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 Trading States of East Africa Yaelis Avila History January 28, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: " Trading States of East Africa Yaelis Avila History January 28, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1  Trading States of East Africa Yaelis Avila History January 28, 2013

2 The Rise of Aksum  2 main cities = Aksum (capital) & Adulis (Red Sea Port)  Ethiopian highlands  coastal plan of the Red Sea  Region suited for agriculture  Ideal for trade (access to Indian Ocean)  African traders: frankincense, gold dust, ivory, and slaves  Foreign traders: cloth and spices

3 Aksum At Its Height  Military power grew strong  Under King Ezana in 320 AD  Limited authority but collected tribute from local rulers  Attacked and defeated rival trading kingdom, Kush 350 AD  Control of trade in the region so it became the greatest power in East Africa

4 Culture of Aksum  Merchants brought ideas like Christianity in the 300’s  King Ezana converted and made Christianity the official religion of Aksum  Kind Ezana said he would “rule the people with righteousness and justice and will not oppress them, and may they preserve this throne which I have set up for the Lord of Heaven”  Found inscribed in a stelae, a stone monument  Ge’ez – written and spoken language  First African kingdom to mint its own coins

5 The Decline of Aksum  In the 600’s because of Muslim invaders  Conquered parts of East and North Africa  Aksum was never conquered but it was isolated  Muslims destroyed Adulis and took over Red Sea trade  Aksum people moved to Ethiopia.  The kingdom was lost but the legacy lived on


7 Ethiopia  Began to develop under Zagwe dynasty around 1150  King Lalibela, known for building 11 stone Christian churches  In 1270 kings claimed to be descendants of Solomon, this created a dynasty called the Solomonid dynasty (700 years)  Jews faces persecution in Ethiopia  Muslim kingdom formed to the east of Ethiopia causing conflict  Muslim forced never conquered Ethiopia

8 Rise of City-States  Africa’s East coast trade was successful because of the Indian Ocean and its monsoon winds  Main trading cities were Mogadishu, Mom-basa, Kilwa, and Sofala  Foreign merchants sold glassware, porcelain, silk, and cotton in the city-states’ markets  In exchange they got raw materials like coconut oil, copper, leopard skins, and shells. Also very valuable ones like ivory and gold  Enslaved Africans were exported to slave markets in Arabia, Persia, and India to work as domestic servants  Europeans increased the trade  Kilwa became the wealthiest and most powerful because of its location  It then gained control of Sofala which much gold was exported through

9 SWAHILI  Muslims Arabs and Persians influenced Africa’s culture and ways of life  Local architecture was influenced by Arabs, carved doors and decorative niches  Africans spoke Bantu language but adopted Arab words  New language called Swahili developed (blended African-Arab culture)  Foreign traders made Islam gain hold of the coast, African rulers adopted Islam and mosques appeared in cities and towns  Many Africans continues to practice local traditional religions like animism

10 Great Zimbabwe  Ancestors of the Shona people established a kingdom called Great Zimbabwe around the 1100s  Located between Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in southeaster Africa (now nation of Zimbabwe)  Served as a middle-man between gold miners and ivory hunters because it was located along a trade route linking Africa’s interior mines to the city-states on the coast  A middle-man is someone who buys something from one person and sells it to another, making a profit on the sale  The kingdom’s rulers taxed the trade goods that passed through the territory

11 The Great Enclosure  Shona word zimbabwe means “stone houses”  The largest and most impressive of the Great Zimbabwe ruins is called the Great Enclosure  Thick, circular, outer stone wall about 35 feet high, inner wall runs along part of the outer wall and forms a narrow passage 180 feet long  Inside there is a 33 foot high stone tower  Not sure of its purpose but it was maybe built to show the rulers’ power or as an astronomical observatory

12 The Mutapa Empire  Great Zimbabwe reached to 18,000 people but during the 1400’’s they abandoned the area  Because they raised cattle one plausible reason is that the land became overgrazed, or the soil may have lost its fertility  1500’s Europeans found it in ruins  Mutapa Empire got the power  Empire founded by former resident of Great Zimbabwe, Mutota.  Became knows as Mwene Mutapa “master pillager” or “conqueror”  Grew wealthy by exporting gold and controlling trade  Europeans took control of the empire eventually

13 Questions  1. How did trade and religion influence the development of Aksum and Ethiopia? Christianity was brought by trade because of this Christian churches and other structures like steales were built. This two kingdoms were based on Christianity.  2. Name one of the first written languages in Africa. Ge’ez  3. How did Aksum rise to power? Because of its location and its ability to trade with the Red Sea  4. How do historians know the words of King Ezana? It was inscribed in a stelae  5. Why did Aksum decline? Because of Muslim invaders

14 Questions  6. How did the location of early Ethiopia compare to the location of Aksum? Ethiopia was the larger region around Aksum  7. How did trade lead to the rise of coastal city-states in East Africa? The coastal city-states became wealthy because they linked foreign merchants with traders from Africa’s interior  8. What good were traded from Africa’s interior? Coconut oil, copper, leopard skins and shells  9. How did monsoons affect the development of East African trade? Monsoons helped set up a trade network that linked East Africa with Persia, Arabia, India, and Southeast Asia  10. Why did Kilwa become the wealthiest among the East Africa’s coast city- states? Because it was located at southernmost point on East Africa’s coast that a ship could reach in a single monsoon season

15 Questions  11. What do historians know about the African kingdom of Great Zimbabwe? That the kingdom was part of Africa’s thriving trade network because of its location  12. What is a middleman? Someone who who buys something from one person and sells it to another, making a profit on the sale  13. What evidence suggests that Great Zimbabwe may have acted in the roles of middleman for African trade? They found glass beads from India and a coin minted in Kilwa at the site of the kingdom’s ruins  14. What does the word Zimbabwe mean in Shona? It means “stone houses”  15. What are some reasons the people of Great Zimbabwe may have abandoned the site? That the land became overgrazed or that the soil lost its fertility

16 Key Terms  Ezana: (c. AD 300s) Aksumite ruler; he destroyed the Kush capital of Meroë and took over the kingdom of Kush around AD 320.  Ge’ez: the written and spoken language of Aksum.  Lalibela: (c. 1180-c. 1250) Ethiopian ruler from about 1200 to 1250; he is known for building large stone Christian churches, many of which are still standing today.  Swahili: an African society that emerged in the late 1100s along the East African coast and combined elements of African, Asian, and Islamic cultures

17 Multiple Choice Test Question  What were the two most valuable trade items that came from Africa in the city-states markets? A. Cotton and silk B. Copper and gold C. African ivory and gold D. Leopard skins and shells

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