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Elizabeth Wardle Director of Composition Associate Chair for Writing Outreach Programs Dept of Writing and Rhetoric University of Central Florida

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Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth Wardle Director of Composition Associate Chair for Writing Outreach Programs Dept of Writing and Rhetoric University of Central Florida"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elizabeth Wardle Director of Composition Associate Chair for Writing Outreach Programs Dept of Writing and Rhetoric University of Central Florida Re-Imagining Composition Courses In Light of Best Research-Based Practices 0 Elizabeth Wardle

2 Questions for You How satisfied are you with your students’ writing abilities? How many writing or writing intensive courses are students at your school required to take? Do students at your institution write regularly in many of their college courses, with some opportunities for revision and feedback? 1 Elizabeth Wardle

3 Today’s Talk Elizabeth Wardle 2 Why writing instruction seems to be failing our students How we can do better

4 Why Can’t Students Write? The Harvard origins of first-year composition 3 Elizabeth Wardle

5 The “Writing Paradigm that Fails Us” Elizabeth Wardle 4 Assumes: That one course “fixes all” That writing is a “basic skill” That writing can be taught by anyone, even by people who don’t want to teach it, aren’t qualified to teach it, and don’t get paid a living wage to teach it

6 What Would Work Better? Elizabeth Wardle 5 Some common sense questions: How do you learn to write well? How do you learn to do anything well? How do you learn to write something new?

7 We Don’t Design Writing Curricula and Structures Based on What We Know to be True About Writing Elizabeth Wardle 6 If producing effective student writers for the complexities of the 21 st century is a priority Then we need to treat writing like a priority And create more effective writing structures and courses

8 Questions for You If you are an upper administrator, consider the last time you spoke at length with a composition teacher or the director of the writing program? If you are a writing faculty member, when was the last time you spoke at length with an upper administrator about your teaching and your program? If you are a faculty member from another department, when was the last time that you spoke with a writing faculty member in an engaged way about student writing in your own course and left with ideas for how to improve it? 7 Elizabeth Wardle

9 II. In Search of a New Paradigm for Writing Instruction Collaborative changes at UCF The initial pilot project Assessing the president’s pilot investment 8 Elizabeth Wardle

10 Assessment Results New 19 MeanNew 25 MeanTraditional 25 Mean p valueCronbach’s Alpha Thinking Polish Rhetorically analyze Consider idea Reflective In-text citation Work cited Outside sources Two plus sources Feedback Macro revision Micro revision Elizabeth Wardle

11 The New Research-Based Model of Writing Instruction Tenured or tenure track writing scholars to innovate best practices Stable labor model for first-year composition & rigorous composition curriculum (Entry point) Writing across the curriculum (Continued experience) Writing center (Support for students) Writing minor, certificate, major; graduate writing certificate; MA in Rhetoric & Composition (Opportunities for intensive study) 10 Elizabeth Wardle

12 What Should Composition Courses Do—And Why Is That So Hard? “Common Sense” View of WritingWhat Research Tells Us about Writing Students just need to learn “the basics;” you can teach them “to write” once and for all. Composing is a complex activity that occurs differently in different contexts. Consequently, a single class can’t teach students to write once and for all, in all situations, because genres and conventions vary from community to community and context to context. When we teach students rules, they should easily be able to use them no matter what they are writing. Composing effectively in new situations requires a complex repurposing of previous knowledge and experience. In order to successfully use what they already know in a new situation, students need meta-awareness and faculty need to create affordances for transfer. 11 Elizabeth Wardle

13 “Common Sense” View of WritingWhat Research Tells Us About Writing The English teacher teaches students “to write,” and the other teachers teach students “the content.” Composing successfully entails expertise in both form and content; form and content are inseparable. Trying to teach through acontextual “skill and drill” or by instilling general rules about form can actually harm student writing later. Teaching writing is just teaching a set of “how tos” (procedural knowledge) Composing involves both declarative and procedural knowledge. Teaching writing is not just about “how to” but also about how writing works and how it’s learned and how it varies from place to place. 12 Elizabeth Wardle

14 First-Year Composition Courses Have Been… teaching out of the “common sense” view of writing, not out of research-based best practices 13 Elizabeth Wardle

15 First-Year Composition Courses Should Be… Teaching both procedural (how to) and declarative (about) writing knowledge to encourage transfer and rhetorical dexterity Teaching meta-awareness and reflection about writing to encourage transfer 14 Elizabeth Wardle

16 Why Can’t Composition Courses Just Start Teaching From the Research? Very often, composition teachers do not have the disciplinary expertise in writing studies to teach writing most effectively 15 Elizabeth Wardle

17 To Help Composition Faculty Teach From the Research We Must… Treat adjuncts like professionals. Change faculty attitudes about writing scholarship 16 Elizabeth Wardle

18 Informing Composition with Research at UCF Entailed: Removing the composition program from English Replacing 33 adjuncts with 18 full-time, non-tenure track faculty over 4 years Expecting all 11 tenured/tenure track writing scholars to teach composition and engage in discussions of research with the non-tenure track instructors 17 Elizabeth Wardle

19 Protecting the Money for Writing Instruction President Hitt designated the new funding so that it could not be re-appropriated by the English Department or our College for other purposes. 18 Elizabeth Wardle

20 Questions for You What is your writing process like? How much time do you spend writing, what kind of resources do you use, how many revisions do you do? What “trusted readers” give you feedback? Talk with your group and compare notes on this. Consider the writing contexts we give to many of our students: timed writing tests, or two weeks to write a research paper. How do these contexts and subsequent processes compare with your own? 19 Elizabeth Wardle

21 Composition Understood Differently: Writing-about-Writing The guiding assumption: Since we can’t teach students exactly how to write everything they will ever need to write (since conventions vary), we should teach them how to learn about how to write. 20 Elizabeth Wardle

22 Composition Understood Differently: Writing-about-Writing Elizabeth Wardle 21 The Content: Texts/Constructs: How Do Readers Read and Writers Write? Writing Processes: How Do You Write? Literacies: How Have You Become the reader and Writer You are Today? Discourses: How Do Communities Shape Writing? Authority: How Do You Make Yourself Heard as a College Writer?

23 What Writing-about- Writing Composition Courses Assume Students have to write differently in different writing situations Expertise in a particular genre and context is only gained within that context If students understand how writing works, how they and others go about writing, and what questions to ask when they encounter a new writing situation, they are more likely to succeed. 22 Elizabeth Wardle

24 What Writing-about-Writing Courses Require of Composition Faculty Becoming familiar with writing research and best practices Constantly re-evaluating the effectiveness of their teaching content and practices Participating in teacher training first and then in ongoing professional development We are making our teacher training publicly accessible through the Next Generation Learning Challenge Grant 6-week training plus resource site on BB’s free CourseSites Interested? me: 23 Elizabeth Wardle

25 What Writing-about-Writing Assumes About the Rest of the Curriculum More writing is to come in students’ college careers Faculty in those subsequent courses have the support they need to assign, respond to, and assess that writing 24 Elizabeth Wardle

26 In Conclusion: The Solution to the Writing Problem Invest in writing teachers and writing curricula Expect all faculty to share in the responsibilities for helping students write Support both teachers and students in their writing efforts 25 Elizabeth Wardle

27 10 Questions To Ask On Your Own Campus About Your First-Year Composition Program Where is the composition program housed and why is it housed there? What are the qualifications of those who run the writing program, what expertise do they have in Composition and Rhetoric, and what is their typical rank? Who does the composition program serve? Whose graduate students does it support, for whom does it produce student credit hours, are resources returned to it in appropriate amounts given its credit hour production and role in the GEP? Who staffs most of the composition courses? What is their expertise in writing? What are they paid? How often does the staff change? What professional development is offered to them? What institutional incentives are there for writing specialists to spend time working with faculty across the curriculum on issues related to student writing? How is writing assessed? About Student Writing Across the Curriculum What are the desired outcomes for student writing on your campus? What evidence do you have that these outcomes are being achieved? What organized opportunities do students have to write regularly throughout their career college or university? What institutional incentives are there for faculty from all disciplines to include writing in their courses? What support do faculty from all disciplines have when they want to assign and assess student writing in their courses? 26 Elizabeth Wardle

28 Resources to Help You Council of Writing Program Administrators (http://wpacouncil.org/)http://wpacouncil.org/ Consultant-Evaluator Service Writing Assessment Resources Journal Comppile (http://comppile.org/)http://comppile.org/ Searchable database of composition-related research Research bibliographies on common topics in writing instruction and administration CompFAQs—discussions of common questions related to writing instruction and administration UCF’s Department of Writing and Rhetoric (http://writingandrhetoric.cah.ucf.edu/)http://writingandrhetoric.cah.ucf.edu/ Writing about Writing Composition Courses Wardle, Elizabeth and Doug Downs. Writing about Writing: A College Reader. Bedford/St Martin’s, Writing about Writing teacher training and resource site on Blackboard’s CourseSites. Funded by the Next Generation Learning Challenge Grant. For access, Elizabeth Wardle 27 Elizabeth Wardle

29 Questions & Discussion? Elizabeth Wardle 28


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