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Prof. Bruno Pierri History of Italian Foreign Policy The neo-Kingdom of Italy ’ s Foreign Policy: Recognition and the Roman and Venetian Question January.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Bruno Pierri History of Italian Foreign Policy The neo-Kingdom of Italy ’ s Foreign Policy: Recognition and the Roman and Venetian Question January."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Prof. Bruno Pierri History of Italian Foreign Policy The neo-Kingdom of Italy ’ s Foreign Policy: Recognition and the Roman and Venetian Question January 29th, 2014

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5 1861 ► First necessity of the Kingdom: official recognition ► Cavour immediately communicates European Powers the “ remarkable event ”, occured in accordance with constitutional legality ► Pivotal to defend boundaries: recognition able to limit Austrian claims and the dethroned sovereigns ’ aims of restoration, as well as the Pope ’ s ones ► Cavour reaped the benefits of intervention in Crimean War ► Republican aspirations constricted ► 1860 Annexations at the moment were insormountable limit: Roman and Venetian issues put off ► Alliances necessary, in order both to contain and eventualy defeat further irredentist pushes, and to play some role in the future in diplomatic projects

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8 European Interests ► France: Napoleon III backed Italian claims aiming at breaking off Congress of Vienna system 1815: France internationally downgraded, but territorially intact, in order to both favour the balance of power, and not to represent restauration as something humiliating for Louis XVIII - France surrounded by stronger neighbouring States, such as Netherlands, Kingdom of Sardinia and Prussia - Prussian pressure to annex Alsace and Lorraine ► Russia: Alexander III had revisionist aims, though limited to losses suffered in Crimean War

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10 Prussia and United Kingdom ► Prussia as rising power ► Aiming at undermining Austria and Germanic Confederation ’ s supremacy, thus becoming the hegemonic power ► Britain ’ s anti-French attitude: Italy would not favour French supremacy in continent and Mediterranean (Suez Canal under construction) ► Britain was only European power not to withdraw Ambassador from Turin after conquest of the South ► British recognition on Mar 30, followed by the U.S.

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12 Papal Question ► No other Europen power soon followed British example ► Napoleon III defended the Pope (State of the Church ’ s territories annexed to Italy) and thought of Italian independence as a Confederacy chaired by Pope ► French troops stationed in Rome

13 Annexations and international right ► Treaty of Zurich 1859 ► Lombardy, except Mantua, ceded to France and given to Sardinia as a gift ► Italian Confederation was to be formed under the presidency of the Pope; Austria would be a member of the confederation by virtue of its Italian territories; and the dukes of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany were to be restored peacefully to their thrones after having been deposed by nationalist forces ► Venetia, still under Austrian Crown, would be a member of the Confederation ► Napoleon III and Franz Joseph of Austria would try to persuade the Pope to deliver necessary reforms

14 Nationality and Self-Determination A) European Powers: concert of States (balance of power) A1) Risorgimento: self-determination B) European Powers: dynastic legitimacy B1) Risorgimento: nationality principle ► ► Being Cavour successful, Austrian and German boundaries on the Rhine in danger, in case of collusion between Italian and French nationalism The way Italy had been unified was subversive Cavour spoke about constitutional legality with the aim of warning that Italy accepted European concert and ended revolutionay phase, though always claiming principle of nationalism Cavour could not abandon nationality principle, otherwise he had to relinquish Rome and Venice

15 Parity with European Powers ► Nationality principle as a pillar of Italian foreign policy up to WW1 ► Once accepting European diplomacy and concert of States, Italy claims equal relationship ► Parity in Europe as main theme of Italian policy: concert of nations, Leage of Nation, United Nations, NATO, EU ► Very soon attention was turned to Mediterranean and Balkan-Danube area

16 French Recognition ► Cavour started negotiations with France for recognition, but he died on Jun 6, 1861 ► Jun 15 French recognition, upon agreement to occupy Rome. Important for Italy was that France gave up the precondition of Turin-Pope reconciliation ► Portugal and Ottoman Empire recognise Italy ► 1862 Russian recognition, due to riots in Ottoman areas bearing the risk to favour Austria ► Prussian recognition

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18 Sinistra Storica (Historical Left) ► Betrayal of national programme ► Roman issue easier and more urgent than Venice, also because Francis II from Rome backed Southern resistance ► Goverment halted Garibaldi ’ s initiative (Aspromonte), but Foreign Minister claimed rights on Rome, blaming France for likely consequences ► Victor Emmanuel II lobbied in secret to gain Venice, by fomenting Danube-Balkan peoples against Austria

19 Rejection to complete annexations ► Relationship with France compromised ► Napoleon III aimed at an alliance with Austria to dismember Italy ► Turin had to recover relations with France, isolate Austria, revive friendship with Britain and defeat Southern resistance ► In brief: avoid international isolation ► Admission into international concert as a necessary stage to resume path of Risorgimento


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