Presentation on theme: "Evaluation and Services to Second Language Learners"— Presentation transcript:
1Evaluation and Services to Second Language Learners Maha Bishr, MA, CCC-SLPAmy Kuhn, MA, CCC-SLPSusanne Mahoney, MA, CCC-SLPClaudia Shannon, MA CCC-SLP, Special Education Coordinator, KCKPS
2Session ObjectivesTo identify an evaluation protocol for second language learners;To discuss best practice evaluation procedures for second language learners; andTo give examples of evidence-based strategies for work with second language learners with speech and language impairments.
3Kansas City Kansas Public Schools, Wyandotte County, Kansas Ethnicity
4Blue Valley Public Schools, Johnson County, Kansas
10ASHA’s Multicultural Issues Board Paper Knowledge and Skills Needed by Speech-Language Pathologists to Provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate ServicesNotes_The ethnic, cultural, and linguistic makeup of this country has been changing steadily over the past few decades. With cultural diversity comes linguistic diversity including an increase in the number of people who are English Language Learners as well as those who speak non-mainstream dialects of English. In the United States, racial and ethnic projections for the years indicate that the percentage of racial/ethnic minorities will increase to over 30% of the total population. It was predicted by 2010, children of immigrants will represent 22% of school-age population. According to the November 1, 2011, ASHA Leader, according to the US census, the number of foreign-born residents is projected to rise for 31 million in 2000 to 48 million in The Hispanic population alone is projected to triple by mid-century.We must be prepared to provide services that are responsive to this diversity to ensure our effectiveness.ASHA’s Multicultural Issues Board Paper
11Developing Cultural Competence Be sensitive to cultural and linguistic differences that affect the identification, assessment, treatment and management of communication disorders/differences.Be careful of personal biases,Respect others’ differences,Be knowledgeable of assimilation and/oracculturation processes on management of communication disorders/differences.
12Con’t of Developing Cultural Competence Use appropriate intervention and assessment strategies and materials, such as food, objects, and/or activities that don’t violate the student’s values that are made to form a bridge between the home and school environment.
13Identify appropriate service provider for students Native or near-native proficiency in the language spoken by student.
14If you don’t have a native or near-native proficient clinician, then… Familiarize yourself with features and developmental characteristics of the languageGather information on the sociolinguistic features of the student’s significant cultural and linguistic influencesHave an understanding of the stages of 2nd language acquisitionDevelop collaborative relationships with interpreters from the community and the family
15Socialinguistic and cultural influences Knowledge-base to distinguish typical and disordered language of studentsDiscourse normsEffective interviewing strategiesCultural differences and similarities-eye contact, proximity, touching, noises (hissing is acceptable in Hispanic culture to get one’s attention)Some cultures may not have a comfort level with AAC devices
16Knowledge of the following… Typical language development in simultaneous and sequential bilingualsNormal process of second-language acquisition including phenomena, such as: silent period, code-switching, and language loss.Difference between an accent and a dialect, and a language and a dialectGrammatical constraints on code-switching and code mixing.Typical development in the student’s language in all areas.Interview with a parent, teacher on how the student’s speech/language development compares to peers in his/her speech community or communication environment.Family history of speech/language problems or academic difficulties.-Language transfer/interferance-process in which a communicative behavior from the first language is carried to the second language. For example, “Tengo 5 anos” in Spanish means “I am 5 years old.” However, a literal translation would be “I have 5 years.” So, a Spanish speaking student who says “I have 5 years” is demonstrating language transfer.-Interlanguage- a separate linguistic system resulting from the learner’s attempts to produce the target language. The learner forms a personal set of rules for using language.-Silent period- can last from 3-6 months, although it varies.-code-switching- alternating between to languages in sentence or discourse.-language loss- the decrease of the first language as the learner is learning the second language.
17Familiarize yourself with BICS and CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) takes approximately two years to develop to a level commensurate with that of native speakers of the language (Cummins, 1992)Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) takes between 5-7 years to develop to a native-like level (Cummins, 1992) when there is native language support in the school setting. Without such support, CALP may require 7-10 years to develop (Peregoy & Boyle, 1997)-KELPA
18Assessment materials/tools Appropriate use of published test materialsAppropriate use of alternative approaches to assessment including: dynamic assessment, portfolio assessment, structured observation, narrative assessment, academic and social language sampling, interview assessment tools, and curriculum-based procedures including inherent cultural and linguistic biases.If the assessment materials/tools/tests fail to meet standards…use as informal probles..with no accompanying scores
19Articulation and Phonology Understand current research in identification of articulation/phonological disorders in the language and /or dialect spoken by the student.Difference between an articulation disorder, phonological disorder, an accent, a dialect, transfer patterns and typical developmental patterns.
20Strategies in Natural and Educational Settings A child must feel safe in their environment to explore, test and stretch their second language acquisition.
21Con’t StrategiesEncourage the student to engage in play with their peers and with you as the parent (adults). This is a great way to strengthen language and vocabulary through informal activity and hands-on exploration.
22Con’t Strategies When working with second language learners, repetition and second language acquisition gohand in hand.Note: A student must use a new vocabulary word in context 10 or more times before internalizing it.
23Con’t StrategiesRepeat, review and revise vocabulary/short phrases throughout your interactionwith the child.
24More StrategiesProvide opportunities to have students engage in play and physical movement. It takes less pressure off of the new vocabulary/language they are encountering/learning.
25More StrategiesBring in puppets, teddy bears or props to help introduce and learn new vocabulary.
26More StrategiesChants/rhymes/songs are a great nonthreatening way for students to learn new vocabulary/concepts.
27More StrategiesConcentrate on listening and understanding through the use of one word responses to short phrases to simple sentences. It is a painstaking process for which we have to give the student time to strengthen and grow confidence.
28More StrategiesApproach repetition in a variety of ways. For example, one day use flashcard photos to teach animal vocabulary (dog,cat). The next day, play animal charades for repetition and interactive learning. Try to have the child use the word in context by having him repeat the word/use phrase/simple sentence.
29More StrategiesMix up the pace. You might start out with excitable games, then move to a more quiet activity; or vice-versa.
31Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage 1- Pre ProductionStudents are trying to make sense of messagesBecoming familiar with sounds, rhythm and patterns of EnglishLimited comprehension of “chunks” or gist of languageRelies on picture clues for understandingResponds to non-verbal gestures, nods, drawingsSilent period.Teacher strategies-Provide lots of opportunities for active listing, use props, visual, real objects. Surround students with language.Don’t force students to speak. Pair students with more advanced learners. Have shared reading and storytellingWith lots of visual support and include prior knowledge. Physical movement.
32Stage 2 Early Production Demonstrate increased confidence.Listen with greater understandingIdentify people, places and objects.Use routine expressions independently.Repeat, recite memorable languageProvide ample opportunities for listening. Ask yes/no, what? Who? Where”Either/or. Have students complete with one or two-word responces. SharedReading/storytelling with visual supports include prior knowledge. Expose to variety ofExperiences with understandable texts i.e. patterned/predictable books.
33Stage 3 Speech Emergence Speak with less hesitation and demonstrate increasing understanding.Produce longer phrases or sentences with grammatical inaccuracy.Use newly-acquired receptive vocabulary to experiment and form messages in EnglishParticipate more fully in discussions including those with academic content.Explain, describe, compare, and retell in response to literature.Study “big ideas” and key concepts in content areas.Engage in independent reading based on oral fluency and prior experiences with print. Using writing for a variety of purposes.Focus on communication in meaningful texts where students express themselves in speech and print for a wide range of purposes/audiences. Ask open-ended questions; model, expand, restate. Students describe personal experience/objects. Shared reading, guided reading, storytelling expecially with patterned and predictable text. Use puppets in retelling and role-plays
34Stage 4 Intermediate and Advanced Fluency Produce connected discourse and narrative.Use more extensive vocabulary.Demonstrate increased levels of accuracy and correctness.Read a wider range or narrative genre and content texts with increasing comprehension.Explore concepts in subject matter in greater depth.Write using more standard forms. Depth and breadth of topics and purposes increase to include more creative and analytical writing.Structure group discussion.Guide use of reference material for research. Facilitate more advanced literature students. Provide opportunities for students to create oral/writtenNarratives.
35Stage 5 Intermediate and Advanced Fluency Produce language with varied grammatical structures, vocabulary, comparable to native English speakers of the same age.On-going language development through integrated LA and content-area activities.
36Supporting Language- Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 1 Levels 1,2,3Focus on developing oral language skills (include conversational and narrative skills.)Utilize emergent literacy strategies.LABELING, PHRASES, BASIC DESCRIPTION
37Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 2 Levels 4,5Introduce reading – language experience stories and shared literature to support language developmentLANGUAGE EXPANSIONCONNECTING, RELATING, MODIFYINGChild describes relationshps between the characters and other things in the picture…man is fishing, but he isn’t going to catch a fishLady is feeding a duck
38Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 3 Child is reading for readingLanguage enrichment is necessary to support gains.STORYTELLING-CONCRETESTORYTELLING-ABSTRACTCONCRETE- child perceives the picture as part of a larger story; responses include indications of time, place, and cause-effect.ABSTRACT-child combines all previous steps and adds responses which include moods, emotional reactions and conclusions.
39Preschool Evaluation and Treatment Case reviewDynamic assessmentReportTreatment suggestionsPreschool Evaluation and Treatment
42Dynamic assessment was used to complete the evaluation “Dynamic assessment is a highly interactive and process-oriented method of conducting assessments which helps to identify the skills that a child possesses” (Zimmer).Best practice
43Dynamic Assessment included: Search the internet about Kirundi and Swahili.Look for and listen to samples of speech and check for speech sounds and phonological processes (are there final consonants? Clusters? Vowels?)Search for information about the culture.
44Kirundi Speech SoundsKirundi is a Bantu language which is spoken by various ethnic groups in Africa.It has 5 vowels (i u e o a).19-26 consonants (plosives, affricates, fricatives, nasals).It’s a tonal language (high and low tone).Most words have a syllable structure of CV and there are no clusters.So I would not expect the child to mark final sounds, clusters.
45Kirundi Culture There are 2 ethnic groups, the Hutu and Tutsi. It is a herding society.Cows are considered sacred and a symbol of wealth.67% consider themselves Christian and 10% Muslim.Children are highly valued.The Hutu are in the majority and there is divisiveness between the Hutu and Tutsi.Women are respected as child bearers but have little decision making authority.Men hold the responsibility of protecting and providing for the family.
46Swahili It is also a Bantu language It has five vowel phonemes /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and /u/.Like other Bantu languages, Swahili grammar arranges nouns into a number of classes .In words, “Ni” is a prefix for “I”.Some Swahili vocabulary is derived from Arabic.
47Listen to a recording of the language and try to determine the variety of sounds heard in the speech. Are there initial and final consonant sounds? Are there clusters produced in the language?
48Classroom Observations Dynamic assessment: Observations in play, lunch and circle timeObservationsLanguage SamplePlay skillsInitiationsGaining attentionProtestingImitation (motor and verbal)Use of booksJB was observed in the classroom on 3 different occasions, once in play with peers and during lunch which is served family style. Describe the observations, including play with twin sister, speech sounds, initiations, turn taking, repairing communication breakdown (use of natural gestures. Used books to determine receptive and expressive ID in English of farm, zoo, animals, pets, actions, common objects. What kind of supports is the teacher using? Natural gestures? Demonstration? Pictures? What are the child’s strategies, e.g., watching, waiting, waiting for cues from the teacher? Peers? Record any communication attempts.
49Evaluation with an Interpreter An interpreter who spoke Kirundi was utilized but this this person spoke the language but had not done an evaluation with a student before.Interview Interpreter.Probe speech sounds, imitation.Arena evaluation with the Psychologist and social worker.Informal assessments, books, naming. Probe with the interpreter if the child is understanble, names object/items. Assessments were not scored, but used for information purposes. Concepts, words, etc.
50RecommendationsConsult with the teaching team in strategies to use in the classroomVisual scheduleNatural gesturesOpportunities to choose/point to pictures to indicate need/desireRecognize “silent” period may last 12 monthsEncourage and support communication attemptsModel play, imitation skillsSchool brought her up again with concerns so training was provided.
51Closing remarks Currently: JB is using 4 to 5 word sentences in English to comment, direct, tell information.She is also learning words in Spanish.Pre-academic skills increasing for identifying and naming letters, counting, segmenting syllables, identifying rhymes and so forth.
52Does your district have a protocol to evaluate English Language Learners (ELL)?
53How our protocol was established Why? Inconsistent approaches to evaluating ELL within our districtHow? Researched ASHA and districts that had linguistically diverse populationsThis continues to be a work in progress
54Evaluate L1 and L2Assessment of speech and language disorders of limited English proficient speakers should be conducted in the native language.IDEA, 2004 [ ] states that the evaluation should be “provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication and in the form most likely to yield accurate information on what the child knows and can do academically, developmentally, and functionally, unless it is clearly not feasible to so provide or administer
55Evaluating English Language Learners As part of the Student Improvement Team (SIT) process, the following is completed before the evaluation begins:Home Language Survey is completedLanguage Assessment Scales (LAS) and/or Kansas English Language Proficiency Assessment (KELPA) scores are obtained from ESL DepartmentStudent educational and case history is obtained*assessment of the communication skills of ELL students must be influenced by the information gathered in the case history
56Language Proficiency for Spanish speaking students is established using the WMLS-R or PLS English and Spanish Editions. If student speaks other language, language proficiency can be determined using questionnaires, parent interview, taking into account BICS and CALP, and using translators in native language.If one language is stronger, the stronger language is the dominant language. It is important to note that dominance may change over time.
57Why determine language proficiency or language dominance? “If we test in only one language without regard to dominance we risk inappropriate over-identification. This over-identification is lessened when we test in the dominant language. But if we test both languages and use them together, we reduce the high rate of over-identification.” (Pena and Bedore, 2011)
58How we determine language proficiency Subtests that are administered on the Spanish and English versions of the WMLS-R are as follows:Picture Vocabulary (Expressive Language)Verbal Analogies (Receptive Language)Understanding Directions (Receptive Language)Story Recall (Expressive Language)First, compare the Oral Language Total Standard Scores to determine language proficiency. If scores are within one standard deviation, then the student demonstrates mixed proficiency. If the score is greater than one standard deviation, then the student demonstrates proficiency in language with the higher score.Interview student
59For preschool students administer the PLS in the typical manner for the English Edition. With the Spanish Edition of the PLS, obtain a trained interpreter to assist with the administration of the assessment. When the scores have been obtained, compare Total Language Scores in English and Spanish. If scores are within one standard deviation, student demonstrates mixed proficiency. If the score is greater than one standard deviation, then student demonstrates proficiency in language with the higher score.*The PLS-5 Spanish Edition is a dual language test.
60After the language proficiency has been determined, the SLP will conduct further evaluation using assessments in the student’s most proficient language. If the student is determined to demonstrate mixed proficiency, further evaluation should be conducted in both languages.
61ELL Eligibility Criteria After you have determined the language proficiency of the student and administered language assessments, keep the following questions in mind when determining eligibility. Is there a disability or a difference?Is the student demonstrating typical second language acquisition behaviors?Is there an educational need?
62Consider the 24 Thousand Hour Gap According to Samuel Ortiz, PhD, at St. John’s University,At kindergarten, English learners with an average of as much as 2-3 hours per day of exposure to the English language will still be 15,000 total hours behind their monolingual English speaking peers.By 5th grade, rather than closing this gap via ESL methods, English learners are now nearly 24,000 total hours behind (about ½) their monolingual English speaking peers with respect to exposure to and experience with English language. Indeed, they never catch up.This consideration must be made when diagnosing a “learning impairment versus a language difference.”
63Case Study #1Julian is an 8;1 second grade student. His home language was reported to be Spanish. It was reported that Julian primarily uses English while at school. His parents reported that he understands Spanish, but prefers to speak in English.Language proficiency testing was completed to determine the language Julian was most proficient. Julian achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 93 in English and 73 in Spanish. Further testing was completed in English.The Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) was administered to Julian. He achieved the following scores: Antonyms 90, Syntax Construction 74, Paragraph Comprehension 96, Nonliteral Language 83, Pragmatic Judgment, 77, Overall Standard Score 81, 10th percentile.On the EOWPVT 107, 68th percentile. On the ROWPVT, Julian achieved a standard score of 120, 91st percentile.
64Case Study #2Juan is 5;11 boy in Kindergarten. He was re-evaluated for his 3 year re-evaluation. Home language was reported to be Spanish. It was reported that Juan speaks in both languages while at school. When speaking English, the teacher reports he code switches. The teacher reports that Juan participates in all activities in the classroom. She also reports that Juan is successful with using ELL strategies. Juan’s parents reported that he speaks Spanish at home and will translate for his mother.On language proficiency testing, Juan achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 44 in English and 88 in Spanish.CELF Spanish Edition was administered. Juan achieved a Core language standard score- 93, Percentile- 34thOn the ROWPVT-SBE, Juan achieved a standard score of 112, 79th percentile. On the EOWPVT-SBE, Juan achieved a standard score of 101, 53rd percentile.
65Case Study #3Ruby is a 9 year; 7 month old girl in the 4th grade. Ruby was born in Kansas and has attended school since preschool. According to the home language survey, Ruby’s home language is Spanish. Ruby reported she speaks to her parents in Spanish and uses English at school. She reported that she watches tv in both languages. She also reported that she likes to speak English more than Spanish. Ruby’s mother reported that Ruby does not speak in complete sentences in Spanish and will forget words.According to language proficiency testing, Ruby achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 75 in English and 55 in Spanish.On the CASL, Ruby achieved the following scores Antonyms 70, Syntax Construction 61, Paragraph Comprehension 95, Nonliteral language 77, and Pragmatic judgment, 72. She achieved an overall standard score of 70, 2nd percentile.
66A few assessments we use for Spanish Speaking Students Woodcock Munoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R) The Riverside Publishing CompanySpanish Language Assessment Procedure (SLAP) Academic Communication Associates, Inc.Preschool Language Scales (PLS) The Psychological CorporationClinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Spanish Edition (CELF) The Psychological CorporationSpanish Articulation Measures (SAM) Academic Communication Associates, Inc.Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test: Spanish Bilingual Edition (ROWPVT: SBE) Academic Therapy PublicationsExpressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test: Spanish Bilingual Edition (EOWPVT: SBE) Academic Therapy Publications
67BibliographyBattle, D.E. (1998) Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations (2nd ed.). Boston: Butterworth-HeinemannRoseberry-McKibbin, C. (2002). Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs (2nd Edition) Oceanside: Academic Communication Associates.National African Resource Center (NALRC)Swahili Language & CultureAmerican Speech-Language Association (ASHA)
68BibliographyPena, E.D. & Bedore, L.M. (2011) It Takes Two: Improving Assessment Accuracy in Bilingual Children. The ASHA Leader, 11/1/11, pRoseberry-McKibbon, C. (1995). Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs. Oceanside, CA: Academic Communication Associates.Silvaroli, N. J., Skinner, J.T, & Maynes, J.O. (1977). Oral language expression. St. Paul MN: NEMC Corp. UT Austin Bilingual Special Education Program.American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services [Knowledge and Skills]. Available from Copyright 2004 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association disclaims any liability to any party for the accuracy, completeness, or availability of these documents, or for any damages arising out of the use of the documents and any information they contain.doi: /policy.KS
69Any questions? Maha Bishr: firstname.lastname@example.org Amy Kuhn:Susanne Mahoney:Claudia Shannon: