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1 The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas Readings: Spodek, pp. 452-458

2 Aztecs/Mexica--Mexico Nahuatl Mayan Quetzacoatl Tenochtitlan Lake Texcoco Montezuma II takes power (1502)

3 Cortes Decides to Conquer Mexico Spaniards Conquer Cuba 1517—Spaniards begin to explore Mexico Aztecs may have experienced bad omens, but an invention? February 10, 1519 Hernan Cortes defies Governor Diego Velasquez June 3, 1519 Spaniards arrive at Cempoala with 11 ships, 600 soldiers, 200 native servants, 16 horses, 32 crossbows, 13 muskets, and 14 cannons Cortez’s translator, Jerome de Aguilar spoke Mayan.

4 Cortes finds a Translator and Mistress Dona Marina is also known as La Malinche or Malintzin. Dona Marina spoke Mayan and Nahuatl. She became Cortez’s translator and mistress Mexica called Cortez El Malinche in some documents

5 Cortes’ Route to Tenochtitlan

6 Cholula Massacre September 2-20, 1519—the Spaniards fight with the Tlaxcalans but end by winning Tlaxcalan allies October 1519— Massacre at Cholula

7 Cortez and Moctezuma November 8, 1519 – Cortes enters Tenochtitlan Does Moctezuma believe he’s Quetzacoatl? Modern historians – no, documents ambiguous Panfilo de Navaez – May 1520 Cortes leaves Pedro de Alvarado in Charge

8 Moctezuma Killed Pedro de Alvarado attacks Mexica during festival June 1520 – Moctezuma killed Ultimately replaced by Cuauhtemoc

9 La Noche Triste Spaniards forced to flee La Noche Triste – June 30, 1520 Cortes loses 2/3 of his men and many horses Spanish conquest not inevitable

10 Cortes takes Tenochtitlan July 1520—Spaniards reach Tlaxcala and are welcomed July 1520-May 1521 Cortez regroups with Tlaxcala help—builds brigantines October 1520—Smallpox decimating the population of Tenochtitlan Mexica fortify Tenochtitlan like European cities May 1521—Spaniards lay siege to Tenochtitlan. July 1521—After failing to take Tenochtitlan, Cortez decides to destroy it. August 13, 1521—Cuathemoc either surrenders or is captured and the Battle of Tenochtitlan is over with the city in ruins.

11 Peru Inca Huayna Capac ruled generally well from 1493-1525. He had an army of 50,000 loyal followers. The Incas thought he was a god or god-like Problem: Religion and Ancestor Worship of Incas (The name was given to the people ruled as well as the ruler.)

12 Peru (continued) When Capec died, he was preserved as a mummy and housed in a sacred chamber with other mummified Incas. The mummified Inca retained possession of all estates and properties held in life. Inca nobility managed the property of the dead Incas. By 1525, so much property in hands of dead Incas, almost none available for live Incas

13 The Incas Huascar (1525-1532) succeeded his father as Inca and was crowned at Cuzco. Proposed burying the mummies and selling their property so living could have land.

14 Incas Atahualpa (1532-1533) Atahualpa was Huascar’s half-brother He had tried to get Huascar to agree to share power Huascar refused Atahualpa not legal heir but had support of nobility – upset at mummy proposal. There was a civil war and Atahualpa won.

15 Spanish Conquest of Peru Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475- 1541) May 13, 1532 – Alahualpa wins, Pizarro reaches northern Peru Did Atahualpa think Pizarro was the God Virachocha, who he believed would return? Or, a Spanish invention? Pizarro tricked Atahualpa— killed him after he got Atahualpa’s gold Fierce resistance for at least 100 years

16 How did the Spaniards control the Americas? Disease (especially smallpox) was one control – not intentional at first Peru’s population fell from 1.3 million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620. Mexico’s population fell from 25.3 million Indians in 1519 to 1 million in 1605 Native population had no immunity because of isolation from the population networks of Africa and Eurasia.

17 Economic Control Natives were also treated poorly by the Spaniards. They were forced to work on mines and sugar plantations after Spaniards took land from them. In 1511 King Ferdinand concluded that “one black could do the work of four Indians.” That started the birth of Slavery and massive imports of Africans into the Americas. Encomienda Plantation/Fazenda New agriculture New livestock New labor

18 Cultural Control Paper City Building Race Language of Color-based racial thinking Gender Religion Government

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