2 The Seven Characteristics of Conversational Speech 1. Speech is transient, rather than permanent.2. Speech is additive or ‘rhapsodic’.3. Speech is aggregative./ phatic communion4. Speech is redundant or ‘copious’
3 5. Speech is loosely structured grammatically and is lexically sparse. 6. Speech tends to be people-centered, writing tends to be topic- centered.7. Speech, being close to the situation at hand, is context dependent.
4 These seven features are not inherent (permanent) in the spoken or written medium. Orality and literacy have to be seen as a continuum use of both the spoken & written languages.E.g.s/ memos (written in the orate mode/ ‘informal style’)presentations/ lectures (spoken in the literate mode/ ‘elevated style’)
5 The cultural matrix of language as it is used in verbal exchanges Indicating Status:- via words/ titles- clip #20Social positioning- via intonation, pronunciation (footing) code switching- cultural frame/ speech order- clip #22& 21Protecting face- via order of speech & respect- example ‘Japanese’- clip #23
6 4) Conversational style - depends on contexts of situation/ culture- interview? Friendly? Silent? Loud? …Narrative style- via story telling- less details/ analysis vs. more