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2 This semester, I will have some youtube videos for you to demonstrate assessment and treatment techniques Go to youtube and type in Celeste Roseberry This will get you to my youtube channel

3 Sometimes we’ll use google earth to locate places we’re talking about

4 How many of you…. Speak another language? Were born outside the U.S.? Spent more than a few weeks in a country outside the U.S.?

5 My own story… I was born in southern CA When I was 6, my family went to the Philippines where my parents served as Baptist missionaries for 10 years For several years in elementary school, I was the only White child I went to boarding school for grades 5 and 7-12 We came back to the U.S. when I was a 17-year old college freshman

6 Google earth



9 My parents and sisters and I spoke Standard American English at home We spoke Odionganon with our friends in the barrio of Odiongan Church services were preached in Hiligaynon I learned Tagalog formally in school Studied German in high school and college Learned Spanish later

10 I have been blessed to visit: Philippines (lived there ages 6-17 years) Guam TaiwanLondonItaly HawaiiAustriaFiji JapanGermanyAustralia Hong KongSwitzerland MexicoFrance CanadaLuxembourg AthensVenice New Zealand

11 I.DEMOGRAPHICS (not on test) The U.S. Census Bureau report in 2010 identified persons in our country who represent more than 207 different ancestral groups. More than 55 million people, or 20% of the population over 5 years of age, speak a language other than English at home (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).

12 From the 1997-1998 school year to the 2008-2009 school year, the number of ELLs in U.S. schools increased by 51%, going from 3.5 million to 5.3 million nationwide. By the year 2025, one in every four school-aged children will be an ELL.

13 II. CHALLENGES FOR OUR PROFESSION 1. Increasing numbers of ELLs in U.S. schools, but not enough bilingual, bicultural professionals to serve them 2. Socioeconomic differences that can impact learning. 3. Helping English Language Learners with language impairments achieve the demands of the Common Core State Standards 4. Keeping up with tech advances that can help these students learn faster and better

14 In just one week in my job in the public schools, I assessed students from these backgrounds: African American Vietnamese Chinese Spanish Hindi Punjabi Ibo

15 III. LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS IDEA 1997 and 2004 states that: Testing procedures and materials must not be discriminatory Assessment instruments must measure a student’s ability in the area tested, not English proficiency It is critical to know what is normal in L1 for each student—difference vs. disorder

16 IV. DEVELOPING CULTURAL COMPETENCE View all students as individuals; don’t stereotype! Describe “cultural tendencies” Look at cultural variables that influence behavior

17 1. Educational level 2. Country of birth 3. Length of residence 4. Language(s) spoken 5. Urban vs. rural background 6. Gender 7. Age 8. Socioeconomic status 9. Religious beliefs and their impact 10. Peers, neighborhood 11. Generational membership V. VARIABLES INFLUENCING INDIV IDUAL BEHAVIOR

18 VI. INCREASING CULTURAL COMPETENCE Visit students’ homes Team up with members of the community Read!! Be aware of your own values and beliefs Ask students to share with you Learn some basic vocabulary in other languages Attend churches, festivals, gatherings of other cultures

19 Kohnert, 2013 ( Language Disorders in Bilingual Children and Adults (2 nd ed); Plural Publishing) Conduct ethnographic interviews The SLP asks broad, open-ended questions to find out more (e.g. “Tell me about how Filipinos view communication disorders.”)

20 In 2015, consider the impact of the economy (SES): In 2000, 11.3% of Americans were living below the poverty line By 2008, 13.2% were below the poverty line Today, 15.4% of Americans do not have health insurance

21 Percent of Americans in poverty: (not on exam)

22 Terry, P., Connor, C., Thomas-Tate, S., & Love, M. (2010).Examining relationships among dialect variation, literacy skills, and school context in first grade. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, 126-145. Meta-analysis of research--widely varying achievement among children in American schools When children enter school (kindergarten), achievement gaps are observable even before they start learning to read

23 The most salient child characteristics that predict academic success are SES and race Low-SES, non-White children tend to lag behind White, middle-SES children We need to work hard to close this gap

24 According to Education Week: Nationwide, only 12% of students with limited English scored “at or above proficient” in mathematics in 4 th grade compared with 42% of students not classified as ELLs. The gap was much wider in 8 th grade math, where 5% of ELLs were proficient or above proficient in math, compared with 35% of non- ELLs.

25 On a national reading test, in 8 th grade, only 3% of ELLs scored at or above proficiency, compared with 34% of non-ELLs.

26 In this class, we will emphasize Justice and equal opportunities for everyone, regardless of race, SES, or primary language Leveling the playing field


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