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Chapter 4 Basics of English Grammar

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1 Chapter 4 Basics of English Grammar
Business Communication Chapter 4 Basics of English Grammar Copyright South-Western Cengage Learning

2 Objectives Identify 8 major parts of speech
Identify subjects and predicates in sentences Identify clauses and phrases in sentences

3 Standard 3.0 Examine and practice the grammar, mechanics, and process of composing business communications

4 Parts of Speech Noun – person, place, thing
Pronoun – take the place of a noun (he, she, they) Adjective – descriptive words (big, red, cool) Verb – describes action, state of being, or condition or a noun (run, is, talk) Adverb – describes verb, adjective, or another adverb (quickly, late, now) Preposition – connects nouns & pronouns to other words to form a phrase (to, from, for) Conjunction – joins words, phrases, clauses (and, but, so) Interjection – expresses surprise or strong feeling (Oh! and Help!)

5 Sentence Parts Sentence subjects Sentence predicates
Objects and subject complements Direct objects Indirect objects Subject complements © Image Source / Getty Images Using well-structured sentences will help you communicate clearly. 4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences

6 Sentence Subjects The person who is speaking, being spoken to, or the noun spoken about. Simple subjects specifically names what the sentence is about The simple subject is in italics below: John, the young journalist, write articles. The chair behind the girl is vacant. Complete subjects include simple subjects PLUS all the sentence that is not part of the complete predicate The complete subject is in italics below: John writes articles. John, the young journalist, has written articles.

7 Sentence Subjects Compound subjects are 2+ simple subjects joined by conjunctions (and, or, nor, not only/but also, both/and) John and Halle work for our company. His brother or my sister will accompany us. When two nouns in a subject to one person the article the (or a) is omitted before the second noun. The teacher and counselor is my friend. When two nouns in a subject refer to two people the article the (or a) is placed before both nouns The teacher and the counselor are my friends.

8 Sentence Predicates The complete predicate is everything in the sentence said by, to, or about the subject. Whatever is not included in the complete subject of a sentence is included in the complete predicate. The complete predicate always includes the main verb of a sentence. John writes articles. John, the young journalist, has written articles. The simple predicate is the verb in the complete predicate.

9 Sentence Predicates Compound predicates consist of two or more verbs with the same subject Connected by conjunctions (and, or, nor, not only/but also, both/and) John and Halle discussed the matter and concluded that we are handling this situation incorrectly. The engineer not only complained but also refused to finish the project. Sara agreed to mow the lawn and trim the shrubs for Jack.

10 Objects and Subject Complements
Objects are nouns, pronouns, clauses, or phrases that function as a noun May be direct or indirect A direct object helps complete the meaning of a sentence by receiving the action of the verb; only action verbs can take direct objects. Answer the questions what? or whom? Louis closed the door. (Louis closed what?) The boy list his mother. (The boy lost whom?

11 Objects and Subject Complements
Indirect objects receive the action that the verb makes on the direct object. A sentence cannot have an indirect object w/o a direct object. Usually answers the question to whom is this action being directed? Rafael gave Thomas the candy bar. (The candy bar was given by Rafael to Thomas.) Nancy brought the twins their broccoli. (The broccoli was brought to the twins by Nancy.)

12 Subject Complements Either a noun or a pronoun that renames the subject or an adjective that describes the subject. It always follows a state-of-being or linking verb (am, is, are, was, were, has been, seems, appears, feels, smells, sounds, looks, and tastes) In the following examples, the subject and subject complements are in italics and the linking verb is in bold. Peter is and honest banker. (The noun banker renames Peter.) We have been sleepy before. (The adjective sleepy describes we.)

13 On paper (or a Word doc.):
Which of the 8 parts of speech modifies an adjective? Which of the 8 parts of speech joins words, phrases, or clauses? Explain the difference between a noun and a pronoun. Identify the simple subject and the simple predicate in each sentence. Brandon ran three marathons this year. Lucille is a trained nurse. Ramon and Maria work at this company. We have been to every store in the mall. Elena will finish her report on time.

14 Clauses, Phrases, and Fragments
Clause: a group of words with a subject and a predicate Phrase: a group of related words with no subject or predicate Fragment: an incomplete sentence that may or may not have meaning 4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences

15 Clauses Independent clauses – can stand alone as a complete sentence
One of our sales managers has developed an excellent training manual Dependent clauses – must be attached to an independent clause in order to make sense Which we plan to use in future training sessions Complete sentence One of our sales managers has developed an excellent training manual, which we plan to use in future training sessions.

16 Phrases A group of related words that does not contain both a subject and a predicate. Place both cartons on the desk. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a noun substitute. The boxes in the office belong to him.

17 Phrases Most sentences have a main verb and helping verbs.
When you have both of these, it is called a verb phrase. YOU MUST HAVE BOTH! Most common helping verbs are forms of to be and to have. Is, are, was, were, has, have, had Julia spoke to her peers. (the verb is spoke) Julia has spoken to her peers. (main verb = spoken; helping verb = has; verb phrase = has spoken) Additional helping verbs: Can, could, may, might, must, ought, should, will, and would

18 Fragments An incomplete sentence or thought; has no meaning.
Fragment – Sam, the vice president’s brother. Sentence – Sam, the vice president’s brother, got a hefty raise. Fragment – Because the beds were uncomfortable. Sentence – Because the beds were uncomfortable, she slept on the floor.

19 On the same paper/document as earlier:
Identify the independent clause and the dependent clause in each sentence. She took many pictures on her trip, which lasted a month. The report that you wrote contains valuable information. I will go if I am invited. Since John will be out of town, he will not attend the meeting. The work will be completed as soon as time allows.

20 Sentence Structure Simple sentences Compound sentences
Example: Theodore sings and acts. Compound sentences Example: Erin loves to ride horses; Manuel loves to draw horses. Complex sentences Example: Although it is important to proofread a written message, many people feel they do not have the time. 4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences

21 Same paper/document: Indicate whether each sentence has simple, complex, or compound structure. The beautiful butterfly landed on a flower. The string beans, which were planted early, yielded a good harvest. The meeting lasted two hours, and I was late for my next appointment. Because he was hungry, he ordered a large meal. You should review the report before the meeting.

22 4.1 Application Page 113 A 1-5 B 1-5 C 1-8

23 4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives

24 Objectives Identify nouns, pronouns, and adjectives
Create the plural form of nouns Use nouns, pronouns, and adjectives correctly in sentences

25 Standard 3.0 Examine and practice the grammar, mechanics, and process of composing business communications

26 Nouns Noun: a word used to name people, places, or things
Common nouns – identifies a person, place, or thing in a general way (girl, team, rock, car, son-in-law, editor in chief) Proper nouns – distinguished by capital letters (Pepsi, Mary Ann, Seattle) Singular and plural nouns – Plural (add s, es, ies) Men, children, feet Collective nouns – represents a group that acts as a single unit (tribe, jury) Possessive nouns – show ownership ( ‘s)

27 Pronouns Pronoun: a word used in the place of a noun Personal pronouns
Nominative case – (I, we, you, he, she, it, who, whoever) Objective case – (me, us, you, him, her, it, them, whom, whomever) direct or indirect object of a verb or an object of a preposition Possessive case – (my, mine, our(s), your(s), his, her(s), its, their(s), whose) indicates ownership & don’t need an apostrophe to show possession Intensive & Reflexive pronoun – combines a pronoun with the words self or selves (myself, yourselves, etc.)

28 Pronouns Interrogative and Demonstrative Pronouns –
Interrogative begins a question that leads to a noun or pronouns response Who, whose, whom, which, and what Who is in your office? Whose books are these? Demonstrative is used to point to a specific person, place, or thing This, that, these, those Do you prefer this monitor or that one? These books should be moved next to those shelves

29 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Pronoun antecedent: a noun or phrase that is replaced by a pronoun Pronouns and antecedents should agree in: Person – First person (I, we) Second person (you) Third person (he, she, they, it) Number- singular (he, she) plural (they) Gender – (he, his, she, her) Gender Neutral (it) 4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives

30 Adjectives Adjective: a word that describes or limits nouns and pronouns; they answer questions about nouns Which one? This one, those appointments How many? Six calls, few tourists What kind? Ambitious student, creative teacher Articles (the, a, and an) Nouns and pronouns used as adjectives (theater tickets; Thanksgiving dinner) Compound adjectives (well-known; long-term; high-level) TYPICALLY HYPHENATED WORDS! 4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives

31 Adjectives Comparison of adjectives
Positive degree – describes 1 item (The box is a big carton.) Comparative degree – describes 2 items (The box is a bigger carton than the first one.) Superlative degree – describes 3 or more items (The box is the biggest carton of the three.) Absolute adjectives – cannot be compared because they do not have degrees; they are at their highest level (unique, excellent, complete, square, round, perfect)

32 4.3 Verbs and Adverbs

33 Objectives Identify types of verbs
Identify adverbs and words they modify Use verbs and adverbs correctly in sentences

34 Standard 3.0 Examine and practice the grammar, mechanics, and process of composing business communications

35 Verbs Verb: a word that expresses action, a state of being, or a condition Types of verbs Action verbs (teaches, purchased, wrote) Condition linking verbs – refer to a condition or appeal to the senses (taste, smell, seem, appear, become) State of being linking verbs - sometimes called to be verbs (is, are, was, were) shows a past, present, or future state of being

36 Verbs Tenses Simple tenses Perfect tenses Present - sell Past - sold
Future – will sell Perfect tenses Present perfect – indicates continuous action from the past to the present (He has voted in every election since 1986.) Past perfect – indicates action that began in the past and continued to the more recent past when it was completed (He had voted in every election until last week.) Future perfect – indicates that an action will be completed at a specific point in the future (Including next year, he will have voted in every election since 1986.)

37 Verbs Transitive verbs – must have an object to complete the meaning
Will has rejected (rejected what?) Will has rejected our help. Intransitive verbs – does not need an object The recruits laughed. Voice Active voice – the subject is doing” the action Mr. Park completed his report using his computer. Passive voice – the subject of the sentence is “receiving” the action The report was completed by Mr. Park.

38 Adverbs Adverb: a word that modifies an action verb, an adjective, or another adverb Most end in ly (answer the ?’s how, when, where, how often, or to what extent) Conjunctive adverbs – joins 2 independent but related sentences (therefore, moreover, however, nevertheless, and furthermore) Comparison of adverbs Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree

39 Adverbs Comparison of adverbs
Positive degree – simple forms of words (late, clearly, fast) Comparative degree – add er, more, or less to the simple form (later, more clearly, faster) Superlative degree – add est, most, or least to the simple form (latest, most clearly, fastest)

40 4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

41 Objectives Identify prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections
Use prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections correctly in sentences

42 Standard 3.0 Examine and practice the grammar, mechanics, and process of composing business communications

43 Prepositions Preposition: a word that connects a noun or pronoun to other words to form a phrase (about, after, at, before, below, between, from, for, into, on, under, and up) Usually indicates Direction, position, or time Direction – into Position – behind Time - before

44 Prepositions Prepositions introduce phrases
Place the carton behind the tall cabinet. Prepositional phrases may modify: Nouns (acting as adjectives) Action verbs Adjectives Adverbs

45 Conjunctions Conjunction: a word or phrase that joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses And, but, either/or, and when 4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

46 Interjections Interjection: a word or phrase used primarily to express strong emotion Have no grammatical relationship with other words in the sentence Should not be used routinely in business writing. 4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

47 Chapter Project You and your partner’s task is to create a children’s book explaining each part of speech. (all 8 of them) Remember children’s books do not include a lot of words on each page and they do have a lot of pictures Make it colorful! Include EXAMPLES You may create this on the computer or by hand

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