Presentation on theme: "History Alive: Chapter 10. Kush is located south of Egypt along the Nile River. Kush thrived from 2000 B.C.E. to 350 C.E It is known for very rich goldmines."— Presentation transcript:
History Alive: Chapter 10
Kush is located south of Egypt along the Nile River. Kush thrived from 2000 B.C.E. to 350 C.E It is known for very rich goldmines. Kush is often called Nubia. Nub is Egyptian for gold. Kush’s geographic location and natural resources made it an important trade hub. It connected Central and South Africa to Egypt. Egyptians traded with Kush along the Nile River. Egyptians offered grain, beer, and linen. Kush offered gold, ivory, leather, timber, and slaves. The Geography of Kush
Egypt often fought with Kush controlling parts of Kush’s territory. During the New Kingdom Egypt controlled Kush, forcing them to pay tribute to Egypt. Kushites had to give gold, cattle, ivory, ebony, ostrich feathers, and slaves. Sometimes these gifts included exotic animals such as giraffes and monkeys. Kush became “Egyptianized” under Egypt’s control. Kushites spoke and wrote in Egyptian. Worshiped Egyptian gods and goddess. Troubles with Egypt
Wore Egyptian clothing. Kushite archers were hired for Egypt’s army. An archer is a person who shoots with a bow and arrow. Kush’s princes were sent to Egypt for education. When the New Kingdom collapsed in 1100 B.C.E. Even though Egypt wasn’t controlling them anymore, they kept Egyptian culture. Troubles with Egypt cont.
After the fall of Egypt’s New Kingdom several Egyptian kingdoms fought each other for power. This weekend Egypt. In the mid-700s B.C.E. Kush’s armies invaded Egypt. In 730 B.C.E. northern Egypt surrendered to Kush’s king Piye. King Piye took the title pharaoh. Piye started the 25 th ruling dynasty. A dynasty is a line of rulers (father to son to grandson to great grandson) This dynasty is often called the “black pharaohs.” Kush Conquers Egypt
The Kushites wanted to revive Egyptian glory. They built new temples and pyramids in both Egypt and Kush. Jebel Barakal’s temple is the most famous. It copied Ramses II’s temple in style. In 671 B.C.E. Egypt’s former territory was conquered by the Assyrians. The Kushites tried to battle the Assyrians. The Assyrians had iron weapons. The Kushites only had bronze. Kush Conquers Egypt cont.
Egyptian Kings bowing before Kush’s kings.
Jebel Barakal’s temple
After the city of Napata was destroyed, Kush moved its’ capital to Meroë. The city was further south and therefore safer from invaders. Kush continued to trade using the Nile, Red Sea, and overland trade routes. They traded with Arabs, African kingdoms, Rome, India, and maybe even China. The Kush Capital of Meroë
Meroë also became known industry. After losing to the Assyrians because of iron weapons, the Kushites became famous for their work with iron. Meroë had everything they needed to produce iron. Had rich iron deposits. Had plenty of forests. Wood is needed to make charcoal. Charcoal is used to heat the iron. When heated iron separates from the rock. They made iron weapons and farming tools. The Kush Capital of Meroë cont.
Kushites mastered the art of working with iron to create tools and weapons.
After splitting away from Egypt, Kush returned to its African roots. Their artwork, clothing, and buildings no longer imitated Egyptian styles. They worshipped an African lion- god. They spoke and wrote Meroitic. It had its own alphabet not based off of hieroglyphics. Kush Returns to Its African Roots
Kush became ruled by Kandakes. These are Queen mothers. They often co-ruled with their sons or husbands. They were considered goddesses. Queen Amanirenas is the most famous. She destroyed many Roman forts. Rome signed a peace treaty with Kush. 350 C.E. Kush was conquered by Ethiopia. Kush Returns to Its African Roots cont.
Queen Amanirenas and her son watch a Roman Fort burn.
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