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Evaluation and Services to Second Language Learners

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1 Evaluation and Services to Second Language Learners
Maha Bishr, MA, CCC-SLP Amy Kuhn, MA, CCC-SLP Susanne Mahoney, MA, CCC-SLP Claudia Shannon, MA CCC-SLP, Special Education Coordinator, KCKPS

2 Session Objectives To identify an evaluation protocol for second language learners; To discuss best practice evaluation procedures for second language learners; and To give examples of evidence-based strategies for work with second language learners with speech and language impairments.

3 Kansas City Kansas Public Schools, Wyandotte County, Kansas Ethnicity

4 Blue Valley Public Schools, Johnson County, Kansas

5 Wichita Public Schools, Sedgwick County, Kansas

6 Dodge City Public Schools, Ford County, Kansas

7 Garden City Public Schools, Finney County,

8 St. Francis Community School, St. Francis County, Kansas

9 Doniphan Public Schools, Doniphan County, Kansas

10 ASHA’s Multicultural Issues Board Paper
Knowledge and Skills Needed by Speech-Language Pathologists to Provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Notes_ The ethnic, cultural, and linguistic makeup of this country has been changing steadily over the past few decades. With cultural diversity comes linguistic diversity including an increase in the number of people who are English Language Learners as well as those who speak non-mainstream dialects of English. In the United States, racial and ethnic projections for the years indicate that the percentage of racial/ethnic minorities will increase to over 30% of the total population. It was predicted by 2010, children of immigrants will represent 22% of school-age population. According to the November 1, 2011, ASHA Leader, according to the US census, the number of foreign-born residents is projected to rise for 31 million in 2000 to 48 million in The Hispanic population alone is projected to triple by mid-century. We must be prepared to provide services that are responsive to this diversity to ensure our effectiveness. ASHA’s Multicultural Issues Board Paper

11 Developing Cultural Competence
Be sensitive to cultural and linguistic differences that affect the identification, assessment, treatment and management of communication disorders/differences. Be careful of personal biases, Respect others’ differences, Be knowledgeable of assimilation and/or acculturation processes on management of communication disorders/differences.

12 Con’t of Developing Cultural Competence
Use appropriate intervention and assessment strategies and materials, such as food, objects, and/or activities that don’t violate the student’s values that are made to form a bridge between the home and school environment.

13 Identify appropriate service provider for students
Native or near-native proficiency in the language spoken by student.

14 If you don’t have a native or near-native proficient clinician, then…
Familiarize yourself with features and developmental characteristics of the language Gather information on the sociolinguistic features of the student’s significant cultural and linguistic influences Have an understanding of the stages of 2nd language acquisition Develop collaborative relationships with interpreters from the community and the family

15 Socialinguistic and cultural influences
Knowledge-base to distinguish typical and disordered language of students Discourse norms Effective interviewing strategies Cultural differences and similarities -eye contact, proximity, touching, noises (hissing is acceptable in Hispanic culture to get one’s attention) Some cultures may not have a comfort level with AAC devices

16 Knowledge of the following…
Typical language development in simultaneous and sequential bilinguals Normal process of second-language acquisition including phenomena, such as: silent period, code-switching, and language loss. Difference between an accent and a dialect, and a language and a dialect Grammatical constraints on code-switching and code mixing. Typical development in the student’s language in all areas. Interview with a parent, teacher on how the student’s speech/language development compares to peers in his/her speech community or communication environment. Family history of speech/language problems or academic difficulties. -Language transfer/interferance-process in which a communicative behavior from the first language is carried to the second language. For example, “Tengo 5 anos” in Spanish means “I am 5 years old.” However, a literal translation would be “I have 5 years.” So, a Spanish speaking student who says “I have 5 years” is demonstrating language transfer. -Interlanguage- a separate linguistic system resulting from the learner’s attempts to produce the target language. The learner forms a personal set of rules for using language. -Silent period- can last from 3-6 months, although it varies. -code-switching- alternating between to languages in sentence or discourse. -language loss- the decrease of the first language as the learner is learning the second language.

17 Familiarize yourself with BICS and CALP
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) takes approximately two years to develop to a level commensurate with that of native speakers of the language (Cummins, 1992) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) takes between 5-7 years to develop to a native-like level (Cummins, 1992) when there is native language support in the school setting. Without such support, CALP may require 7-10 years to develop (Peregoy & Boyle, 1997) -KELPA

18 Assessment materials/tools
Appropriate use of published test materials Appropriate use of alternative approaches to assessment including: dynamic assessment, portfolio assessment, structured observation, narrative assessment, academic and social language sampling, interview assessment tools, and curriculum-based procedures including inherent cultural and linguistic biases. If the assessment materials/tools/tests fail to meet standards…use as informal probles..with no accompanying scores

19 Articulation and Phonology
Understand current research in identification of articulation/phonological disorders in the language and /or dialect spoken by the student. Difference between an articulation disorder, phonological disorder, an accent, a dialect, transfer patterns and typical developmental patterns.

20 Strategies in Natural and Educational Settings
A child must feel safe in their environment to explore, test and stretch their second language acquisition.

21 Con’t Strategies Encourage the student to engage in play with their peers and with you as the parent (adults). This is a great way to strengthen language and vocabulary through informal activity and hands-on exploration.

22 Con’t Strategies When working with second language learners,
repetition and second language acquisition go hand in hand. Note: A student must use a new vocabulary word in context 10 or more times before internalizing it.

23 Con’t Strategies Repeat, review and revise vocabulary/short phrases throughout your interaction with the child.

24 More Strategies Provide opportunities to have students engage in play and physical movement. It takes less pressure off of the new vocabulary/language they are encountering/learning.

25 More Strategies Bring in puppets, teddy bears or props to help introduce and learn new vocabulary.

26 More Strategies Chants/rhymes/songs are a great nonthreatening way for students to learn new vocabulary/concepts.

27 More Strategies Concentrate on listening and understanding through the use of one word responses to short phrases to simple sentences. It is a painstaking process for which we have to give the student time to strengthen and grow confidence.

28 More Strategies Approach repetition in a variety of ways. For example, one day use flashcard photos to teach animal vocabulary (dog,cat). The next day, play animal charades for repetition and interactive learning. Try to have the child use the word in context by having him repeat the word/use phrase/simple sentence.

29 More Strategies Mix up the pace. You might start out with excitable games, then move to a more quiet activity; or vice-versa.

30 REMEMBER: Repetition is the mother of skill!

31 Stages of Second Language Acquisition
Stage 1- Pre Production Students are trying to make sense of messages Becoming familiar with sounds, rhythm and patterns of English Limited comprehension of “chunks” or gist of language Relies on picture clues for understanding Responds to non-verbal gestures, nods, drawings Silent period. Teacher strategies- Provide lots of opportunities for active listing, use props, visual, real objects. Surround students with language. Don’t force students to speak. Pair students with more advanced learners. Have shared reading and storytelling With lots of visual support and include prior knowledge. Physical movement.

32 Stage 2 Early Production
Demonstrate increased confidence. Listen with greater understanding Identify people, places and objects. Use routine expressions independently. Repeat, recite memorable language Provide ample opportunities for listening. Ask yes/no, what? Who? Where” Either/or. Have students complete with one or two-word responces. Shared Reading/storytelling with visual supports include prior knowledge. Expose to variety of Experiences with understandable texts i.e. patterned/predictable books.

33 Stage 3 Speech Emergence
Speak with less hesitation and demonstrate increasing understanding. Produce longer phrases or sentences with grammatical inaccuracy. Use newly-acquired receptive vocabulary to experiment and form messages in English Participate more fully in discussions including those with academic content. Explain, describe, compare, and retell in response to literature. Study “big ideas” and key concepts in content areas. Engage in independent reading based on oral fluency and prior experiences with print. Using writing for a variety of purposes. Focus on communication in meaningful texts where students express themselves in speech and print for a wide range of purposes/audiences. Ask open-ended questions; model, expand, restate. Students describe personal experience/objects. Shared reading, guided reading, storytelling expecially with patterned and predictable text. Use puppets in retelling and role-plays

34 Stage 4 Intermediate and Advanced Fluency
Produce connected discourse and narrative. Use more extensive vocabulary. Demonstrate increased levels of accuracy and correctness. Read a wider range or narrative genre and content texts with increasing comprehension. Explore concepts in subject matter in greater depth. Write using more standard forms. Depth and breadth of topics and purposes increase to include more creative and analytical writing. Structure group discussion. Guide use of reference material for research. Facilitate more advanced literature students. Provide opportunities for students to create oral/written Narratives.

35 Stage 5 Intermediate and Advanced Fluency
Produce language with varied grammatical structures, vocabulary, comparable to native English speakers of the same age. On-going language development through integrated LA and content-area activities.

36 Supporting Language- Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 1
Levels 1,2,3 Focus on developing oral language skills (include conversational and narrative skills.) Utilize emergent literacy strategies. LABELING, PHRASES, BASIC DESCRIPTION

37 Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 2
Levels 4,5 Introduce reading – language experience stories and shared literature to support language development LANGUAGE EXPANSION CONNECTING, RELATING, MODIFYING Child describes relationshps between the characters and other things in the picture…man is fishing, but he isn’t going to catch a fish Lady is feeding a duck

38 Second Language Literacy Emergence-Stage 3
Child is reading for reading Language enrichment is necessary to support gains. STORYTELLING-CONCRETE STORYTELLING-ABSTRACT CONCRETE- child perceives the picture as part of a larger story; responses include indications of time, place, and cause-effect. ABSTRACT-child combines all previous steps and adds responses which include moods, emotional reactions and conclusions.

39 Preschool Evaluation and Treatment
Case review Dynamic assessment Report Treatment suggestions Preschool Evaluation and Treatment


41 C-B transition, communicty setting/daycare

42 Dynamic assessment was used to complete the evaluation
“Dynamic assessment is a highly interactive and process-oriented method of conducting assessments which helps to identify the skills that a child possesses” (Zimmer). Best practice

43 Dynamic Assessment included:
Search the internet about Kirundi and Swahili. Look for and listen to samples of speech and check for speech sounds and phonological processes (are there final consonants? Clusters? Vowels?) Search for information about the culture.

44 Kirundi Speech Sounds Kirundi is a Bantu language which is spoken by various ethnic groups in Africa. It has 5 vowels (i u e o a). 19-26 consonants (plosives, affricates, fricatives, nasals). It’s a tonal language (high and low tone). Most words have a syllable structure of CV and there are no clusters. So I would not expect the child to mark final sounds, clusters.

45 Kirundi Culture There are 2 ethnic groups, the Hutu and Tutsi.
It is a herding society. Cows are considered sacred and a symbol of wealth. 67% consider themselves Christian and 10% Muslim. Children are highly valued. The Hutu are in the majority and there is divisiveness between the Hutu and Tutsi. Women are respected as child bearers but have little decision making authority. Men hold the responsibility of protecting and providing for the family.

46 Swahili It is also a Bantu language
It has five vowel phonemes /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, and /u/. Like other Bantu languages, Swahili grammar arranges nouns into a number of classes . In words, “Ni” is a prefix for “I”. Some Swahili vocabulary is derived from Arabic.

47 Listen to a recording of the language and try to determine the variety of sounds heard in the speech. Are there initial and final consonant sounds? Are there clusters produced in the language?

48 Classroom Observations
Dynamic assessment: Observations in play, lunch and circle time Observations Language Sample Play skills Initiations Gaining attention Protesting Imitation (motor and verbal) Use of books JB was observed in the classroom on 3 different occasions, once in play with peers and during lunch which is served family style. Describe the observations, including play with twin sister, speech sounds, initiations, turn taking, repairing communication breakdown (use of natural gestures. Used books to determine receptive and expressive ID in English of farm, zoo, animals, pets, actions, common objects. What kind of supports is the teacher using? Natural gestures? Demonstration? Pictures? What are the child’s strategies, e.g., watching, waiting, waiting for cues from the teacher? Peers? Record any communication attempts.

49 Evaluation with an Interpreter
An interpreter who spoke Kirundi was utilized but this this person spoke the language but had not done an evaluation with a student before. Interview Interpreter. Probe speech sounds, imitation. Arena evaluation with the Psychologist and social worker. Informal assessments, books, naming. Probe with the interpreter if the child is understanble, names object/items. Assessments were not scored, but used for information purposes. Concepts, words, etc.

50 Recommendations Consult with the teaching team in strategies to use in the classroom Visual schedule Natural gestures Opportunities to choose/point to pictures to indicate need/desire Recognize “silent” period may last 12 months Encourage and support communication attempts Model play, imitation skills School brought her up again with concerns so training was provided.

51 Closing remarks Currently:
JB is using 4 to 5 word sentences in English to comment, direct, tell information. She is also learning words in Spanish. Pre-academic skills increasing for identifying and naming letters, counting, segmenting syllables, identifying rhymes and so forth.

52 Does your district have a protocol to evaluate English Language Learners (ELL)?

53 How our protocol was established
Why? Inconsistent approaches to evaluating ELL within our district How? Researched ASHA and districts that had linguistically diverse populations This continues to be a work in progress

54 Evaluate L1 and L2 Assessment of speech and language disorders of limited English proficient speakers should be conducted in the native language. IDEA, 2004 [ ] states that the evaluation should be “provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication and in the form most likely to yield accurate information on what the child knows and can do academically, developmentally, and functionally, unless it is clearly not feasible to so provide or administer

55 Evaluating English Language Learners
As part of the Student Improvement Team (SIT) process, the following is completed before the evaluation begins: Home Language Survey is completed Language Assessment Scales (LAS) and/or Kansas English Language Proficiency Assessment (KELPA) scores are obtained from ESL Department Student educational and case history is obtained *assessment of the communication skills of ELL students must be influenced by the information gathered in the case history

56 Language Proficiency for Spanish speaking students is established using the WMLS-R or PLS English and Spanish Editions. If student speaks other language, language proficiency can be determined using questionnaires, parent interview, taking into account BICS and CALP, and using translators in native language. If one language is stronger, the stronger language is the dominant language. It is important to note that dominance may change over time.

57 Why determine language proficiency or language dominance?
“If we test in only one language without regard to dominance we risk inappropriate over-identification. This over-identification is lessened when we test in the dominant language. But if we test both languages and use them together, we reduce the high rate of over-identification.” (Pena and Bedore, 2011)

58 How we determine language proficiency
Subtests that are administered on the Spanish and English versions of the WMLS-R are as follows: Picture Vocabulary (Expressive Language) Verbal Analogies (Receptive Language) Understanding Directions (Receptive Language) Story Recall (Expressive Language) First, compare the Oral Language Total Standard Scores to determine language proficiency. If scores are within one standard deviation, then the student demonstrates mixed proficiency. If the score is greater than one standard deviation, then the student demonstrates proficiency in language with the higher score. Interview student

59 For preschool students
administer the PLS in the typical manner for the English Edition. With the Spanish Edition of the PLS, obtain a trained interpreter to assist with the administration of the assessment. When the scores have been obtained, compare Total Language Scores in English and Spanish. If scores are within one standard deviation, student demonstrates mixed proficiency. If the score is greater than one standard deviation, then student demonstrates proficiency in language with the higher score. *The PLS-5 Spanish Edition is a dual language test.

60 After the language proficiency has been determined, the SLP will conduct further evaluation using assessments in the student’s most proficient language. If the student is determined to demonstrate mixed proficiency, further evaluation should be conducted in both languages.

61 ELL Eligibility Criteria
After you have determined the language proficiency of the student and administered language assessments, keep the following questions in mind when determining eligibility.  Is there a disability or a difference? Is the student demonstrating typical second language acquisition behaviors? Is there an educational need?

62 Consider the 24 Thousand Hour Gap
According to Samuel Ortiz, PhD, at St. John’s University, At kindergarten, English learners with an average of as much as 2-3 hours per day of exposure to the English language will still be 15,000 total hours behind their monolingual English speaking peers. By 5th grade, rather than closing this gap via ESL methods, English learners are now nearly 24,000 total hours behind (about ½) their monolingual English speaking peers with respect to exposure to and experience with English language. Indeed, they never catch up. This consideration must be made when diagnosing a “learning impairment versus a language difference.”

63 Case Study #1 Julian is an 8;1 second grade student. His home language was reported to be Spanish. It was reported that Julian primarily uses English while at school. His parents reported that he understands Spanish, but prefers to speak in English. Language proficiency testing was completed to determine the language Julian was most proficient. Julian achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 93 in English and 73 in Spanish. Further testing was completed in English. The Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) was administered to Julian. He achieved the following scores: Antonyms 90, Syntax Construction 74, Paragraph Comprehension 96, Nonliteral Language 83, Pragmatic Judgment, 77, Overall Standard Score 81, 10th percentile. On the EOWPVT 107, 68th percentile. On the ROWPVT, Julian achieved a standard score of 120, 91st percentile.

64 Case Study #2 Juan is 5;11 boy in Kindergarten. He was re-evaluated for his 3 year re-evaluation. Home language was reported to be Spanish. It was reported that Juan speaks in both languages while at school. When speaking English, the teacher reports he code switches. The teacher reports that Juan participates in all activities in the classroom. She also reports that Juan is successful with using ELL strategies. Juan’s parents reported that he speaks Spanish at home and will translate for his mother. On language proficiency testing, Juan achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 44 in English and 88 in Spanish. CELF Spanish Edition was administered. Juan achieved a Core language standard score- 93, Percentile- 34th On the ROWPVT-SBE, Juan achieved a standard score of 112, 79th percentile. On the EOWPVT-SBE, Juan achieved a standard score of 101, 53rd percentile.

65 Case Study #3 Ruby is a 9 year; 7 month old girl in the 4th grade. Ruby was born in Kansas and has attended school since preschool. According to the home language survey, Ruby’s home language is Spanish. Ruby reported she speaks to her parents in Spanish and uses English at school. She reported that she watches tv in both languages. She also reported that she likes to speak English more than Spanish. Ruby’s mother reported that Ruby does not speak in complete sentences in Spanish and will forget words. According to language proficiency testing, Ruby achieved an Oral Language Total Score of 75 in English and 55 in Spanish. On the CASL, Ruby achieved the following scores Antonyms 70, Syntax Construction 61, Paragraph Comprehension 95, Nonliteral language 77, and Pragmatic judgment, 72. She achieved an overall standard score of 70, 2nd percentile.

66 A few assessments we use for Spanish Speaking Students
Woodcock Munoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R) The Riverside Publishing Company Spanish Language Assessment Procedure (SLAP) Academic Communication Associates, Inc. Preschool Language Scales (PLS) The Psychological Corporation Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Spanish Edition (CELF) The Psychological Corporation Spanish Articulation Measures (SAM) Academic Communication Associates, Inc. Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test: Spanish Bilingual Edition (ROWPVT: SBE) Academic Therapy Publications Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test: Spanish Bilingual Edition (EOWPVT: SBE) Academic Therapy Publications

67 Bibliography Battle, D.E. (1998) Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations (2nd ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2002). Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs (2nd Edition) Oceanside: Academic Communication Associates. National African Resource Center (NALRC) Swahili Language & Culture American Speech-Language Association (ASHA)

68 Bibliography Pena, E.D. & Bedore, L.M. (2011) It Takes Two: Improving Assessment Accuracy in Bilingual Children. The ASHA Leader, 11/1/11, p Roseberry-McKibbon, C. (1995). Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs. Oceanside, CA: Academic Communication Associates. Silvaroli, N. J., Skinner, J.T, & Maynes, J.O. (1977). Oral language expression. St. Paul MN: NEMC Corp. UT Austin Bilingual Special Education Program. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services [Knowledge and Skills]. Available from Copyright 2004 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association disclaims any liability to any party for the accuracy, completeness, or availability of these documents, or for any damages arising out of the use of the documents and any information they contain.doi: /policy.KS

69 Any questions? Maha Bishr:
Amy Kuhn: Susanne Mahoney: Claudia Shannon:

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