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What do you know about Friedrich Nietzsche?. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Life Works The Birth of Tragedy (1872) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-88) Beyond.

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Presentation on theme: "What do you know about Friedrich Nietzsche?. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Life Works The Birth of Tragedy (1872) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-88) Beyond."— Presentation transcript:

1 What do you know about Friedrich Nietzsche?

2 Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) Life Works The Birth of Tragedy (1872) Thus Spoke Zarathustra ( ) Beyond Good and Evil (1886) Twilight of the Idols (1888) The Antichrist (1888) “Art is the truly metaphysical activity of man” and “the existence of the world is justified only as an aesthetic phenomenon.”

3 Some Key Points Nietzsche’s Aim: Towards a Revaluation of All Values Nietzsche’s Aim: Towards a Revaluation of All Values Philology and Perspectivism: every view is only one among many possible interpretations. Philology and Perspectivism: every view is only one among many possible interpretations. “Truth is a necessary lie.” “Truth is a necessary lie.” Dionysus: the central metaphor for Nietzsche’s affirmative philosophy Dionysus: the central metaphor for Nietzsche’s affirmative philosophy

4 Thus Spoke Zarathustra Who is/was Zarathustra? Who is/was Zarathustra? What is he doing? What is he doing? What are his central teachings? What are his central teachings? N.B. Nietzsche writes for you! N.B. Nietzsche writes for you!

5 How do you interpret Z’s proclamation that god is dead? No absolutes, transcendental values or absolute principles, e.g., Judeo-Christian tradition as ultimate moral authority No absolutes, transcendental values or absolute principles, e.g., Judeo-Christian tradition as ultimate moral authority Emphasizes individual freedom in creation of values Emphasizes individual freedom in creation of values “Once the sin against god was the greatest sin, but god died, and these sinners died with him” (p. 125) “Once the sin against god was the greatest sin, but god died, and these sinners died with him” (p. 125) Forget otherworldly salvation (p. 144) Forget otherworldly salvation (p. 144) “…there is no devil and no hell. Your soul will be dead even before your body: fear nothing further” (p. 132) “…there is no devil and no hell. Your soul will be dead even before your body: fear nothing further” (p. 132)

6 How do you interpret Z’s teaching of the overman? “I teach you the overman. Man is something that must be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?” “I teach you the overman. Man is something that must be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?” Man as a bridge from “beast to overman” (p. 126) Man as a bridge from “beast to overman” (p. 126) A “creator” A “creator” Essentially metaphorical Essentially metaphorical Refers to humanity’s capacity for achieving a self-transformation of itself Refers to humanity’s capacity for achieving a self-transformation of itself

7 Who is the last man? Most contemptible, domesticated, without longing, no chaos, apathetic and indifferent Most contemptible, domesticated, without longing, no chaos, apathetic and indifferent Happiness and contentment are goals as well as… Happiness and contentment are goals as well as… Poison (medicine, alcohol, drugs) and agreeable sleep (that’s why he needs the virtues) Poison (medicine, alcohol, drugs) and agreeable sleep (that’s why he needs the virtues)

8 Zarathustra’s Speeches On the three metamorphoses of the spirit On the three metamorphoses of the spirit Camel: beast of burden, bears much that is difficult, traditional values Camel: beast of burden, bears much that is difficult, traditional values Lion: fights the great dragon “thou shalt” and conquers to become free, says “I will” Lion: fights the great dragon “thou shalt” and conquers to become free, says “I will” Child: innocent and forgetting, sacred “yes,” creates new values Child: innocent and forgetting, sacred “yes,” creates new values

9 Zarathustra preaches against (1) Teachers of Virtue who preach sleep (1) Teachers of Virtue who preach sleep “Blessed are the sleepy ones for they will drop off.” “Blessed are the sleepy ones for they will drop off.” (2) Teachers of the afterworldly, i.e., metaphysicians (2) Teachers of the afterworldly, i.e., metaphysicians “I teach men to no longer bury one’s head in the sand of heavenly things, but to bear it freely, and earthly head, which creates a meaning for the earth.” “I teach men to no longer bury one’s head in the sand of heavenly things, but to bear it freely, and earthly head, which creates a meaning for the earth.”

10 What does Z mean by “remain faithful to the earth”? those who speak of “otherworldly hopes” are “despisers of life” those who speak of “otherworldly hopes” are “despisers of life” “body am I entirely, and nothing else; and soul is only a word for something about the body.” (p. 146) “body am I entirely, and nothing else; and soul is only a word for something about the body.” (p. 146) On the Despisers of the Body: “turns away from life”; “going under” (p. 147) On the Despisers of the Body: “turns away from life”; “going under” (p. 147)

11 What is Z’s advice in part 3 of “The Gift-Giving Virtue”? go alone go alone “Go away from me and resist Zarathustra! And even better: be ashamed of him! Perhaps he deceived you.” (p. 190) “Go away from me and resist Zarathustra! And even better: be ashamed of him! Perhaps he deceived you.” (p. 190) “lose me and find yourselves” “lose me and find yourselves” Zarathustra wants no “believers” Zarathustra wants no “believers” “but, like Socrates, aims to help others find themselves and surpass him.” (p. 121) “but, like Socrates, aims to help others find themselves and surpass him.” (p. 121)


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