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Age of Exploration © 2011Clairmont Press. AN AGE for exploration The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Revolution NationalismNationalism MercantilismMercantilism.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Exploration © 2011Clairmont Press. AN AGE for exploration The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Revolution NationalismNationalism MercantilismMercantilism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Exploration © 2011Clairmont Press

2 AN AGE for exploration The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Revolution NationalismNationalism MercantilismMercantilism The Scientific Revolution was a time when European scholars and scientists sought to better understand nature. The idea that humans could harness nature and use it to their advantage challenged men to invent and change the world around them. Men searched farther and traveled greater distances. The Age of Exploration was the true test of European mettle; they would take on quests of danger, adventure, and wealth beyond imagination. The Scientific Revolution was a time when European scholars and scientists sought to better understand nature. The idea that humans could harness nature and use it to their advantage challenged men to invent and change the world around them. Men searched farther and traveled greater distances. The Age of Exploration was the true test of European mettle; they would take on quests of danger, adventure, and wealth beyond imagination. At the same time as the Age of Exploration, nations were scrambling for power. The youngest of these, Spain, would become the largest empire in the world because of exploration and colonization. These nations sought to improve their wealth and invented a theory called mercantilism ; the theory is that nations should increase their wealth by establishing trade monopolies and accumulating gold and silver. At the same time as the Age of Exploration, nations were scrambling for power. The youngest of these, Spain, would become the largest empire in the world because of exploration and colonization. These nations sought to improve their wealth and invented a theory called mercantilism ; the theory is that nations should increase their wealth by establishing trade monopolies and accumulating gold and silver. The Scientific Revolution was a time when European scholars and scientists sought to better understand nature. The idea that humans could harness nature and use it to their advantage challenged men to invent and change the world around them. Men searched farther and traveled greater distances. The Age of Exploration was the true test of European mettle; they would take on quests of danger, adventure, and wealth beyond imagination. The Scientific Revolution was a time when European scholars and scientists sought to better understand nature. The idea that humans could harness nature and use it to their advantage challenged men to invent and change the world around them. Men searched farther and traveled greater distances. The Age of Exploration was the true test of European mettle; they would take on quests of danger, adventure, and wealth beyond imagination. At the same time as the Age of Exploration, nations were scrambling for power. The youngest of these, Spain, would become the largest empire in the world because of exploration and colonization. These nations sought to improve their wealth and invented a theory called mercantilism ; the theory is that nations should increase their wealth by establishing trade monopolies and accumulating gold and silver. At the same time as the Age of Exploration, nations were scrambling for power. The youngest of these, Spain, would become the largest empire in the world because of exploration and colonization. These nations sought to improve their wealth and invented a theory called mercantilism ; the theory is that nations should increase their wealth by establishing trade monopolies and accumulating gold and silver.

3 The School of Navigation A Portuguese member of the royal family named Prince Henry pushed for Portugal to become the greatest European exploring country. He started a School of Navigation and commissioned many explorations of Africa in search of a trade route to Asia. At the school, the caravel, a faster ship that could carry more goods was developed. The astrolabe and quadrant, tools for navigation, were taught to explorers. Finally, the improvements in mapmaking made exploration more efficient and safer. Portugal soon led the way. Men from across Europe sought to learn at the School of Navigation in Portugal. Henry became known as Prince Henry the Navigator.

4 Early Exploration As early as 1415 A.D., the Portuguese were exploring the western coasts of Africa.As early as 1415 A.D., the Portuguese were exploring the western coasts of Africa. The Portuguese explored the Congo River area and set up posts along the western coasts.The Portuguese explored the Congo River area and set up posts along the western coasts. Eventually, Bartholomew Dias, in 1488, reached the southern tip of Africa. He named it the Cape of Good Hope. He would never reach his true goal of finding a route to Asia. He died at sea in 1500 A.D.Eventually, Bartholomew Dias, in 1488, reached the southern tip of Africa. He named it the Cape of Good Hope. He would never reach his true goal of finding a route to Asia. He died at sea in 1500 A.D. Christopher Columbus, an Italian, set sail for Asia across the Atlantic and discovered the West Indies. Though he never set foot on the continents in the Americas, his exploration led to their discovery.Christopher Columbus, an Italian, set sail for Asia across the Atlantic and discovered the West Indies. Though he never set foot on the continents in the Americas, his exploration led to their discovery. The Portuguese finally found the trade route to Asia around Africa and realized Henry the Navigator’s dream when Vasco de Gama sailed to present day Somalia. Later a local captain showed him the way across the Indian Ocean to India. Portugal gained immediate access to the Spice Islands, China, and even Japan by 1513.The Portuguese finally found the trade route to Asia around Africa and realized Henry the Navigator’s dream when Vasco de Gama sailed to present day Somalia. Later a local captain showed him the way across the Indian Ocean to India. Portugal gained immediate access to the Spice Islands, China, and even Japan by 1513.

5 Great Explorations Amerigo Vespucci – discovered the continent of South America and proclaimed it America; named for the Latin version of his name Americus. (explored early 1500s)Amerigo Vespucci – discovered the continent of South America and proclaimed it America; named for the Latin version of his name Americus. (explored early 1500s) Vasco de Núñez de Balboa – crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean. (1513)Vasco de Núñez de Balboa – crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean. (1513) Ferdinand Magellan – attempted to circumnavigate the world. His crew succeeded; unfortunately, he died on the voyage along with 182 of his 200 men. ( )Ferdinand Magellan – attempted to circumnavigate the world. His crew succeeded; unfortunately, he died on the voyage along with 182 of his 200 men. ( ) Henry Hudson – crossed the Atlantic and explored the area that is current day New York City and later explored Hudson Bay in northern Canada where he was set adrift with his teenage son and six loyal crew members by his mutinous crew and never heard from again. (1609)Henry Hudson – crossed the Atlantic and explored the area that is current day New York City and later explored Hudson Bay in northern Canada where he was set adrift with his teenage son and six loyal crew members by his mutinous crew and never heard from again. (1609)

6 Why explore? Nobility Mercantilism – to gain wealth as a nationMercantilism – to gain wealth as a nation Power – with wealth comes more powerPower – with wealth comes more power Prestige – competition between absolute monarchs of different nationsPrestige – competition between absolute monarchs of different nations Strength – the display of strength was important to remain on the throneStrength – the display of strength was important to remain on the throne Commoner Feudal life was very difficult on a commoner; no real power or wealthFeudal life was very difficult on a commoner; no real power or wealth A chance to move up in societyA chance to move up in society Finding a new place to live and start a familyFinding a new place to live and start a family A chance to play a part in achieving something greatA chance to play a part in achieving something great

7 Impact of Spanish and Portuguese exploration Europe The nations of Spain and Portugal lead exploration.The nations of Spain and Portugal lead exploration. The Treaty of Tordesillas and The Treaty of Zaragoza divided claimed lands down meridians. Anything east of the meridian would be Portuguese and anything west would be Spanish.The Treaty of Tordesillas and The Treaty of Zaragoza divided claimed lands down meridians. Anything east of the meridian would be Portuguese and anything west would be Spanish. Both countries were happy because Portugal claimed Brazil and could maintain their African colonies and route to Asia.Both countries were happy because Portugal claimed Brazil and could maintain their African colonies and route to Asia. Spain benefitted because it conquered the western portion of two continents and many Caribbean Islands.Spain benefitted because it conquered the western portion of two continents and many Caribbean Islands. Spain and Portugal become very wealthy; Spain eventually becomes the greatest European empire and had the greatest navy in the world.Spain and Portugal become very wealthy; Spain eventually becomes the greatest European empire and had the greatest navy in the world. New World European technology and disease wiped out many native populations and lands were quickly colonized.European technology and disease wiped out many native populations and lands were quickly colonized. Some native tribes resisted but were quickly overwhelmed.Some native tribes resisted but were quickly overwhelmed. Natives became slave workers for the Spanish and Portuguese.Natives became slave workers for the Spanish and Portuguese. Natives were forced to convert to Catholicism.Natives were forced to convert to Catholicism. The Spanish and Portuguese Catholic missions were very strict and sometimes tortured those who would not convert.The Spanish and Portuguese Catholic missions were very strict and sometimes tortured those who would not convert. The Columbian Exchange brought new animals, foods, and goods to a new land. Some native tribes traded and worked with the Spanish and Portuguese.The Columbian Exchange brought new animals, foods, and goods to a new land. Some native tribes traded and worked with the Spanish and Portuguese.

8 France & England France France was already a very wealthy country and had good trade relations with the Venetians who controlled Far East trade. They only sought to explore because of Spain’s growth in power.France was already a very wealthy country and had good trade relations with the Venetians who controlled Far East trade. They only sought to explore because of Spain’s growth in power. French exploration began in 1524, but took off in 1536 when Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River.French exploration began in 1524, but took off in 1536 when Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River. The French primarily sought to trade beaver fur and formed good relations with local Indian tribes.The French primarily sought to trade beaver fur and formed good relations with local Indian tribes. The French would eventually conquer the lands of the Great Plains and Mississippi River from Nova Scotia, to the Great Lakes, south to New Orleans.The French would eventually conquer the lands of the Great Plains and Mississippi River from Nova Scotia, to the Great Lakes, south to New Orleans. Many American cities like Detroit, Baton Rouge, St. Louis, and New Orleans were first French cities or forts.Many American cities like Detroit, Baton Rouge, St. Louis, and New Orleans were first French cities or forts. England England entered exploration in 1497 under John Cabot. The Italian born Cabot explored the lands of Newfoundland. England entered the quest for exploration.England entered exploration in 1497 under John Cabot. The Italian born Cabot explored the lands of Newfoundland. England entered the quest for exploration. The first successful settlement was Jamestown in Virginia. The English settlements typically struggled early on because they only sought to search for gold.The first successful settlement was Jamestown in Virginia. The English settlements typically struggled early on because they only sought to search for gold. England eventually settled the lands from Georgia to New York. It garnered great wealth from tobacco, cotton, and rice.England eventually settled the lands from Georgia to New York. It garnered great wealth from tobacco, cotton, and rice. England gained control of the lands today known as Canada after the Seven Years’ War.England gained control of the lands today known as Canada after the Seven Years’ War. England solidified its control over Scotland and eventually grew to become the largest empire in the world.England solidified its control over Scotland and eventually grew to become the largest empire in the world. “The Sun never sets on the British Empire.”“The Sun never sets on the British Empire.”

9 Summary The Age of Exploration empowered European countries and spread European culture to the far reaches of the world.The Age of Exploration empowered European countries and spread European culture to the far reaches of the world. The triumphs and tragedies that comprised the Age of Exploration must be studied in the context of the time; little was known about medicine, the Catholic Church was extremely powerful, and the monarchs’ of Europe ruled supreme.The triumphs and tragedies that comprised the Age of Exploration must be studied in the context of the time; little was known about medicine, the Catholic Church was extremely powerful, and the monarchs’ of Europe ruled supreme. The great explorers are remembered, but it is important to understand and respect that they were only part of a group of common men that took on great peril to achieve great feats.The great explorers are remembered, but it is important to understand and respect that they were only part of a group of common men that took on great peril to achieve great feats. There is little room for argument of the fact that the Age of Exploration transformed the world and began the push to globalization.There is little room for argument of the fact that the Age of Exploration transformed the world and began the push to globalization.


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