and reservoirs Dikes, levees and flood embankments High flow diversions Catchment management Channel improvements Reducing susceptibility to DamageFloodplain regulation Development and redevelopment policies Design and location of facilities Housing and building codes Flood proofing Flood forecasting and warning Mitigating the impacts of floodingInformation and education Disaster preparedness Post-flood recovery Flood insurance Preserving the Natural Resources of Flood Plains Floodplain zoning and regulation Source: Adapted from WMO: 2006

30 30 Flooding as a natural disaster cannot be eradicated in Accra but however, its effect can be minimized by undertaking the Integrated Flood Management approach which promotes the coordinated management and development of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Conclusion

31 31 There should be improved collection of waste and disposal, de-silting gutters, river channels, and culverts that are frequently taken up by solid waste to improve the hydraulic performance of drains and increase carrying capacities in order to reduce peak discharge. There should be an enforcement of building regulations that prevent people from building in flood prone areas and floodplains to avoid flooding. Recommendations

32 32 1.EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, - Université catholique de Louvain - Brussels – Belgium 2.Waterworld (2010). Stormwater solutions in Ghana. Article published in the Ghanaian Times: Accessed on: 24 th October, SWITCH Accra City Story (2008). solutions.html. Accessed on: 24 th October, Global Water Partnership, Integrated Water Resources Management. Global Water Partnership (GWP), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). 5.World Meteorological Organization, 2006a: Legal and Institutional Aspects of Integrated Flood Management. Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) Technical Document No. 2, Flood Management Policy Series, (WMO-No. 997), Geneva. Available At: Accessed on: 27 th October, 2014 References

33 33 Questions / Comments


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