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Thursday Lecture – Origin of Agriculture, continued - Geographical origin of plant crops - Changes under domestication.

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Presentation on theme: "Thursday Lecture – Origin of Agriculture, continued - Geographical origin of plant crops - Changes under domestication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thursday Lecture – Origin of Agriculture, continued - Geographical origin of plant crops - Changes under domestication

2 Assignment #3 List 5 plant foods that you have consumed this week (they may be foods that consist entirely of the plant; or foods that contain the plant as one of the ingredients). Prepare a one page world map that is labeled to show where each plant food originated (use Table 2.1 of your textbook as your source of information) Due Date: Tuesday 2/1 Can Be Returned as Hard Copy or File Attachment to e-mail message

3 1.Briefly explain the myth regarding Persephone, Demeter, Pluto and the pomegranate. How does it relate to agriculture? 2.Where and when did agriculture begin? 3.Who was Nikolai Vavilov?

4 Geological Time Scale

5

6 Where did agriculture originate? 4-5+ Centers North America South America Mexico Sub-sahara Africa Southeast Asia Near East

7 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Cereals – Members of the Grass Family Poaceae Near East: Far East: Subsaharan Africa: Mexico South America

8 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Cereals Near East: Barley, Wheat Far East: Rice Subsaharan Africa: Millets Mexico Corn South America Acquired Corn

9 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Legumes – members of pea family Fabaceae Near East: Far East: Subsaharan Africa: Mexico South America

10 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Legumes Near East: Peas, Lentils Far East: Soybeans, Mung Bean Subsaharan Africa: Cowpeas (black-eyed peas); Vetch Mexico Common Bean South America Common Bean, Lima Bean, Peanut

11 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Starchy Staples – members of various families Near East: Far East: Subsaharan Africa: Mexico South America

12 What types of plants were utilized in early agriculture? Starchy Staples Near East: Far East: Banana, Taro, Breadfruit Subsaharan Africa: Yams Mexico Sweet Potato South America Potatoes, Manioc Dates

13 Did agriculture have a single origin? Criteria to evaluate: crops utilized methods of cultivation temporal considerations

14 Did agriculture have a single origin? Hypothesis 1: idea of agriculture so distinctive that it probably originated just once - humans carried it around the world, e.g. on long oceanic voyages (not recorded historically) a la Thor Heyerdahl Criteria to evaluate: crops utilized methods of cultivation temporal considerations

15 Did agriculture have a single origin? Hypothesis 1: idea of agriculture so distinctive that it probably originated just once - humans carried it around the world, e.g. on long oceanic voyages (not recorded historically) a la Thor Heyerdahl Hypothesis 2: differences in plants and methods of cultivation  most likely that agriculture was invented independently in different areas Criteria to evaluate: crops utilized methods of cultivation temporal considerations

16 Alternative Views – Origin of Agriculture “Classical View” – sudden, dramatic event; requires explanation - raises issue of single vs. multiple origins New View (Box 2.1, text) – gradual transition -issue of origin less significant Major Points: 1.Once adopted, agriculture stayed with culture 2.Agriculture adopted in various parts of the world, with differing sets of plants

17 What are the consequences for people of origin of agriculture? Cities

18 What are the consequences for people of origin of agriculture? Cities Civilization, associated with need to keep track of events (possibly stimulated development of writing)

19 What are the consequences for people of origin of agriculture? Cities Civilization, associated with need to keep track of events (possibly stimulated development of writing) increased population size

20 What are the consequences for people of origin of agriculture? Cities Civilization, associated with need to keep track of events (possibly stimulated development of writing) increased population size did not eliminate hunger

21 Nikolai Vavilov – Scientific Contributions - Russian/Soviet scientist (1887-1943) - Institutional Leader – “All Union Institute of Plant Industry”:

22 Nikolai Vavilov – Scientific Contributions - Russian/Soviet scientist (1887-1943) - Institutional Leader – “All Union Institute of Plant Industry”: staff of 20,000 in 400 research laboratories; 160,000 plant/seed samples

23 Nikolai Vavilov – Scientific Contributions - Russian/Soviet scientist (1887-1943) - Institutional Leader – “All Union Institute of Plant Industry”: staff of 20,000 in 400 research laboratories; 160,000 plant/seed samples - “Centers of Origin of Cultivated Plants” (Book - 1926) Novel approach to biogeography – center of diversity = center of origin

24 Nikolai Vavilov – Scientific Contributions - Russian/Soviet scientist (1887-1943) - Institutional Leader – “All Union Institute of Plant Industry”: staff of 20,000 in 400 research laboratories; 160,000 plant/seed samples - “Centers of Origin of Cultivated Plants” (Book - 1926) Novel approach to biogeography – center of diversity = center of origin - Law of Homologous Series of Variation (paper - 1920)

25 The Lysenko Affair T. D. Lysenko – Russian/Soviet Plant Breeder (1989-1976)

26 The Lysenko Affair T. D. Lysenko – Russian/Soviet Plant Breeder (1989-1976) - Discovery of “vernalization” (induction of early flowering in biennial crops through use of cold treatment)

27 The Lysenko Affair T. D. Lysenko – Russian/Soviet Plant Breeder (1989-1976) - Discovery of “vernalization” (induction of early flowering in biennial crops through use of cold treatment) - Renunciation of “Darwinian Evolution” in favor of a Lamarckian-type explanation

28 The Lysenko Affair T. D. Lysenko – Russian/Soviet Plant Breeder (1989-1976) - Discovery of “vernalization” (induction of early flowering in biennial crops through use of cold treatment) - Renunciation of “Darwinian Evolution” in favor of a Lamarckian-type explanation - Ascension to political power (“dictator of science” under Stalin); misuse of science to support socio-political philosophy

29 The Lysenko Affair T. D. Lysenko – Russian/Soviet Plant Breeder (1989-1976) - Discovery of “vernalization” (induction of early flowering in biennial crops through use of cold treatment) - Renunciation of “Darwinian Evolution” in favor of a Lamarckian-type explanation - Ascension to political power (“dictator of science” under Stalin); misuse of science to support socio-political philosophy - Falsification of experimental results - Suppression of science/scientists

30 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist

31 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist - spoke/read 12 languages Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist - spoke/read Russian only

32 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist - spoke/read 12 languages - traveled around world Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist - spoke/read Russian only - never left Russia

33 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist - spoke/read 12 languages - traveled around world - embraced and added to scientific advances, including Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist - spoke/read Russian only - never left Russia - rejected scientific advances, especially Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution

34 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist - spoke/read 12 languages - traveled around world - embraced and added to scientific advances, including Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution - major contributions to agriculture in Russia Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist - spoke/read Russian only - never left Russia - rejected scientific advances, especially Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution - inadvertantly damaged Russian agricultural system through poor policies

35 Vavilov vs. Lysenko Vavilov - broadly trained scientist - spoke/read 12 languages - traveled around world - embraced and added to scientific advances, including Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution - major contributions to agriculture in Russia - died in prison, 1943 Lysenko - narrowly trained agronomist - spoke/read Russian only - never left Russia - rejected scientific advances, especially Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution - inadvertantly damaged Russian agricultural system through poor policies - forced out in 1950s

36 Changes under Domestication “Law of Homologous Series” –> similar changes in different species

37 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds)

38 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal

39 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal loss of delayed and irregular germination of seeds

40 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal loss of delayed and irregular germination of seeds simultaneous ripening

41 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal loss of delayed and irregular germination of seeds simultaneous ripening loss of toxic or bitter substances

42 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal loss of delayed and irregular germination of seeds simultaneous ripening loss of toxic or bitter substances loss of mechanical means of protection

43 Changes under Domestication larger size of organs being utilized (fruits, seeds) loss of natural means of dispersal loss of delayed and irregular germination of seeds simultaneous ripening loss of toxic or bitter substances loss of mechanical means of protection change in color of fruits and seeds

44 What is a Fruit? Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

45 What is a Fruit, continued Fruits are Fruits Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

46 What is a Fruit, continued Fruits are Fruits Nuts are Fruits Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

47 What is a Fruit, continued Fruits are Fruits Nuts are Fruits Grains are Fruits Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

48 What is a Fruit, continued Fruits are Fruits Nuts are Fruits Grains are Fruits Some Vegetables are Fruits Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

49 What is a Fruit, continued Fruits are Fruits Nuts are Fruits Grains are Fruits Some Vegetables are Fruits Some Botanists are Nuts? Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

50 Vegetable Fruits and Meaty Nuts

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52

53

54

55 Flowers to Fruits

56

57 Ovary (in flower) With ovule

58 Flowers to Fruits Ovary (in flower) With ovules

59 Flowers to Fruits Ovary (in flower) With ovules Fruit (with 1 seed )

60 Flowers to Fruits Ovary (in flower) With ovules Fruit (with 1+ seeds)

61 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy - dehiscent vs. indehiscent - product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries - product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages 56-57 Pericarp – fruit wall - endocarp (inside) - mesocarp (middle) - exocarp (outside)

62 Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate Grain – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall fused Chapter 5

63 Dry Indehiscent Fruits - Nut Nut – 1 seeded, enclosed by hard pericarp, surrounded by “husk” See Figs. 3.15, 3.16, pages 70-71

64 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Follicle Follicle – from simple ovary, splits along 1 seam only Spiraea Fruits milkweed See Figs. 3.4, p. 58

65 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Legume Legume – from simple ovary, splits along 2 seams Fruit of Fabaceae, only: beans, peas, lentils etc. Chapter 6

66 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp Special types of Berries Pepo – hard rind Hesperidium – flesh = juice- filled hairs Pome – most of flesh = hypanthium


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