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Imperialism and The United States, 1890-1914 Introduction…

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and The United States, 1890-1914 Introduction…"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Imperialism and The United States, 1890-1914

3 Introduction…

4 With your neighbor… You are a leader of a country that has a considerable amount of land, relatively small population in proportion to land size, natural resources, and a stabilized government. You are a leader of a country that has a considerable amount of land, relatively small population in proportion to land size, natural resources, and a stabilized government. Why then would you feel the need (or be pressured to) seek out territory beyond your own? Why then would you feel the need (or be pressured to) seek out territory beyond your own?

5 What is Imperialism? Exerting control over another nation Exerting control over another nation By means of economic, political, and/or military control By means of economic, political, and/or military control Can be connected with Jingoism (extreme nationalism led by a pro-war foreign policy) Can be connected with Jingoism (extreme nationalism led by a pro-war foreign policy)

6 Prior to the 1890’s the US was not interested in expansion…Why? The Civil War Expanding westward (Manifest Destiny!) Staying away from foreign alliances and wars

7 By the 1890’s the US was ready to expand…why? 1. End of the frontier (1890 census) Many believed U.S. had to expand or explode Many believed U.S. had to expand or explode a. Increased demand for raw materials and resources a. Increased demand for raw materials and resources b. “Safety valve” thesis b. “Safety valve” thesis

8 2. Increased importance of international trade for the U.S. economy 2. Increased importance of international trade for the U.S. economy a. The U.S. became the world’s leading industrial power in the 1890s a. The U.S. became the world’s leading industrial power in the 1890s b. Some Americans sought new colonies to expand markets further b. Some Americans sought new colonies to expand markets further 3. U.S. sought to compete with Europe for overseas empires 3. U.S. sought to compete with Europe for overseas empires a. Some American leaders sought “great power” status for the U.S. a. Some American leaders sought “great power” status for the U.S. b. By 1914, Europe controlled 84% of the world’s land b. By 1914, Europe controlled 84% of the world’s land Reasons…

9 “The World’s Plunderers,” Thomas Nast, 1885”

10 Reasons for expansion… 4. Proponents of U.S. expansion overseas 4. Proponents of U.S. expansion overseas 1. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: 1. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890) History, 1660-1783 (1890) a. Thesis: naval power was the key to world dominance a. Thesis: naval power was the key to world dominance b. Stimulated a naval arms race among the “great powers” b. Stimulated a naval arms race among the “great powers” c. U.S. sought defensive naval bases and refueling stations c. U.S. sought defensive naval bases and refueling stations d. By 1900, U.S. had the world’s 3 rd largest navy d. By 1900, U.S. had the world’s 3 rd largest navy

11 Reasons… 2. Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge 2. Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge a. Social Darwinism (“survival of the fittest”) a. Social Darwinism (“survival of the fittest”) b. Roosevelt also sought a canal in Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans b. Roosevelt also sought a canal in Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 3. Senator Albert Beveridge stated U.S. was part of a worldwide movement of the superior white race and imperialism was ordained by God 4. Josiah Strong, Our Country (1885) -- Advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization -- Advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization

12 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer… Bell Ringer… Bring Textbooks to class tomorrow! Bring Textbooks to class tomorrow! 5 reasons the US began to imperialize? 5 reasons the US began to imperialize? Who did the United States overthrow to claim Hawaii? Who did the United States overthrow to claim Hawaii? Why did the US go to war with Spain? Why did the US go to war with Spain?

13 American interests in Imperialism Samoa Samoa Became a protectorate in the 1870’s Became a protectorate in the 1870’s A weak country under the protection and partial control of a strong country. A weak country under the protection and partial control of a strong country.

14 Hawaii

15 Hawaii Early missionaries bought large amounts of land for sugar plantations Early missionaries bought large amounts of land for sugar plantations By 1880’s, US using Pearl Harbor as a naval base By 1880’s, US using Pearl Harbor as a naval base Many wanted US out, including Queen Liliuokalani. Was overthrown in 1893 Many wanted US out, including Queen Liliuokalani. Was overthrown in 1893 Became a Republic with Sanford Dole as first Governor. Became a Republic with Sanford Dole as first Governor.

16 The Spanish American War US concerned about Spanish control in Cuba US concerned about Spanish control in Cuba Wanted to protect American owned sugar plantations Wanted to protect American owned sugar plantations US against Spanish atrocities towards Cubans US against Spanish atrocities towards Cubans

17 WAR FEVER!! Yellow Journalism Yellow Journalism News that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates events in order to attract readers News that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates events in order to attract readers

18 In effort to gain support for the Cubans many newspapers ran stories that were exaggerated and untrue… The two most famous editors of the time were Joseph Pulitzer… The two most famous editors of the time were Joseph Pulitzer… …and William Randolph Hearst …and William Randolph Hearst “You furnish the pictures…I’ll supply the War”

19 WAR FEVER!! In 1898 Hearst’s New York Journal published what was know as the “De Lome Letter.” In 1898 Hearst’s New York Journal published what was know as the “De Lome Letter.” What was the content in the letter? What was the content in the letter? Spanish ambassador Enrique Dupuy de Lôme wrote a personal letter to his friend José Canalejas who was in Cuba. The letter contained derogatory comments about President McKinley and his policies concerning Cuba. Spanish ambassador Enrique Dupuy de Lôme wrote a personal letter to his friend José Canalejas who was in Cuba. The letter contained derogatory comments about President McKinley and his policies concerning Cuba. Enrique Dupuy de Lôme Enrique Dupuy de Lôme

20 “...Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.” “...Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”

21 WAR FEVER!! In Feb. 1898 While protecting Americans in Cuba, the USS Battleship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor killing 260 men. In Feb. 1898 While protecting Americans in Cuba, the USS Battleship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor killing 260 men. “Remember the Maine” became a war slogan. “Remember the Maine” became a war slogan.

22 WAR!!

23 WAR!! A reluctant William McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war in April 1898 A reluctant William McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war in April 1898

24 “The Splendid Little War” First action of war Fight for independence against Spain Was helped by Filipino Patriot Emilio Aguinaldo Destroyed Spanish Fleet at Manila Bay led by Adm. Dewey The Battle of the Philippines

25 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer…1. Discuss the Cuban campaign and 2. what was the outcome of the Treaty of Paris? Bell Ringer…1. Discuss the Cuban campaign and 2. what was the outcome of the Treaty of Paris? For Tomorrow: Come prepared to discuss the last section of your study guide For Tomorrow: Come prepared to discuss the last section of your study guide

26 The Cuban Campaign US Army had a tougher time…why? US Army had a tougher time…why? Heat and wool uniforms Heat and wool uniforms Spread of disease Spread of disease Ill prepared and ill trained Ill prepared and ill trained

27 TTTT hhhh eeee C C C C uuuu bbbb aaaa nnnn C C C C aaaa mmmm pppp aaaa iiii gggg nnnn Object was to capture port city of Santiago where Spanish Fleet was anchored Object was to capture port city of Santiago where Spanish Fleet was anchored Navy was able to sink the fleet Navy was able to sink the fleet On land, the goal of the Army was to take military installations above Santiago…including San Juan Heights and El Caney On land, the goal of the Army was to take military installations above Santiago…including San Juan Heights and El Caney

28 The Rough Riders Led by former Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, this rag tag Calvary unit led the charge up San Juan Hill Led by former Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, this rag tag Calvary unit led the charge up San Juan Hill Or did they? Or did they? They actually attacked Kettle Hill!

29 Buffalo Soldiers 2,000 African American soldiers comprised of Regular Army regiments, the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. 2,000 African American soldiers comprised of Regular Army regiments, the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. Joined the Rough Riders for the battle of San Juan and Kettle Hills Joined the Rough Riders for the battle of San Juan and Kettle Hills

30 The End of the War August 12, 1898 (114 days!) Treaty of Paris, Dec. 1898 Treaty of Paris, Dec. 1898 Cuba gained Independence Cuba gained Independence US received Puerto Rico and Guam US received Puerto Rico and Guam Spain sold the Philippines to the US for 20 million Spain sold the Philippines to the US for 20 million US became a colonial Power…new problems and responsibilities. US became a colonial Power…new problems and responsibilities.

31 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer….What are the outcomes of the Treaty of Paris! Bell Ringer….What are the outcomes of the Treaty of Paris! Quiz tomorrow! Quiz tomorrow! Agenda and Objective: Through notes and discussion students will identify Roosevelt’s Foreign policy. Agenda and Objective: Through notes and discussion students will identify Roosevelt’s Foreign policy.

32 Issues with Cuba in the aftermath of War… At the start of War, US issues Teller Amendment At the start of War, US issues Teller Amendment Gave US the right to intervene to maintain stable government; Cuba was not allowed foreign agreements; US controlled Guantanamo Bay Gave US the right to intervene to maintain stable government; Cuba was not allowed foreign agreements; US controlled Guantanamo Bay Promised Cuban independence after war Promised Cuban independence after war With the country on the verge of economic/political collapse Congress passes Platt Amendment With the country on the verge of economic/political collapse Congress passes Platt Amendment

33 Issues with the Philippines in the aftermath of War… US felt the right to take control of the Islands; Filipinos thought differently US felt the right to take control of the Islands; Filipinos thought differently Three year rebellion led by Aguinaldo; ends with 200,000 dead; 7,000 US soldiers Three year rebellion led by Aguinaldo; ends with 200,000 dead; 7,000 US soldiers Becomes a republic in 1946 Becomes a republic in 1946

34 Problems with Puerto Rico after the War… Became a US possession after the war. US saw it as a Colony. Became a US possession after the war. US saw it as a Colony. In 1900 Foraker Act is passed. Gave PR a form of self- government In 1900 Foraker Act is passed. Gave PR a form of self- government However, were citizens of PR but not the United States. However, were citizens of PR but not the United States. Led to Jones Act of 1917 Led to Jones Act of 1917 Became a commonwealth in 1952 Became a commonwealth in 1952

35 United States Imperialism Part II 1900-1914 Kathleen Krall Spring Grove Area High School

36 Focus of US foreign policy shifts to Central America after the War Was premised by the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 Was premised by the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 That US would stay out of Europe and would oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere That US would stay out of Europe and would oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere

37 US was also interested in expanding in the Far East Interested in China Interested in China American merchants feared they would be left out of trade markets American merchants feared they would be left out of trade markets A weak country who was carved up into “spheres of influence” by Europe A weak country who was carved up into “spheres of influence” by Europe

38 In response, Secretary of State John Hay authored the “open door policy” Sent Diplomatic notes to Russia, France, Germany, Britain, and Japan asking them for equal trading rights and transportation facilities in China

39 However, many Chinese did not want Westerns in China… In 1900 a secret society known as the “Boxers” tried to overthrow the imperial government and expel foreigners In 1900 a secret society known as the “Boxers” tried to overthrow the imperial government and expel foreigners Did not succeed Did not succeed “…destroy the foreigner!"

40 Meanwhile back in the Western Hemisphere…

41 Foreign Policy Of Theodore Roosevelt Extended the Monroe Doctrine into what was known as the “Roosevelt Corollary” Extended the Monroe Doctrine into what was known as the “Roosevelt Corollary” “Roosevelt Corollary” “Roosevelt Corollary” The United States has the chief responsibility for adjudicating any conflicts between Europe and Latin America…became known as the “Big Stick Policy.” The first test to the Corollary occurred in the Venezuelan Crisis of 1902

42 The Panama Canal When TR became President he wanted to… When TR became President he wanted to… To do this the US agreed to the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty with the French To do this the US agreed to the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty with the French Build a Canal across Central America Build a Canal across Central America Keep Europe out of Latin American affairs. Keep Europe out of Latin American affairs. Granted the US the sole right to build and control a canal. Was to remain free and open to ships from all nations. Why would a Canal be important?

43 But where should the Canal be Built? First place considered was Nicaragua. Was free of disease and only had about 50 miles to dig… First place considered was Nicaragua. Was free of disease and only had about 50 miles to dig… However in 1902 a volcano exploded on the island of Martinique. US believed to be unsafe However in 1902 a volcano exploded on the island of Martinique. US believed to be unsafe

44 Option number two…Panama

45 However Panama was controlled by Columbia… Knowing that Panama was unhappy under Columbian rule, a revolution was staged with the help of the French Canal agent Philippe Bunau-Varilla Knowing that Panama was unhappy under Columbian rule, a revolution was staged with the help of the French Canal agent Philippe Bunau-Varilla the new Foreign Minister Bunau- Varilla! the new Foreign Minister Bunau- Varilla! Roosevelt supported the revolution, sending navy to ensure victory Roosevelt supported the revolution, sending navy to ensure victory US quickly recognized Panama and negotiated a treaty with… US quickly recognized Panama and negotiated a treaty with… “I took the Canal”

46 Building the Canal… Had to deal with disease. Over 5,600 workers died Had to deal with disease. Over 5,600 workers died Army Physician, William Gorgas was able to wipe out yellow fever by draining local water areas Army Physician, William Gorgas was able to wipe out yellow fever by draining local water areas

47 More than 43,000 laborers worked on the Canal. Were divided into Gold and Silver Star Workers Most work was done with pick ax, shovel, and dynamite. Work ended in 1914 with the cost of 352 million

48 Traveling through the canal takes approximately 10-12 hours The water route from New York to San Francisco was 8,000 miles shorter Allowed Navy to move quicker “The land divided, the world united” united” On December 31, 1999 the canal was returned to the government of Panama

49 Latin America and William Howard Taft Turned away from “big stick” diplomacy and supported “Dollar Diplomacy” Turned away from “big stick” diplomacy and supported “Dollar Diplomacy” Urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America Urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America

50 Woodrow Wilson and Latin America Was weary of dollar diplomacy Was weary of dollar diplomacy Believed that heavy investment would actually harm weak nations Believed that heavy investment would actually harm weak nations Feared that investors would take all profits and influence local governments Feared that investors would take all profits and influence local governments

51 One area of concern for Wilson was Mexico…

52 Ruled by dictator Porfilio Diaz who was a friend of the United States Ruled by dictator Porfilio Diaz who was a friend of the United States However Madero was executed, allowing Victoriano Huerta to proclaim himself ruler of Mexico However Madero was executed, allowing Victoriano Huerta to proclaim himself ruler of Mexico In the revolution of 1911, Diaz was overthrown by Francisco Madero In the revolution of 1911, Diaz was overthrown by Francisco Madero

53 Shift in American Foreign Policy!! Wilson refused to recognize new government set up by Huerta… Wilson refused to recognize new government set up by Huerta… Government now must be based on free elections before US will recognize… Government now must be based on free elections before US will recognize… In response, Heurta arrested Americans in Mexico. US sent Navy to port city of Vera Cruz… In response, Heurta arrested Americans in Mexico. US sent Navy to port city of Vera Cruz…

54 The United States supported two local revolutionaries to help overthrow Heurta… The United States supported two local revolutionaries to help overthrow Heurta… Venustiano Carranza Venustiano Carranza And Pancho Villa And Pancho Villa

55 Huerta was eventually overthrown in 1916 with the United States supporting Carranza… Villa was determined to gain control by attacking a train in Northern Mexico, killing 12 Americans Wilson threatened by sending troops. Villa went on a killing spree across the Rio Grande killing 3 soldiers and a boy US troops were never able to find Villa. Ends up being assassinated in 1923. But Wilson had other worries…

56 WORLD WAR I


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