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ANESTHESIA AT THE YEAR 1001 ADNAN ABDALLAH ALMAZROOA ANESTHESIA DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF MEDICINE KING ABDALAZIZ UNIVERSITY.

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Presentation on theme: "ANESTHESIA AT THE YEAR 1001 ADNAN ABDALLAH ALMAZROOA ANESTHESIA DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF MEDICINE KING ABDALAZIZ UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANESTHESIA AT THE YEAR 1001 ADNAN ABDALLAH ALMAZROOA ANESTHESIA DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF MEDICINE KING ABDALAZIZ UNIVERSITY

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3 Anesthesia AT 1001  1. Pain relief  2. Anesthesia  3. Resuscitation

4 1. Pain relief  Graeco Roman era  Islamic era

5 Graeco Roman era  Celsus 1 st century Opium and mandrake.  Galen 2 nd century consider it as a dangerous drug used only in colics and very severe pain.  Paulus 7 th century didn’t use it in the trochisks acting as anodynes

6 Graeco Roman era  The state of intillctual stagnation prevailed in Europe in the middle ages, together with the theological doctrine that pain serves God’s purpose and must not be alleviated, it militated against the improvement in methods of narcosis. There was no standardization of these drugs or regulation of their dosage. against the improvement in methods of narcosis. There was no standardization of these drugs or regulation of their dosage. Cumston, Campbell, Nuland, Bickers and Desnos Cumston, Campbell, Nuland, Bickers and Desnos

7 Islamic Era Ibn Sina, Al Razi, Al Bagdady and IbnElkuff Ibn Sina, Al Razi, Al Bagdady and IbnElkuff paid great importance to the Physiology of paid great importance to the Physiology of pain and its management pain and its management –underlying cause –analgesics

8 Islamic Era  Anaesthetic were considered one of analgesics. *wide range of medical plants *wide range of medical plants *ice or ice cold water *ice or ice cold water

9 Islamic Era Opium the most powerful Opium the most powerful Mandrake Mandrake Papaveris Papaveris Henbane Henbane Hyocyamus Hyocyamus Hemlock Hemlock Solanum Solanum Wild lettuce only for insomnia Wild lettuce only for insomnia

10 Islamic Era  Pharmacology of Narcotics –Mode of action –Potency –Uses –Forms

11 Pharmacology of Narcotics  Mode of fraudes  Active ingredients  Specific action  Action on different system  Dose-toxic dose  Antidote

12 Islamic Era  The Muslims were given the credit for developing the science of Botany, and Ibn El Bitar’s book Al Gami Al Kabir is the most original among the Arabic Materia Medica. Dickinson 1875, Cumston 1968 & Margotta 1968

13 Islamic Era “ The medicinal substances found in Dioscorides in its scientific form is an Islamic creation” (Cumston 1968) (Cumston 1968)

14 II. Anaesthesia  AL-Hawi fit-tibb Al-Razi  AL-Qanon fit-tibb Ibn Sina  AL-Tasrif Albucasis  AL-Mukhtarat fit-tibb AL-Bagdadi  AL-Omda Fil AL-Jiraha IbnEL-Quff  AL-Tayseer Ibn Zuhr

15 II. Anaesthesia  Documantation of the use of ALMURQUID ALMURQUID  Anesthesia techniques  Anesthesia personnel  Monitoring

16 Documentation of the use of ALMURQUID  WAFAITULAIAN  ALBIDAIA WALNIHAIA  DICTIONARIES  SAYED ALKHATER

17 Al-Murquid Literally, Al-Murquid in Arabic means: “drug that induces deep sleep” BHANJ BHANJ TANWIM TANWIM

18 Anaesthesia techniques Al-Murquid  INGESTION  RECTAL  INHALATION

19 Anaesthesia techniques  Ingestion of the Infusion… Solanum Solanum Canabis Canabis Opium Opium Mandrake Mandrake

20 Anaesthesia techniques  Rectally on a plug changed hourly… Canabis Canabis Opium Opium Mandrake Mandrake

21 Anaesthesia techniques  Inhalation –Odourants of powder of Opium,camphor,roses seeds &mandrake Opium,camphor,roses seeds &mandrake  Spongia Somnifera Opium,mandrake & black poppy Opium,mandrake & black poppy Ellis 1946 Ellis 1946

22 Anaesthesia techniques  Precisely determined –Required dose –Anesthesia duration  One mithkal of Mandrake 3-4 hrs Ibn Sina Ibn Sina

23 Anaesthesia personnel –ALTABAAEI (THE PHYSICIAN) –ALJARAAEHI (THE SURGEON) THE ANAESTHESIOLOGIST THE ANAESTHESIOLOGIST IbnEL-Quff IbnEL-Quff

24 MONITORING ALTABAAEI’S finger should be on the pulse while ALJARAAEHI is performing the surgery. Intra-operative monitoring by palpation.

25 III- Resuscitation  Resuscitation team  Upper airway obstruction  Tracheotomy  Use of bellows  Nutrition

26 Resuscitation  Resuscitation team –ALTABAAEI (THE PHYSICIAN) –ALJARAAEHI (THE SURGEON) –Have been called to resuscitate war trauma case Osama Ibn AL-Munquiz Osama Ibn AL-Munquiz

27 Resuscitation  Management of upper airway obstruction according to Ibn Sina : 1 st clearing the secretion 2 nd tube to assist breathing 3 rd tracheotomy Brendt & Georig Brendt & Georig

28 Management of upper airway obstruction  In management of suffocation –First Ibn Sina tried coservative meassures Ibn Sina tried coservative meassures including clearing of secretion using including clearing of secretion using a wicker stick covered with a piece a wicker stick covered with a piece of cotton wool of cotton wool

29 Management of upper airway obstruction In management of suffocation In management of suffocation - Second - Second Introduction of a gold or silver tube to the throat to assist breathing Introduction of a gold or silver tube to the throat to assist breathing - Third - Third Tracheotomy Tracheotomy

30 Tracheotomy Aretaeus 2 nd century Aurelinus 4 th century didn’t approve Paulus 7 th century only described Al-Razi 9 th century case report Ibn Sina 10 th century spoke favourably

31 Tracheotomy Al-Zahrawy 11 th century reported succesful management of suicidal cut wound of trachea & concluded it is not dangerous Ibn Zuhr 12 th century detail of animal experiment of performing tracheotomy on Goat that completely recovered Ibn ElQuff &Al-Bagdadi no reservation,considered as mode of managing upper a-w obstruction

32 Resuscitation Respiratory resuscitation using bellows  Salih Ibn Bahla reported a case of a patient who was pronounced dead, but later on was successfully resuscitated by insufflating air and soap root powder in his nose.

33 Nutrition  Entral feeding –Oraly via silver or tin tube gently introduced to the throat –Rectaly using goat bladder Ibn Zuhr Ibn Zuhr

34 Thank Thank you you

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